The Gzhelian (/ˈʒɛl.i.ən/ ZHELL-ee-ən) is an age in the ICS geologic timescale or a stage in the stratigraphic column. It is the youngest stage of the Pennsylvanian, the youngest subsystem of the Carboniferous. The Gzhelian lasted from 303.7 to 298.9 Ma.[4] It follows the Kasimovian age/stage and is followed by the Asselian age/stage, the oldest subdivision of the Permian system.

Gzhelian
303.7 ± 0.1 – 298.9 ± 0.15 Ma
Стратотип каменноугольной системы (Гжельский ярус) 6.jpg
Type locality for the Gzhelian in Gzhel, Russia
Chronology
Etymology
Name formalityFormal
Usage information
Celestial bodyEarth
Regional usageGlobal (ICS)
Time scale(s) usedICS Time Scale
Definition
Chronological unitAge
Stratigraphic unitStage
Time span formalityFormal
Type sectionGzhel horizon, Ghzel, Moscow Oblast, Russia
Lower boundary definitionNot formally defined
Lower boundary definition candidatesFAD of the Conodont Idiognathodus simulator[2]
Lower boundary GSSP candidate section(s)
Upper boundary definitionFAD of the Conodont Streptognathodus isolatus within the morphotype Streptognathodus wabaunsensis chronocline
Upper boundary GSSPAidaralash, Ural Mountains, Kazakhstan
50°14′45″N 57°53′29″E / 50.2458°N 57.8914°E / 50.2458; 57.8914
GSSP ratified1996[3]

The Gzhelian is more or less coeval with the Stephanian Stage of the regional stratigraphy of Europe.

Name and definitionEdit

The Gzhelian is named after the Russian village of Gzhel (Russian: Гжель), nearby Ramenskoye, not far from Moscow. The name and type locality were defined by Sergei Nikitin (1850–1909) in 1890.

The base of the Gzhelian is at the first appearance of the Fusulinida genera Daixina, Jigulites and Rugosofusulina, or at the first appearance of the conodont Streptognathodus zethus. The top of the stage (the base of the Permian system) is at the first appearance of the conodont Streptognathodus isolatus within the Streptognathus "wabaunsensis" chronocline.[5] Six meters higher in the reference profile, the Fusulinida species Sphaeroschwagerina vulgaris aktjubensis appears.

At the moment (2008), a golden spike for the Gzhelian Stage is yet lacking. A candidate is a section along the Ussolka river (a tributary of the Belaya river) at the edge of the hamlet of Krasnoussolsky, about 120 kilometres south-east of Ufa and 60 kilometres north-east of Sterlitamak (in Bashkortostan).[6]

BiozonesEdit

The Gzhelian Stage is subdivided into five biozones, based on the conodont genus Streptognathodus:

  • Streptognathodus wabaunsensis and Streptognathodus bellus Zone
  • Streptognathodus simplex Zone
  • Streptognathodus virgilicus Zone
  • Streptognathodus vitali Zone
  • Streptognathodus simulator Zone

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Chart/Time Scale". www.stratigraphy.org. International Commission on Stratigraphy.
  2. ^ a b "Global Boundary Stratotype Section and Point". International Commission of Stratigraphy. Retrieved 23 December 2020.
  3. ^ Davydov et al. 1998.
  4. ^ Gradstein, F.M.; Ogg, J.G. & Smith, A.G.; 2004: A Geologic Time Scale 2004, Cambridge University Press
  5. ^ Davydov, V.I.; Glenister, B.F.; Spinosa, C.; Ritter, S.M.; Chernykh, V.V.; Wardlaw, B.R. & Snyder, W.S.; 1998: Proposal of Aidaralash as Global Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP) for base of the Permian System, Episodes 21(1): pp 11-18, "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2007-09-28. Retrieved 2007-09-28.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  6. ^ Chernykh, V.V.; Chuvashov, B.I.; Davydov, V.I.; Schmitz, M. & Snyder, W.S.; 2006: Usolka section (southern Urals, Russia): a potential candidate for GSSP to define the base of the Gzhelian Stage in the global chronostratigraphic scale Geologija 49(2): pp 205–217, "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2007-12-14. Retrieved 2007-12-14.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)

External linksEdit