Hastinapur is a city in the Meerut district in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. Hastinapura, described in Hindu texts such as the Mahabharata and the Puranas as the capital of the Kuru Kingdom, is also mentioned in ancient Jain texts. Hastinapur is located on the right bank of the Ganga river.
|Elevation||212 m (696 ft)|
|• Official||Hindi and English|
|Time zone||UTC+5:30 (IST)|
In Sanskrit, Hastinapura translates to 'the City of Elephants' from Hastina (elephant) and pura (city). Its history dates back to the period of Mahabharata. It is said that the city was named after King Hasti.
It is also mentioned in the Ramayana , the 13th and 14th verses of which say (translated):
"Having crossed Ganga River at Hastinapura, they proceeded towards the west and, reaching Panchala kingdom through Kuru Jangala and observing well-filled lakes and rivers with clear water, the messengers mentioned above went briskly, due to the pressing nature of their mission."— Valmiki, Ramayana
The early archaeological remains of the region belong to Ochre Coloured Pottery culture which was a Bronze Age culture of Ganga Yamuna doab. Around c.1200 BCE the region transformed to an Iron Age culture. The region was occupied by the Painted Grey Ware culture which corresponds to the Vedic Period.
In the Mahabharata, Hastinapur is portrayed as the capital of the Kuru Kingdom of the Kauravas. Many incidents in the Mahabharata were set in the city of Hastinapur. According to the Mahabharata, the 100 Kaurava brothers were born in this city to their mother, Queen Gandhari, the wife of King Dhritarashtra. On the bank of the Budhi Ganga, two places near Hastinapur (Draupadi Ghat and Karna Ghat) reference Mahabharata personages.
Excavations at Hastinapur were carried out in the early 1950s by B.B. Lal, Director General of the Archaeological Survey of India. Although the main aim of this excavation, according to Lal himself, was to determine the stratigraphic position of Painted Grey Ware concerning other known ceramic industries of the early historical period, Lal found correlations between the text of the Mahabharata and the material remains that he unearthed at Hastinapur. This led him to historicize some of the traditions mentioned in the Mahabharata as well as link the appearance of the Painted Grey Ware with Aryans in the upper Ganges basin areas.
Hastinapur is listed in the Ain-i-Akbari as a pargana under Delhi sarkar, producing a revenue of 4,466,904 dams for the imperial treasury and supplying a force of 300 infantry and 10 cavalry. The author Abu'l-Fazl ibn Mubarak describes it "an ancient Hindu settlement" lying on the Ganges.
Geography and climate edit
Present-day Hastinapur is a town in the Doab region of Uttar Pradesh in India, about 37 kilometres (23 mi) from Meerut and nearly 96 km (60 mi) north-east of Delhi on National Highway 34. It is a small township re-established by Jawaharlal Nehru on February 6, 1949, located at . With an average elevation of 218 metres (715 ft), Hastinapur experiences temperatures ranging from 5 to 40 °C (41 to 104 °F). Summer season is from March to May, during which the temperatures range from 32 to 40 °C (90 to 104 °F). The monsoon season is from July to September, during which the temperature is relatively low. Winter lasts from December to February, with December usually being the coldest month of the year. During this time, temperatures can drop to around 5 °C (41 °F) and don't usually go above 14 °C (57 °F).
According to the 2011 Census of India, Hastinapur Nagar Panchayat had a population of 26,452, of which 14,010 are males while 12,442 are females. The literacy rate of the town was 74.5% slightly higher than the national average of 74%. Around 14% of the population was under 6 years of age.
Places of interest edit
Located on the banks of an old ravine of the Ganges, Hastinapur is considered one of the holiest places for both Hindus and Jains alike. It is believed to be the birthplace of three Jain Tirthankaras. There are many ancient Hindu temples including Pandeshwar Temple and Karna Temple, as well as Jain temples such as Shri Digamber, Jain Mandir, Jambudweep, Kailash Parvat, and Shwetambar Jain Temple.
Temples and monuments edit
Shri Digamber Jain Prachin Bada Mandir edit
Shri Digamber Jain Bada Mandir is one of the oldest Jain temples in Hastinapur. The main temple is believed to have been built in 1801 under the aegis of Raja Harsukh Rai, who was the imperial treasurer of Emperor Shah Alam II. The temple has many other facilities, including, police station, Digamber Jain Gurukul, and a Udaseen Ashram. Several tourist attractions including Jal Mandir, Jain Library, Acharya Vidyanand Museum, 24 Tonks, and the ancient Nishiyajis are situated few kilometres from the main temple.
Shri Shwetambar Jain Ashtapad Teerth edit
Kailash Parvat Rachna edit
Kailash Parvat is a 40-metre-high (131 ft) structure, constructed under the aegis of Shri Digamber Jain Mandir, Hastinapur. The Kailash Parvat premises are home to several Jain temples, including Yatri Niwas and Bhojanshala. Kailash Parvat also has an auditorium and a helipad on the premises.
Jambudweep Jain Tirth edit
Pandeshwar Temple edit
Situated in the historic location of the ancient city of Hastinapur, the Pandeshwar temple is dedicated to Shiva. This temple is believed to be the place where Kauravas and Pandavas received their education in Vedas and Puranas. A temple of the Hindu goddess Kali and many Hindu ashramas are also present on a hillock between the ruins. Legend has it that in the Mahabharata period, Pandu's eldest son Yudhishthira had established the shivalinga at the Pandeshwar Mahadev temple before the war of Mahabharata and prayed to Shiva for a blessing of winning the war.
Karna Temple edit
The Karna Temple is located near the Pandeshwar temple on an old ravine along the bank of the Ganges. The Shivling inside the Karna Temple is believed to be established by Karna, one of the prominent figures in the Mahabharata.
Bhai Dharam Singh Gurdwara edit
Hastinapur Sanctuary edit
Hastinapur Sanctuary, established in 1986, is one of the prominent wildlife projects in India. The sanctuary extends over a wide area, encompassing the districts of Meerut, Ghaziabad, Gautam Budh Nagar, Bijnor, Hapur, and Jyotiba Phule Nagar in Uttar Pradesh. It is a sprawling forest, occupying an area of nearly 2,073 square kilometres (800 sq mi).
Festivals and fairs edit
Various cultural events and religious celebrations are held in Hastinapur annually, including Akshaya Tritiya, Das Lakshana, Kartik Mela, Holi Mela, and Durga Puja. These festivals, among others, are organized by non-government organizations (NGOs) and the State Tourism Department.
See also edit
- "Uttar Pradesh - History". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 16 December 2019.
- J.P. Mittal (2006). History Of Ancient India (a New Version) : From 7300 Bb To 4250 Bc. Vol. 1. New Delhi: Atlantic Publishers & Distributors. p. 308. ISBN 978-81-269-0615-4. Retrieved 21 March 2018.
- Singh, Upinder (2008). A History of Ancient and Early Medieval India From the Stone Age to the 12th Century. Pearson Education India. ISBN 9788131711200.
- "Excavation Sites in Uttar Pradesh - Archaeological Survey of India". asi.nic.in.
- "Excavation Sites in Uttar Pradesh - Archaeological Survey of India". asi.nic.in. Retrieved 25 August 2015.
- The Ain-i-Akbari, Calcutta: Asiatic Society of Bengal, 1891, p. 288, retrieved 21 January 2021
- Habib, Irfan (1997). "Unreason and Archaeology: The 'Painted Grey-Ware' and Beyond". Social Scientist. 25 (1/2): 16–24. doi:10.2307/3517758. JSTOR 3517758.
- "Distance Hastināpur, Uttar-Pradesh, IND > New-Seema-Puri, New-Delhi, North-East, Delhi, IND - Air line, driving route, midpoint". www.distance.to.
- "Maps, Weather, and Airports for Hastinapur, India". fallingrain.com. Retrieved 25 August 2015.
- "Hastinapur Weather Forecast". WorldWeatherOnline.com.
- "Hastinapur Nagar Panchayat City Population Census 2011-2023 | Uttar Pradesh". www.census2011.co.in. Retrieved 1 April 2023.
- "Hastinapur (Meerut, Uttar Pradesh, India) - Population Statistics, Charts, Map, Location, Weather and Web Information". www.citypopulation.de. Retrieved 1 April 2023.
- "महाभारत सर्किट: जितनी ऊपर, उससे कहीं ज्यादा जमीन के नीचे है हस्तिनापुर की वैभवशाली गौरवगाथा". Amar Ujala (in Hindi).
- "Hastinapur | Meerut | UP Tourism". uttarpradesh.gov.in. Archived from the original on 2 March 2020. Retrieved 15 April 2020.
- "Major Attractions | Meerut Development Authority".
- "Digambar Jain temple Shri Hastinapur". Archived from the original on 18 October 2015. Retrieved 19 April 2016.
- Evans, Christopher (2014). A Review of World Antiquarianism: Comparative Perspectives. Vol. 24. Getty Publications. p. 431. doi:10.5334/bha.2418. ISBN 978-1606061480.
- "Welcome to UP Tourism-Official Website of Department of Tourism, Government of Uttar Pradesh, India | Hastinapur". www.uptourism.gov.in.
- "HereNow4U.net :: Article Archive - The 151-Foot High Ashtapad Teerth in Hastinapur". HereNow4u: Portal on Jainism and next level consciousness. Retrieved 25 August 2015.
- "Home". bhaktibharat.com. Retrieved 25 August 2015.
- "WWW.JAINHERITAGECENTRES.COM > Jainism In India > Uttar Pradesh > Hastinapur > Kailash parvat Mandir". jainheritagecentres.com. January 2012. Retrieved 25 August 2015.
- "Home". jambudweep.org. Retrieved 25 August 2015.
- "Yudhishthira had established the shivalinga". timesofindia.
- "Work on Mahabharat Circuit to start soon". The Hindu. 25 January 2006. Archived from the original on 23 March 2006. Retrieved 25 August 2015.
- "Bhai Dharam Sing Gurdwara - Hastinapur - Bhai Dharam Sing Gurdwara Photos, Sightseeing - Native Planet". nativeplanet.com. Retrieved 25 August 2015.
- "Official Website Of Uttar Pradesh State Tourism Development Corporation Ltd". upstdc.co.in. Retrieved 16 March 2020.
- "Hastinapur sanctuary". The Hindu. 9 December 2006. Archived from the original on 3 November 2012. Retrieved 25 August 2015.
- "Hastinapur Sanctuary". indiatravelfaq.com. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 25 August 2015.
Further reading edit
- B.B. Lal (1952). New Light on the "dark Age" of Indian History: Recent Excavations at the Hastinapura Site, Near Delhi. Illustrated London news.
- Braj Basi Lal (1955). Excavations at Hastinapura and Other Explorations [in the Upper Gangā and Sutlej Basins], 1950-52.
- Media related to Hastinapur at Wikimedia Commons