Moscovian (Carboniferous)

The Moscovian is in the ICS geologic timescale a stage or age in the Pennsylvanian, the youngest subsystem of the Carboniferous. The Moscovian age lasted from 315.2 to 307 Ma,[2] is preceded by the Bashkirian and is followed by the Kasimovian. The Moscovian overlaps with the European regional Westphalian stage and the North American Atokan and Desmoinesian stages.

Moscovian
315.2 ± 0.2 – 307.0 ± 0.1 Ma
Chronology
Etymology
Name formalityFormal
Usage information
Celestial bodyEarth
Regional usageGlobal (ICS)
Time scale(s) usedICS Time Scale
Definition
Chronological unitAge
Stratigraphic unitStage
Time span formalityFormal
Lower boundary definitionNot formally defined
Lower boundary definition candidatesFAD of the Conodont Idiognathoides postsulcatus or Declinognathodus donetzianus
Lower boundary GSSP candidate section(s)
Upper boundary definitionNot formally defined
Upper boundary definition candidatesFAD of the Fusulinid Protriticites or 1 million years older Montiparus montiparus
Upper boundary GSSP candidate section(s)
  • Southern Ural mountains
  • Southwest USA
  • Nashui, Luodian County, Guizhou, China

Name and definitionEdit

The Moscovian stage was introduced by Sergei Nikitin (1850 - 1909) in 1890, using brachiopods in the Moscow Basin of European Russia. Nikitin named the stage after Moscow, then a major city and now the capital of Russia.

The base of the Moscovian is close to the first appearances of the conodonts Declinognathodus donetzianus and Idiognathoides postsulcatus[3] or otherwise the fusulinid Aljutovella aljutovica.[4] Because the fusulinid species are regionally different, they can not be used for worldwide correlation. A Global Boundary Stratotype Section and Point for the Moscovian stage has yet to be defined (2008). A proposal is to use the first appearance of the conodont Diplognathodus ellesmerensis, but since the species is rare and its evolution relatively unknown, it has not been accepted yet.[5]

The top of the Moscovian (base of the Kasimovian) is at the base of the fusulinid biozone of Obsoletes obsoletes and Protriticites pseudomontiparus, or with the first appearance of the ammonite genus Parashumardites.

SubdivisionsEdit

In European Russia and Eastern Europe, where the stage was first recognized, the Moscovian is subdivided into four regional substages: Vereiskian, Kashirskian, Podolskian, and Myachkovskian, named after towns near Moscow (Vereya, Kashira, Podolsk, and Myachkovo).

The Moscovian can biostratigraphically be divided into five conodont biozones:

  • Neognathodus roundyi and Streptognathodus cancellosus Zone
  • Neognathodus medexultimus and Streptognathodus concinnus Zone
  • Streptognathodus dissectus Zone
  • Neognathodus uralicus Zone
  • Declinognathodus donetzianus Zone

Moscovian lifeEdit

ArthropodsEdit

Arthropoda of the Moscovian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images
Scotland and northeastern North America (Illinois) A 2 m (79 in) long millipede
Illinois, United States A millipede

Jawless fishesEdit

Agnatha of the Moscovian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images
Pennsylvanian United States, Illinois A basal vertebrate.

Cartilaginous fishesEdit

Chondrichthyes of the Moscovian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images
Pennsylvanian Illinois, Indiana, United States A symmoriid holocephalian
Carboniferous to Cisuralian Iowa, Indiana, United States; Russia A eugeneodontid holocephalian
Carboniferous Indiana, United States A eugeneodontid holocephalian
Carboniferous to Lopingian Ohio, Illinois, United States a petalodontiform holocephalian
Pennsylvanian Indiana, United States A eugeneodontid holocephalian
Devonian to Pennsylvanian Indiana, United States An orodontid holocephalian
Carboniferous to Cisuralian England, Czech Republic A xenacanthidan elasmobranch
Pennsylvanian Indiana, United States A symmoriid holocephalian
Pennsylvanian Illinois, United States A symmoriid holocephalian
Carboniferous to Cisuralian Czech Republic, Germany, United Kingdom A xenacanthidan elasmobranch

AmphibiansEdit

TetrapodomorphsEdit

Tetrapodomorphs of the Moscovian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images
Desmoinesian Allegheny Formation, Linton, Ohio A genus of basal amphibians in the family Colosteidae.
United Kingdom A genus of basal amphibians in the family Baphetidae.
Desmoinesian Allegheny Formation, Linton, Ohio A genus of basal amphibians in the family Baphetidae.

†TemnospondylsEdit

Temnospondyls of the Moscovian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images
Allegheny Formation, Linton, Ohio Adamanterpeton is a genus of edopoid temnospondyl within the family Cochleosauridae.
Czech Republic A genus of basal temnospondyl. It reached a length of 150 cm.
Czech Republic;

Nova Scotia, Canada

A genus of edopoid temnospondyl within the family Cochleosauridae.
Nova Scotia, Canada A basal eutemnospondyl amphibian.
Allegheny Formation, Linton, Ohio A genus of dvinosaurian amphibian within the family Eobrachyopidae.
Allegheny Formation, Linton, Ohio A genus of dvinosaurian amphibian within the family Eobrachyopidae.
Allegheny Formation, Linton, Ohio A genus of edopoid temnospondyl within the family Cochleosauridae.
Allegheny Formation, Linton, Ohio A genus of amphibamiform amphibian.
Allegheny Formation, Linton, Ohio A genus of euskelian amphibian.

†LepospondylsEdit

Lepospondyls of the Moscovian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images
Allegheny Formation, Linton, Ohio Pleuroptyx is an extinct genus of lysorophian lepospondyls within the family Cocytinidae.
Nyrany, Czech Republic Sauropleura is an extinct genus of nectridean lepospondyls within the family Urocordylidae.

ReptiliomorphsEdit

Reptiliomorphs of the Moscovian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images
Great Britain; Ohio, USA A genus of giant eel-like embolomere amphibian, that could reach up to 3 meters in length.
Czech Republic A genus of eogyrinid embolomere. Diplovertebron was around 50 cm in length.
England An eogyrinid embolomere.
Ohio, USA A genus of gephyrostegid reptiliomorph amphibian, similar in appearance to Gephyrostegus.
Nyran, Czech Republic A genus of gephyrostegid reptiliomorph amphibian. A small animal, 22 cm in length, of generally lizard-like build and presumably habit. It had large eyes and a large number of small, pointed teeth, indicating it was an active insectivorous hunter.
Upper Freeport Coal Member, Allegheny Formation, Linton, Ohio A genus of eogyrinid embolomere amphibian.
Czech Republic Traditionally classified as a close relative of amniotes a later study found that it was more closely related to the amphibian group Lepospondyli. It measured around 45 cm long.

ParareptiliaEdit

Parareptiles of the Moscovian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images
late Pennsylvanian Ohio, USA A genus of acleistorhinid procolophonomorph and the oldest parareptile known.

EureptiliaEdit

Eureptiles of the Moscovian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images
middle Pennsylvanian Illinois, USA A genus of "protorothyridid" eureptile, one of the oldest ones.
Pennsylvanian Nova Scotia, Canada Paleothyris was a small, agile, basal anapsid romeriidan reptile with labyrinthodont-like traits.

SynapsidsEdit

Synapsids of the Moscovian
Taxa Presence Location Description Images
Pennsylvanian Nova Scotia, Canada An ophiacodontid
Pennsylvanian Illinois, United States An ophiacodontid
Pennsylvanian Nova Scotia, Canada A varanopid
Nova Scotia, Canada A basal synapsid.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Chart/Time Scale". www.stratigraphy.org. International Commission on Stratigraphy.
  2. ^ Gradstein, F.M.; Ogg, J.G. & Smith, A.G.; 2004: A Geologic Time Scale 2004, Cambridge University Press
  3. ^ *Nemyrovska, T.I.; 1999: Bashkirian conodonts of the Donets Basin, Ukraine. Scr. Geol. 119, pp 1–115 (in Russian).
  4. ^ *Solovieva, M.N.; 1986: Zonal fusulinid scale of the Moscovian Stage based on a revision of the type sections of intrastage subdivisions, Vopr. Mikropaleontol
  5. ^ [1] Archived 2011-07-07 at the Wayback Machine a report by the taskforce to establish a Bashkirian-Moscovian boundary (Groves et al. (2008))

External linksEdit