Atsina, or Gros Ventre (also known as Ananin, Ahahnelin, Ahe, A’ani, and ʔɔʔɔɔɔniiih), was the ancestral language of the Gros Ventre people of what is today Montana, United States of America. The last fluent speaker died in 2007, though revitalization efforts are underway.
|Native to||United States|
|Extinct||2007, with the death of Theresa Lamebull|
|Revival||45 self-identified speakers as of 2009-2013|
Official language in
| United States|
( Fort Belknap Indian Community, MT)
Historical extent of the language
Gros Ventre is classified as Critically Endangered by the UNESCO Atlas of the World's Languages in Danger
Atsina is the name applied by specialists in Algonquian linguistics. Arapaho and Atsina are dialects of a common language usually designated by scholars as "Arapaho-Atsina". Historically, this language had five dialects, and on occasion specialists add a third dialect name to the label, resulting in the designation, "Arapaho-Atsina-Nawathinehena". Compared with Arapaho proper, Gros Ventre had three additional phonemes /tʲ/, /ts/, /kʲ/, and /bʲ/, and lacked the velar fricative /x/.
Theresa Lamebull taught the language at Fort Belknap College (now Aaniiih Nakoda College), and helped develop a dictionary using the Phraselator when she was 109.
As of 2012, the White Clay Immersion School at Aaniiih Nakoda College was teaching the language to 26 students, up from 11 students in 2006.
|Plosive||plain||b ⟨b⟩||t ⟨t⟩||k ⟨k⟩||ʔ ⟨’⟩|
|palatalized||bʲ ⟨bʸ⟩||tʲ ⟨tʸ⟩||kʲ ⟨kʸ⟩|
|Fricative||θ ⟨3⟩||s ⟨s⟩||h ⟨h⟩|
|Affricate||ts ⟨c⟩||tʃ ⟨č⟩|
|Approximant||w ⟨w⟩||j ⟨y⟩|
|Close||ɪ ⟨i⟩||iː ⟨ii⟩|
|Mid||ɛ ⟨e⟩||eː ⟨ee⟩|
|Back||ɔ ⟨o⟩||oː ⟨oo⟩|
|ʊ ⟨u⟩||uː ⟨uu⟩|
- ^ a b c Mithun 1999, p. 336
- ^ "Detailed Languages Spoken at Home and Ability to Speak English". www.census.gov. US Census Bureau. Retrieved 2017-11-17.
- ^ a b "Immersion School is Saving a Native American Language". Indian Country Today Media Network. 2012-02-12. Archived from the original on 2012-11-09. Retrieved 2012-10-22.
- ^ "The Phraselator II". The American Magazine. Archived from the original on 2013-08-07. Retrieved 2013-05-12.
- ^ Boswell, Evelyn (2008-12-04). "MSU grads preserve a native language, keep tribal philosophies alive". MSU News Service. Archived from the original on 2013-03-03. Retrieved 2012-07-19.
- ^ Salzmann, Zdeněk (1969). Salvage Phonology of Gros Ventre (Atsina).
- Mithun, Marianne (1999). The languages of native North America. Cambridge Language Surveys. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521298759.
- Malainey, Mary E. (2005). "The Gros Ventre/Fall Indians in historical and archaeological interpretation" (PDF). The Canadian Journal of Native Studies. Brandon, MB: Brandon University. 25 (1): 155–183. Retrieved 22 July 2022.
- Capriccioso, Rob (9 October 2007). "The Phraselator II". The American Magazine. American Enterprise Institute. Archived from the original on 7 August 2013. Retrieved 23 July 2022.
- Hays Public School; Lodge Pole Public School (1980). A Basic Guide in Tri-Lingual Education in Gros Ventre and Assiniboine (PDF). Hays, MT: United States Department of Education. ERIC ED324172. Retrieved 23 July 2022.