Hamilton Fish III

Hamilton Fish III (born Hamilton Stuyvesant Fish and also known as Hamilton Fish Jr.; December 7, 1888 – January 18, 1991) was a soldier and Republican politician from New York State. Born into a family long active in the state, he served in the United States House of Representatives from 1920 to 1945 and during that time was a prominent opponent of United States intervention in foreign affairs and was a critic of President Franklin D. Roosevelt. When Fish celebrated his 102nd birthday in 1990, he was the oldest living American who had served in Congress.

Hamilton Fish III
FISH, HAMILTON, JR. LCCN2016857712 (cropped).jpg
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from New York's 26th district
In office
November 2, 1920 – January 3, 1945
Preceded byEdmund Platt
Succeeded byPeter A. Quinn
Member of the New York State Assembly
from the Putnam district
In office
January 1, 1914 – December 31, 1916
Preceded byJohn R. Yale
Succeeded byJohn P. Donohoe
Personal details
Hamilton Stuyvesant Fish

(1888-12-07)December 7, 1888
Garrison, New York, U.S.
DiedJanuary 18, 1991(1991-01-18) (aged 102)
Cold Spring, New York, U.S.
Political partyProgressive (1912–16)
Republican (after 1920)
Grace Chapin
(m. 1920; died 1960)

Marie Blackton
(m. 1967; died 1974)

Alice Desmond
(m. 1976; div. 1984)

Lydia Ambrogio
(m. 1988)
RelationsHamilton Fish (grandfather)
Hamilton Fish V (grandson)
Nicholas Fish II (uncle)
Stuyvesant Fish (uncle)
ChildrenHamilton Fish IV
Lillian Veronica Fish
Elizabeth Fish
ParentsHamilton Fish II
Emily Mann
Alma materHarvard University (BA)
Military service
Allegiance United States
Branch/serviceUnited States Army
Years of service1917–1919
RankUS-O4 insignia.svg Major
CommandsCompany K, 369th Infantry, 93d Division
Battles/warsWorld War I

Family and early lifeEdit

Hamilton Stuyvesant Fish was born in Garrison, New York, to the former Republican U.S. Representative Hamilton Fish II and the former Emily Mann. His paternal grandfather, Hamilton Fish, was United States Secretary of State under the Republican President Ulysses S. Grant. The father of the first Hamilton Fish, Nicholas Fish (born 1758), was an officer in the Continental Army and was later appointed adjutant general of New York by Governor George Clinton.[1]

The wife of Nicholas Fish was Elizabeth Stuyvesant, a descendant of Peter Stuyvesant, who was the Dutch colonial governor of New York. Through his mother, Emily Mann, Hamilton Fish III was also a descendant of Thomas Hooker, who settled Hartford, Connecticut, in 1636. Fish's uncle Elias Mann was a judge and three-term mayor of Troy, New York.[1]

Fish's great-grandmother, Susan Livingston, married Count Julian Ursyn Niemcewicz in 1800 after the death of her husband, John Kean (who had been a delegate to the Continental Congress from South Carolina.) A soldier and statesman, Niemcewicz was credited with writing the Polish Constitution of 1791. John Kean and Susan Livingston's great-grandson, and thus a relative of Fish, was Thomas Kean, who was elected governor of New Jersey in 1982.[2]

A cousin of Hamilton Fish III (also named Hamilton Fish) was a sergeant in Company L of Theodore Roosevelt's "Rough Riders", and the first American soldier killed in action during the Spanish–American War. Hamilton Fish II had his ten-year-old son's name legally changed from Hamilton Stuyvesant Fish to just Hamilton Fish to honor his fallen cousin (he and Hamilton Fish III never met).[3]

Fish was married in 1921 to Grace Chapin Rogers (1885–1960), daughter of onetime Brooklyn Mayor Alfred C. Chapin (1848–1936). Their son, Hamilton Fish IV, was a thirteen-term U.S. Representative from New York, holding office from 1969 to 1995. The Fishes' daughter Lillian Veronica Fish married David Whitmire Hearst, son of William Randolph Hearst.[4]


During his childhood, Fish attended Chateau de Lancy, a Swiss school near Geneva, which his father also attended in 1860; there, the younger Fish learned French and played soccer. He spent summers with his family in Bavaria. He began his U.S. boarding school education at Fay School in Southborough, Massachusetts, and he later attended St. Mark's School, a preparatory school also in Southborough. Fish later described himself as a "B student" but successful in several different sports.[5]

Graduating from St. Mark's in 1906,[6] Fish went on to attend Harvard College, class of 1910. There, he played on Harvard's football team as a tackle and was a member of the Porcellian Club. Standing 6 feet 4 inches (1.93 m) and weighing 200 pounds (91 kg), "Ham" Fish was highly successful as a football player; he was twice an All-America and in 1954 was inducted into the College Football Hall of Fame.[7] He was the only Harvard man on Yale graduate Walter Camp's "All time" "All America" team.[8] After graduating from Harvard, Fish continued his involvement in football. He donated $5000 for several awards to Harvard football players; and organized the Harvard Law School football team, which played exhibition games with other colleges around the country.[9]

In 1909, at 20, Fish graduated early from Harvard with a cum laude degree in history and government. He declined an offer to teach history at Harvard and instead attended Harvard Law School.[10] He left law school before graduating, and took a job in a New York City insurance office.[11]

Fish was a Progressive member of the New York State Assembly (Putnam Co.) in 1914, 1915 and 1916.[12]

Military serviceEdit

Maj. Gen. Mark L. Hersey and Capt. Hamilton Fish Jr. (right)

Prior to the United States entering the First World War, Fish was captain of Company K, 15th New York Infantry. When the 15th was mobilized for Federal service, Fish accepted an offer from Col. William Hayward to retain his position in the 369th Infantry (as the 15th New York was re-designated following mobilization). The 369th was a unit of African American enlisted men with white officers (and a few African American officers at the start of the war)[13] which came to be known as the "Harlem Hellfighters." The 369th Infantry was assigned to the 93d Division.

The summer after President Wilson's declaration of war against Germany (in April 1917), Fish and about two thousand soldiers began training at Camp Whitman (in New York). In October 1917, the unit was ordered to Camp Wadsworth (in South Carolina) for further training. In November 1917, the regiment boarded the USS Pocahontas, destined for France, although shortly thereafter the ship returned to shore due to engine problems. After another aborted departure, the ship left on December 13, 1917. Despite colliding with another ship and not having a destroyer escort to protect against German submarines, the regiment reached France. (Fish complained to Assistant Secretary of the Navy Franklin D. Roosevelt about the lack of an escort.)[14]

Fish and his unit landed in Brest, France on December 26; the 369th Infantry was placed under the control of the French army by U.S. General John J. Pershing.[15] Altogether, the 369th Infantry spent 191 days on the front lines, which was the longest of any American regiment. It was also the first Allied regiment to reach the Rhine River. Fish received the Silver Star and the French War Cross 1914–1918.[16] In addition, Fish and his sister Janet, who had been a nurse near the front lines, were both later inducted into the French Legion of Honor for their wartime service.[17]

Fish was promoted to major on March 13, 1919, and returned to the United States on April 25 of the same year. He was discharged from the Army on May 14, 1919.[18] He continued as a member of the Officers' Reserve Corps until the 1940s, and attained the rank of colonel.[19][20]

Service in the U.S. CongressEdit

Fish in front of the US Capitol

First elected to fill the vacancy caused by Edmund Platt's resignation, Fish was a member of the US House of Representatives from November 2, 1920, to January 3, 1945, having been defeated for re-election in 1944.[4] In nearly 25 years as a US Representative, Fish would become known as a strong anticommunist and an acerbic critic of Franklin Roosevelt,[21] which raised his profile and made him an ally of the anti-Roosevelt members of Congress.

He was opposed to Roosevelt's New Deal. A non-interventionist until after the attack on Pearl Harbor, Fish was also responsible for a number of legislative and diplomatic moves aimed at helping Jews out of Adolf Hitler's Germany.[22] On December 8, 1941, he made the first speech in Congress asking for a declaration of war against Japan, but later said he never would have asked for it had he been aware of what Roosevelt did to provoke Japan into the attack.[23] His unapologetic opposition to the New Deal provoked Roosevelt into including him with two other Capitol Hill opponents in a rollicking taunt that became a staple of Roosevelt's 1940 re-election campaign: "Martin, Barton and Fish."[24] Finally, in part under the influence of New York Governor Thomas Dewey, Fish's congressional career ended when he won the Republican Party primary in his district but lost the general election in 1944.[25]

Upon his 1944 defeat, after 26 years in Congress, Fish stated, "I particularly wanted to be elected to serve as chairman of the rules committee to stop the march toward communism and totalitarianism in America. I have no regrets whatever, as I waged the strongest possible fight that I knew how."[26]

In 1936 Fish succeeded his father as an hereditary member of the New York Society of the Cincinnati.

Unknown Soldier of World War I and Tomb of the UnknownsEdit

On December 21, 1920, Fish introduced Resolution 67 of the 66th Congress, which provided for the return to the United States the remains of an unknown American soldier killed in France during World War I and for interment of his remains in a hallowed tomb to be constructed outside the Memorial Amphitheater in Arlington National Cemetery in Arlington, Virginia, across the Potomac River from the nation's capital. Congress approved the resolution on March 4, 1921. On October 23, 1921, at Châlons-sur-Marne, France, about 90 miles from Paris, remains of an unknown soldier were selected from among four caskets containing remains of unknown American soldiers killed in France. The selected remains were returned to the United States and interred at the tomb site in Arlington on November 11, 1921, in solemn ceremony following a state funeral procession from the US Capitol building, where the World War I Unknown had lain in state. The tomb, completed in 1937, came to be known as the Tomb of the Unknowns (Soldiers), which is today guarded around the clock daily by elite sentries of the US Army's historic ceremonial but combat-ready 3rd Infantry Regiment—"The Old Guard." The tomb and the unknown soldiers of three US wars interred there today is thought to be the most hallowed military site in the United States and may well be Fish's greatest legacy to the nation.

Lodge-Fish ResolutionEdit

In June 1922, he introduced the Lodge-Fish Resolution to illustrate American support for the British policy in Palestine per the 1917 Balfour Declaration.

Fish CommitteeEdit

Hamilton Fish was a fervent anticommunist; in a 1931 article, he described communism as "the most important, the most vital, the most far-reaching, and the most dangerous issue in the world" and believed that there was extensive communist influence in the United States.[27]

On May 5, 1930, he introduced House Resolution 180, which proposed to establish a committee to investigate communist activities in the United States; the resulting committee, commonly known as the Fish Committee, undertook extensive investigations of people and organizations suspected of being involved with or supporting communist activities in the United States. Among the committee's targets were the American Civil Liberties Union and Communist Party presidential candidate William Z. Foster.[28] The committee recommended granting the US Department of Justice more authority to investigate communists and the strengthening of immigration and deportation laws to keep communists out of the United States.[29]

In 1933, Fish was on a committee that sponsored the publication in the United States of a translation of a Nazi book called Communism in Germany, by Adolf Ehrt. In the prefatory note, the committee said it they did not publish it as a defense of anti-Semitism or the Nazi regime but because it believed that the struggle between Nazis and communists in Germany provided a lesson about using "effective measures" to defend against communism. The book claimed that Jews were responsible for communism in Germany and that only Adolf Hitler could stop it. Under pressure from American Jewish and liberal groups, Fish and the other committee members disavowed the book.[30][31] Fish also distributed the long-debunked Protocols of the Elders of Zion from his congressional office.[32]


Fish was touted by the Germans as a friendly American ally.[33] Time magazine once termed him "the Nation's No. 1 isolationist."[34]

On August 14, 1939, Fish, president of the US delegation to the Interparliamentary Union Congress conference in Oslo, Norway, met with Joachim Ribbentrop. Fish flew to Oslo in Ribbentrop's private plane.[35] Fish, a staunch opponent of Roosevelt, advocated better relations with Nazi Germany and hoped to solve the "Danzig question" during the conference in Norway. "Stepping out of Joachim von Ribbentrop's plane in 1939, Fish opined that Germany's claims were 'just.'"[36] Fish and his faction of the Republican Party received material support from the Germans to promote isolationism and non-interventionism in the United States, particularly at the 1940 Republican National Convention[37]

In 1940, just after the presidential election, Fish sent a telegram to Roosevelt which read: "Congratulations. I pledge my support for national defense ... and to keep America out of foreign wars."[38]

In 1941, a judiciary panel investigating the activities of Nazi agents in the US, sent officers to the Washington headquarters of an anti-British organization, the Islands for War Debts Committee, to seize eight bags of franked congressional mail containing speeches by isolationist members of Congress. George Hill, Fish's chief of staff, had the mail taken to Fish's office storeroom just prior to their arrival.[39]

A grand jury was convened and summoned Hill to explain why he had been so solicitous about the Islands for War Debts Committee's mail and his close association with George Sylvester Viereck, a Nazi propaganda agent. (Viereck would later be convicted of violating the Foreign Agents Registration Act and for having subsidized the Islands for War Debts Committee.) Hill said that he had not sent for the mail and did not know Viereck. The jury promptly indicted Hill for perjury.[39]

Shortly after the indictment, Fish defended Hill claiming, "George Hill is 100% O.K., and I'll back George Hill to the limit on anything."[39] During the trial, Hill had explained that Viereck visited Capitol Hill in 1940 and arranged for wholesale distribution of congressional speeches attacking the administration's foreign policy.[40] After hearing that a jury had reached its verdict and anticipating a conviction, Fish issued a statement: "I am very sorry to learn that George Hill, a disabled, decorated veteran of the World War and a clerk in my office, has been convicted of perjury.... Mr. Hill is of English ancestry.... He had an obsession against our involvement in war."[39] Twenty hours later, the jury convicted Hill.[39]

Less than two weeks before the 1942 midterm congressional election, columnist Drew Pearson's nationally syndicated column (Washington Merry-Go-Round) described in detail how in 1939, Fish had received over $3,100 in cash from a source with German ties.[41]

Civil rightsEdit

Fish continued to argue for civil rights of African Americans, particularly in the military. Three times (1922, 1937, and 1940), Fish joined with other Republicans and northern Democrats to pass anti-lynching bills. Each time, the bills passed the House, but Southern Democrats in the Senate blocked their passage and prevented them from becoming law.[42]

In 1940, he succeeded in adding an amendment to the Military Appropriations Bill of 1941. The law included funding for increased manpower, equipment, and training as the United States prepared for possible entry into World War II. Fish's amendment banned racial discrimination in the selection and training of military personnel and was later seen as an important step leading to desegregation of the military.[43]

Roosevelt articulated the Four Freedoms in his 1941 State of the Union speech. In 1944, Fish recalled his own World War I experiences and Roosevelt's Four Freedoms remarks in advocating for equal treatment of African Americans in the military: "Fourteen millions of loyal Americans have the right to expect that in a war for the advancement of the 'Four Freedoms' their sons be given the same right as any other American to train, to serve, and to fight in combat units in defense of the United States in this greatest war in its history."[44]

Britain's campaign to defeat FishEdit

The British Security Coordination (BSC) focused a great deal of effort attempting to influence US Representatives through front groups, campaigning, and agents of influence. In 1940, BSC agents ran the Nonpartisan Committee to Defeat Hamilton Fish to "put the fear of God into every isolationist senator and congressman." The committee raised substantial sums of money for Fish's opponent, co-ordinated several media attacks, created false charges of wrongdoing just before elections, and helped to distribute books that charged Fish with disloyalty. The committee as much as possible tried to make attacks on Fish appear to originate from his district, but historical documents indicate that most attacks originated outside of his district. Fish survived the attack in 1940 but won his election with less than half the margin of victory that he had earned two years earlier.[45]

Wartime electionsEdit

In the 1942 election, Fish, like other former isolationists, was considered vulnerable. The Orange and Putnam district, which Fish represented, had begun to turn against him. Polls predicted, incorrectly, that Fish would not even win the Republican primary. For the first time in his 22 years of political campaigning, he opened campaign headquarters. Soon thereafter, he was repudiated by the popular Republican gubernatorial candidate, Thomas Dewey.[46] However, the November 1942 election occurred when voters were impatient for the battlefield victories that would later come,[47] and Fish defeated his Democratic opponent by 4,000 votes.

However, reapportionment, which took effect in 1944, fragmented what had been his 26th District. That year, he ran in the 29th District, which no longer included his home county of Putnam but included one county (Orange) from his previous district and three new counties.[48]Augustus W. Bennet defeated Fish by approximately 5,000 votes.[49] As Time magazine reported, "In New York, to the nation's delight, down went rabid anti-Roosevelt isolationist Hamilton Fish, after 24 years in Congress. His successor: liberal Augustus W. Bennet, Newburgh lawyer."[50]

About his exit from Congress, Fish said in his election-night concession speech that "my defeat should be largely credited to Communistic and Red forces from New York City backed by a large slush fund probably exceeding $250,000."[49] In a farewell speech before the house on December 11, 1944, he stated, "It took most of the New Deal Administration, half of Moscow, $400,000, and Governor Dewey to defeat me."[51][52]

Embittered by his defeat, Fish promptly sued Robert F. Cutler, the executive secretary of the group Good Government Committee for libel, seeking $250,000 in damages for advertisements depicting Fish as a Nazi sympathizer. The ads also depicted Fish associating with the "American Führer," Fritz Kuhn. He would later discontinue the lawsuit without a settlement.[53]

Later lifeEdit

Although he pledged on December 8, 1941, that he would volunteer for the Army to avenge the attack on Pearl Harbor,[54] Fish did not serve in World War II; he was already 53.

Fish wrote a short history of World War I and an autobiography, Hamilton Fish: Memoir of an American Patriot, published shortly after his death. For many years, he was a familiar speaker at various political and veterans' functions. An indefatigable traveler, he was known to do it by car as often as not. Almost invariably, he ended such speeches with "If there is any country worth living in, if there is any country worth fighting for, and if there is any country worth dying for, it is the United States of America."

In 1958, Fish founded the Order of Lafayette, a hereditary and patriotic organization of American officers who served in France in both world wars and their descendants. Fish was the Order's first president and served for a number of years.

Fish was one of the witnesses who appeared in the 1981 Warren Beatty film Reds, which depicts the life of journalist John Reed and his experiences during Russia's 1917 October Revolution, which led to the creation of a communist state in Russia and the Soviet Union. As part of producing the film, the crew interviewed in the 1970s several individuals who had witnessed the events of 1917. The interviews were used throughout the film to describe places and events and to bridge transitions between the scenes.[55]

Fish remained active in conservative circles well into his nineties. When his grandson Hamilton Fish V ran for a Westchester County congressional district as a Democrat in 1988, the elder Fish derided his grandson as a communist and contributed $100 to the Republican in the race.

Death and burialEdit

Fish died in Cold Spring, New York, on January 18, 1991. He was buried at Saint Philip's Church Cemetery in Garrison, New York.

Ancestors and descendantsEdit

Although he was the third Hamilton Fish in direct line in his family, like his father and his son, he was known as Hamilton Fish Jr. during his time in Congress. His grandson has also been known as Hamilton Fish III, and was publisher of the liberal magazine The Nation before making his own unsuccessful run for Congress as "Hamilton Fish Jr." in 1994. This grandson is also referred to as Hamilton Fish V. Hamilton Fish III married his fourth and last wife, Lydia Ambrogio Fish on September 9, 1988, and they remained married until his death. She died in Port Jervis on January 12, 2015.[56]



  • George Washington in the Highlands, or Some Unwritten History. Newburgh, NY: Newburgh News, 1932.
  • The Red Plotters. New York: Domestic and Foreign Affairs Publishers, 1947.[57]
  • The Challenge of World Communism. Milwaukee: Bruce Publishing Company, 1946.[58]
  • FDR: The Other Side of the Coin: How We Were Tricked Into World War II. New York: Vantage Press, 1976. ISBN 978-0533022205.
  • Lafayette in America During and After the Revolutionary War and Other Essays on Franco-American Relations. New York: Vantage Press, 1976. ISBN 0533023149 / ISBN 978-0533023141.
  • New York State: The Battleground of the Revolutionary War. New York: Vantage Press, 1976. ISBN 0533021286 / ISBN 978-0533021284.
  • Tragic Deception: FDR and America's Involvement in World War II. Old Greenwich, Conn.: Devin-Adair, 1983. ISBN 0815969171 / ISBN 978-0815969174.
  • Hamilton Fish: Memoir of an American Patriot. Chicago: Regnery Publishing, 1991. ISBN 0895265311 / ISBN 978-0895265319.

Public addresses

Address at Lincoln Club of St. Paul, Minnesota.

Further readingEdit

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ a b Fish, Hamilton, III. Hamilton Fish: Memoir of an American Patriot (1991), pp. 7–9.
  2. ^ Fish (1991), p. 107.
  3. ^ Fish (1991), pp. 9–10.
  4. ^ a b "Biographical Directory of the United States Congress: Fish, Hamilton Jr". United States Congress. Retrieved December 3, 2006.
  5. ^ Fish (1991), p. 13.
  6. ^ Fish (1991), p. 14.
  7. ^ Hamilton Fish at the College Football Hall of Fame
  8. ^ Camp, Walter (1910). The Book of Foot-ball. Century Company. p. 346.
  9. ^ Fish (1991), pp. 16–18.
  10. ^ Pederson, William D. (2006). Presidential Profiles: The FDR Years. New York, NY: Facts on File, Inc. p. 84. ISBN 978-0-8160-5368-1.
  11. ^ Fish (1991), p. 18.
  12. ^ "MR. FISH QUOTES "FATHER", New York Times, February 2, 1915
  13. ^ "Summer Politics." Life, Vol. 13, No. 6, August 10, 1942, pp. 28, 31-32. Archived from the original.
  14. ^ Fish (1991), pp. 25–28.
  15. ^ Fish (1991), p. 28.
  16. ^ American Legion magazine, Hamilton Fish: The Tomb of the Unknowns was his idea, May 2009, page 46
  17. ^ Fish (1991), p. 31.
  18. ^ Harvard's Military Record in the World War. pg. 327.
  19. ^ "Honorable Hamilton Fish, M.C.: Peace Goddess' Little Brother". Brooklyn Daily Eagle. Brooklyn, NY. August 20, 1939. p. 25.
  20. ^ Pearson, Richard (January 20, 1991). "Isolationist Congressman Hamilton Fish Sr. Dies". Washington Post. Washington, DC.
  21. ^ Barone, Michael; Ujifusa, Grant (1987). The Almanac of American Politics 1988. National Journal. p. 842.
  22. ^ Jeffrey Gurock, editor, America, American Jews, and the Holocaust: American Jewish History, 2013, page 216
  23. ^ Fish, Hamilton, FDR The Other Side of the Coin: How We Were Tricked into World War II, New York: Vantage Press, 1976, pp. xi-xii.
  24. ^ Mel Gussow, Arthur Miller, Conversations with Miller, 2002, page 211
  25. ^ Paul Edward Gottfried, Making Sense of Modernity, 1993, p. 15
  26. ^ Associated Press, "Fish Tells of His Disappointment in Defeat at Polls," The San Bernardino Daily Sun, San Bernardino, California, Thursday 9 November 1944, Volume 51, page 3.
  27. ^ Fish, Hamilton. The Menace of Communism. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 1931, pp. 54–61.
  28. ^ Fish (1991), pp. 41–42.
  29. ^ "To Seek Added Law for Curb on Reds", The New York Times, November 18, 1930, p. 21.
  30. ^ Ehrt, Adolf Communism in Germany Berlin: General League of German Anti-Communist Associations [1]
  31. ^ Richard Gid Powers, Not Without Honor: The History of American Anticommunism, 1998, page 91
  32. ^ "What's the story with the "Protocols of the Elders of Zion"?". The Straight Dope. June 30, 2000. Retrieved December 4, 2019.
  33. ^ "Goebbels' Week," Time, August 24, 1942.
  34. ^ "U.S. at War: Sloppy Citizenship," Time, November 16, 1942.
  35. ^ "Idle Hands," Time, October 23, 1939.
  36. ^ U.S. at War: Two Out, One to Go," Time, May 11, 1942.
  37. ^ Susan Dunn. 1940. pp. 106–107.
  38. ^ People," Time, November 18, 1940.
  39. ^ a b c d e "No Fish, But Foul," Time, January 26, 1942.
  40. ^ "Hill Links Fish with Viereck Acts," The New York Times, 1943-02-20, at 11.
  41. ^ Drew Pearson, "The Daily Washington Merry-Go-Round," The Daily Sheboygan, 1942-10-26, at 14.
  42. ^ Bean, Jonathan (2009). Race and Liberty in America: The Essential Reader. Lexington, KY: University Press of Kentucky. p. 167. ISBN 978-0-8131-2545-9.
  43. ^ Janken, Kenneth Robert (1993). Rayford W. Logan and the Dilemma of the African American Intellectual. Amherst, MA: University of Massachusetts Press. p. 119. ISBN 978-0-87023-858-1.
  44. ^ Klinkner, Philip A.; Smith, Rogers M. (1999). The Unsteady March: The Rise and Decline of Racial Equality in America. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press. p. 188. ISBN 978-0-226-44339-3.
  45. ^ Thomas E. Mahl, Desperate Deception : British Covert Operations in the United States, 1939-44 (Washington D.C.: Brassey's, 1998), 107-135
  46. ^ U.S. at War: Is this the Year?' Time, November 2, 1942.
  47. ^ "U.S. At War: Revolution in Ohio," "Time", November 16, 1942.
  48. ^ "Solons End 1942 Session; Set Up 2 N.Y.C. Districts," Dunkirk Evening Observer, April 25, 1942, at 1.
  49. ^ a b "Ham Fish Beaten for Re-Election by A.W. Bennet," Dunkirk Evening Observer, November 8, 1944, at p. 1.
  50. ^ "The Election: The New House," Time, November 13, 1944.
  51. ^ United Press, "Fish Assails Dewey In House Swan Song," The San Bernardino Daily Sun, San Bernardino, California, Tuesday 12 December 1944, Volume 51, page 2.
  52. ^ "Last Words," Time, January 1, 1945.
  53. ^ The New York Times, August 26, 1944, p. 13.
  54. ^ "American Rhetoric – Pearl Harbor Address". Retrieved July 6, 2007.
  55. ^ Canby, Vincent (December 4, 1981). "Review: Beatty's 'Reds,' With Diane Keaton". New York Times. New York, NY.
  56. ^ "Obituary: Lydia Ambrogio Fish (1932-2015)". Poughkeepsie Journal. Poughkeepsie, NY. January 14, 2015.
  57. ^ Woolbert, Robert Gale. "Recent Books on International Relations." Review of The Red Plotters by Hamilton Fish. Foreign Affairs, Vol. 26, No. 3, April 1948, pp. 573. Archived from the original. JSTOR 20030135. doi:10.2307/20030135.
    "The Communist danger exposed by one of our most indefatigable Red-hunters."
  58. ^ Adams, Frank S. "Opinions of Hamilton Fish." Review of The Challenge of World Communism by Hamilton Fish III. New York Times, September 8, 1946, p. BR13.

External linksEdit

Washington University Libraries, Film and Media Archive, Henry Hampton Collection.
New York State Assembly
Preceded by
New York State Assembly
Putnam County

Succeeded by
John P. Donohoe
U.S. House of Representatives
Preceded by
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from New York's 26th congressional district

Succeeded by
Honorary titles
Preceded by
Most Senior Living U.S. Representative
(Sitting or Former)

June 1, 1981 – January 18, 1991
Succeeded by
Preceded by
Oldest Living U.S. Representative
(Sitting or Former)

November 2, 1989 – January 18, 1991
Succeeded by