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Giovanni Francesco Barbieri (February 8, 1591 – December 22, 1666),[1] better known as Guercino,[2] or il Guercino [ɡwerˈtʃiːno], was an Italian Baroque painter and draftsman from Cento in the Emilia region, who was active in Rome and Bologna. The vigorous naturalism of his early manner contrasts with the classical equilibrium of his later works. His many drawings are noted for their luminosity and lively style.

Guercino
Self-portrait by Guercino.jpg
Self portrait, c. 1635
Born
Giovanni Francesco Barbieri

(1591-02-08)February 8, 1591
DiedDecember 22, 1666(1666-12-22) (aged 75)
NationalityItalian
Known forPainting, drawing
MovementBaroque

Contents

BiographyEdit

 
The dramatic confrontation with mortality depicted in Guercino's Et in Arcadia ego marks the first known usage of this Latin motto (inscribed on the plinth beneath the skull)
 
This contemporary portrait (1623) by Ottavio Leoni[3] highlights the lifelong squint (a form of strabismus) which prompted the name 'Guercino'. Despite presumably having monocular vision due to a 'lazy' right eye, Guercino showed remarkable facility to imply depth in his works, perhaps assisted by an enhanced perception of light and shade thanks to compensation by the healthy eye.[4] Other artists with different types of strabismus include Rembrandt, Dürer, Degas, Picasso and (possibly) Leonardo da Vinci.[5]
 
Caravaggio's influence is apparent in this canvas Christ and the Woman of Samaria
 
Guercino – The Persian Sibyl

Giovanni Francesco Barbieri was born into a family of peasant farmers in Cento, a town in the Po Valley mid-way between Bologna and Ferrara.[6] Being cross-eyed, at an early age he acquired the nickname by which he is universally known, Guercino (a diminutive of the Italian noun guercio, meaning 'squinter').[7] Mainly self-taught, at the age of 16, he worked as apprentice in the shop of Benedetto Gennari, a painter of the Bolognese School.[8] An early commission was for the decoration with frescos (1615–1616[9]) of Casa Pannini in Cento, where the naturalism of his landscapes already reveals considerable artistic independence.[10] In Bologna, he was winning the praise of Ludovico Carracci. He always acknowledged that his early style had been influenced by study of a Madonna painted by Ludovico Carracci for the Capuchin church in Cento, affectionately known as "La Carraccina".[11]

His painting Et in Arcadia ego from around 1618–1622 contains the first known usage anywhere of the Latin motto, later taken up by Poussin and others, signifying that death lurks even in the most idyllic setting.[12] The dramatic composition of this canvas (related to his Flaying of Marsyas by Apollo (1617–1618[13]) created for The Grand Duke of Tuscany, which shares the same pair of shepherds[14]) is typical of Guercino's early works, which are often tumultuous in conception.[15] He painted two large canvases, Samson Seized by Philistines (1619) and Elijah Fed by Ravens (1620), for Cardinal Serra, a Papal Legate to Ferrara.[16][17] Painted at a time when it is unlikely that Guercino could have seen Caravaggio's work in Rome, these works nevertheless display a starkly naturalistic Caravaggesque style.

RomeEdit

 
Guercino – The Woman taken in Adultery, Dulwich Picture Gallery

Guercino was recommended by Marchese Enzo Bentivoglio to the newly elected Bolognese Ludovisi Pope, Pope Gregory XV in 1621.[18] The years he spent in Rome, 1621–23, were very productive. From this period are his frescoes Aurora at the casino of the Villa Ludovisi, the ceiling in San Crisogono (1622) of San Chrysogonus in Glory, the portrait of Pope Gregory XV (now in the Getty Museum), and the St. Petronilla Altarpiece for St. Peter's Basilica in the Vatican (now in the Museo Capitolini).

Return to BolognaEdit

Following the death of Gregory XV in 1623, Guercino returned to his hometown of Cento. In 1626, he began his frescoes in the Duomo of Piacenza. The details of his career after 1629 are well documented in the account book, the Libro dei Conti di Casa Barbieri, that Guercino and his brother Paolo Antonio Barbieri, a notable painter of still lifes, kept updated, and which has been preserved.[19] Between 1618 and 1631, Giovanni Battista Pasqualini produced 67 engravings that document the early production of Guercino, which is not included in the Libro dei Conti.[20] In 1642, following the death of his commercial rival Guido Reni, Guercino moved his busy workshop to Bologna, where he was now able to take over Reni's role as the city's leading painter of sacred subjects. Some of his later works are closer to the style of Reni, and are painted with much greater luminosity and clarity than his early works with their prominent use of chiaroscuro. In 1655, the Franciscan Order of Reggio paid him 300 ducats for the altarpiece of Saint Luke Displaying a Painting of the Madonna and Child (now in Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, Kansas City).[21] The Corsini also paid him 300 ducats for the Flagellation of Christ painted in 1657.

Works and pupilsEdit

Guercino was remarkable for the extreme rapidity of his executions: he completed no fewer than 106 large altarpieces for churches, and his other paintings amount to about 144. He was also a prolific draftsman. His production includes many drawings, usually in ink, washed ink, or red chalk. Most of them were made as preparatory studies for his paintings, but he also drew landscapes, genre subjects, and caricatures for his own enjoyment. Guercino's drawings are known for their fluent style in which "rapid, calligraphic pen strokes combined with dots, dashes, and parallel hatching lines describe the forms".[22] Guercino continued to paint and teach until his death in 1666, amassing a notable fortune. As he never married, his estate passed to his nephews and pupils, Benedetto Gennari II and Cesare Gennari.[7]

Other pupils include Giulio Coralli,[23] Giuseppe Bonati of Ferrara,[24] Cristoforo Serra of Cesena,[25] Father Cesare Pronti of Ferrara,[26] Sebastiano Ghezzi,[27] Sebastiano Bombelli,[28] Lorenzo Bergonzoni of Bologna,[29] Francesco Paglia of Brescia.,[30] Benedetto Zallone of Cento, Bartolomeo Caravoglia,[31] and Matteo Loves.

WorksEdit

ExhibitionsEdit

A groundbreaking exhibition held at the Archiginnasio of Bologna in 1968 provided the most complete panorama of Guercino's work to date, including paintings from the later parts of his career after the death of Pope Gregory XV, which had previously attracted relatively little attention.[35] For the fourth centenary of the artist's birth in 1991, an expanded exhibition was organized by the Pinacoteca Nazionale di Bologna in conjunction with the Schirn Kunsthalle Frankfurt and the National Gallery of Art, Washington.[39] Both these exhibitions were curated by Guercino's biggest modern champion, Denis Mahon, who was responsible for their catalogues.[40] In 2011–2012, a large exhibition was displayed at Palazzo Barberini in Rome, dedicated to the memory of Mahon, who had recently died.[41] An exhibition displayed at the National Museum in Warsaw in 2013–2014 offered another extensive presentation of the artist's work.[42]

CitationsEdit

  1. ^ Miller, 1964
  2. ^ "Beside the easel". besidetheeasel.blogspot.se. Retrieved 14 September 2017.
  3. ^ "Giovanni Francesco Barbieri, called Guercino - Ottavio Leoni". www.ngv.vic.gov.au. National Gallery of Victoria. Retrieved 12 February 2019.
  4. ^ Scholtz et al, 2019
  5. ^ Tyler, CW (18 October 2018). "Evidence That Leonardo da Vinci Had Strabismus" (PDF). JAMA Ophthalmology. 137 (1): 82–86. doi:10.1001/jamaophthalmol.2018.3833. PMID 30347053.
  6. ^ a b Mahon, 1937a
  7. ^ a b c Turner, 2003
  8. ^ Griswold 1991, p. 6
  9. ^ "Casa Pannini di Cento". www.geoplan.it (in Italian). Retrieved 8 February 2019.
  10. ^ Stone, pp. 3, 37.
  11. ^ "La Carraccina". bbcc.ibc.regione.emilia-romagna.it (in Italian). Regione Emilia Romagna. Retrieved 9 February 2019.
  12. ^ Lubbock, Tom (23 February 2007). "Guercino: Et in Arcadia Ego (1618-22)". The Independent. Retrieved 7 February 2019.
  13. ^ "Palazzo Pitti: Galleria Palatina - Apollo e Marsia". www.abcfirenze.com (in Italian).
  14. ^ "Et in Arcadia Ego by Guercino". www.wga.hu. Web Gallery of Art. Retrieved 8 February 2019.
  15. ^ Griswold 1991, p. 13
  16. ^ "Samson Captured by the Philistines". www.metmuseum.org. Metropolitan Museum of Art. Retrieved 8 February 2019.
  17. ^ Vivian, 1971
  18. ^ Lawrence Gowing, ed., Biographical Encyclopedia of Artists, v.2 (Facts on File, 2005): 291.
  19. ^ Griswold 1991, p. 35
  20. ^ Gozzi, Fausto (2006). "Sacro e Profano nelle Incisioni da Guercino" (in Italian). Culturalia. Retrieved 12 February 2019.
  21. ^ "Guercino's Saint Luke Displaying a Painting of the Virgin". Smarthistory at Khan Academy. Retrieved March 15, 2013.
  22. ^ Griswold 1991, p. 36
  23. ^ Orlandi, 1719, p. 207
  24. ^ Orlandi, p. 207
  25. ^ Orlandi, p. 120.
  26. ^ Orlandi, p. 350.
  27. ^ Orlandi, p. 399
  28. ^ Orlandi, p. 397.
  29. ^ Orlandi, p. 294.
  30. ^ Orlandi, p. 171
  31. ^ Lanzi, 1847, pp. 309–310
  32. ^ "Giovanni Francesco Barbieri Il Guercino". emp-web-84.zetcom.ch. Nationalmuseum. Retrieved 11 February 2019.
  33. ^ "Barbieri Giovan Francesco, Mietitura". catalogo.fondazionezeri.unibo.it. Fondazione Zeri, University of Bologna. Retrieved 11 February 2019.
  34. ^ "Susannah and the Elders - The Collection". Museo Nacional del Prado. Retrieved 11 February 2019.
  35. ^ a b Posner, 1968
  36. ^ "San Guglielmo d'Aquitania riceve l'abito religioso da San Felice Vescovo. (Vestizione di San Guglielmo)". www.pinacotecabologna.beniculturali.it (in Italian). Retrieved 13 February 2019.
  37. ^ Vodret and Gozzi, 2011, pp. 159–161
  38. ^ Unger, 2016, p. 9; "Aurora by Guercino". www.wga.hu. Web Gallery of Art. Retrieved 15 February 2019.
  39. ^ Mahon, 1992, p. 7
  40. ^ van Serooskerken, 1991
  41. ^ Vodret and Gozzi, 2011
  42. ^ "Guercino. Triumf baroku" [Guercino. Triumph of the Baroque]. www.legitymizm.org (in Polish). Organizacja Monarchistów Polskich. Retrieved 12 February 2019.

ReferencesEdit

Books and articles on Guercino

Further readingEdit

  • Amorini, Antonio Bolognini (1843). "Parte Quinta". Vite de Pittori ed Artifici Bolognesi (in Italian). Tipografia Governativa alla Volpe, Bologna. pp. 223–272.

External linksEdit

External video
 
  Guercino's Saint Luke Displaying a Painting of the Virgin, Smarthistory