Gouda cheese (/ˈɡdə/ , US also /ˈɡdə/ , Dutch: [ˈɣʌudaː] ; Dutch: Goudse kaas, "cheese from Gouda") is a creamy, yellow cow's milk cheese originating from the Netherlands.[1] It is one of the most popular cheeses worldwide.[citation needed] The name is used today as a general term for numerous similar cheeses produced in the traditional Dutch manner.[2]

Gouda cheese
Gouda cheese
Other namesGoudse kaas
Country of originNetherlands
RegionSouth Holland
Source of milkCows
TextureSemi-hard to hard
Aging time1–36 months
Named afterGouda
Related media on Commons

History edit

Rounds of Gouda cheese at a Dutch cheese market in Gouda, South Holland
Cheese-porters carrying cheeses are identified by distinct differently coloured straw hats at the cheese market in Gouda.

The first mention of Gouda cheese dates from 1184, making it the oldest recorded cheeses in the world still produced today with the same recipe.[3] The cheese is named after the city of Gouda, South Holland,[4] not because it was produced in or around that city, but because it was traded there. In the Middle Ages, Dutch cities could obtain certain feudal rights which gave them primacy or a total monopoly on certain goods. Within the County of Holland, Gouda acquired market rights on cheese, the sole right to have a market in which the county's farmers could sell their cheese.[citation needed] All the cheeses would be taken to the market square in Gouda to be sold. Teams consisting of the guild of cheese-porters, identified by distinct differently coloured straw hats, carried the farmers' cheeses, which typically weighed about 16 kg (35 lb), in barrows. Buyers then sampled the cheeses and negotiated a price using a ritual bargaining system called handjeklap in which buyers and sellers clap each other's hands and shout out prices. Once a price was agreed upon, the porters would carry the cheese to the weighing house and complete the sale.[5][6] Modern Gouda had evolved by the Dutch Golden Age of the 17th century.[7]

Cheesemaking traditionally was a woman's task in Dutch culture, with farmers' wives passing their cheesemaking skills on to their daughters. Most Dutch Gouda is now produced industrially. However, some 300 Dutch farmers still produce boerenkaas ("farmer's cheese"), which is a protected form of Gouda made in the traditional manner, using unpasteurised milk.

Process edit

Smoked Gouda

Various sources suggest that the term Gouda refers more to a general style of cheesemaking rather than to a specific kind of cheese, pointing to its taste, which varies with age.[8] Young (and factory-produced) Gouda has been described as having a flavour that is "lightly fudgy with nuts, but very, very, very mild", while the same source describes a more mature farmhouse Gouda as having a "lovely fruity tang" with a "sweet finish", that may take on "an almost butterscotch flavour" if aged over two years.[9]

After cultured milk is curdled, some of the whey is then drained and water is added. This is called "washing the curd", and creates a sweeter cheese, as the washing removes some of the lactose, resulting in a reduction of lactic acid produced.[10] About 10% of the mixture is curds, which are pressed into circular moulds for several hours. These moulds are the essential reason behind its traditional, characteristic shape. The cheese is then soaked in a brine solution, which gives the cheese and its rind a distinctive taste.[11]

The cheese is dried for a few days before being coated with a yellow wax or plastic-like[12] coating to prevent it from drying out. It is then aged, during which process the cheese changes from semi-hard to hard. Dutch cheese makers generally use six gradations, or categories, to classify the cheese:

  1. Young cheese (4 weeks)
  2. Young matured (8–10 weeks)
  3. Matured (16–18 weeks)
  4. Extra matured (7–9 months)
  5. Old cheese (10–12 months)
  6. Very old cheese (12 months to 20 months)

As it ages, it develops a caramel sweetness and has a slight crunchiness from cheese crystals, especially in older cheeses. In the Netherlands, cubes of Gouda are often eaten as a snack served with Dutch mustard. Older varieties are sometimes topped with sugar or apple butter. Cubes of Gouda are commonly served as a snack along with beer in traditional Dutch Brown Bars.

Sensory and chemical properties edit

Chemical properties edit

In most cases, the moisture content of Gouda cheese falls somewhere in the range of 40% to 50%.[13] The amount of moisture that is present in Gouda cheese plays an important part in determining its texture. Cheeses that include higher moisture levels have a tendency to be softer and more creamy, whilst cheeses that have a lower moisture content have a tendency to be stiffer and may develop a crystalline structure as they age. Gouda cheese has a high moisture content.

Gouda cheese has a variable fat content, typically ranging from 20% to 40%.[14] The fat content contributes to the cheese's texture, and allows for the transportation and release of flavour-enhancing chemicals, increasing the cheese's overall flavour profile. The fat level also affects the cheese's melting properties.[15]

Certain aroma-active chemicals that are found in Gouda cheese are responsible for the cheese's distinctive flavour character, which can be traced back to those components. Six components are believed to be distinctive of all Gouda cheeses:

Casein (the primary protein found in cows' milk) is the predominant type of protein found in gouda cheese, which contributes to the cheese's high protein content. During the manufacturing process, casein coagulates to create the curds, which contributes to the cheese's stiffness and overall structure.[16]

Flavour edit

Gouda cheese is recognised for its diverse flavour profile. Gouda cheese can exhibit a wide range of flavour qualities, from mild and creamy to harsh and acidic, depending on its age. The flavours develop as Gouda cheeses reach the medium stage of maturation, showing extra whey, sour aromatics, and a somewhat cooked or milky essence, increasing the cheese's complexity.[13] Matured Gouda has a rich, caramel-like flavour, which is developed after prolonged ripening, along with brothy and malty or nutty undertones.[17] Depending on how long the cheese has been aged, the finish can range from silky to sharp.

Aged Gouda cheese

Appearance and texture edit

Gouda cheese has a solid and springy texture.[18] The cheese gets crystalline as it ages.[19] Young Gouda cheese often has a smooth, creamy texture and a pale ivory to light yellow colour. The cheese's look changes into a richer golden hue as it becomes older, and its texture becomes more crumbly and firm. Small crystals within aged Gouda cheese may also be visible.[20]

Nutritional value edit

According to the U.S. Department of Agriculture, some of the gouda cheese nutritional facts are listed below.[14]

Macronutrient content of common cheeses, g per 100 g
Protein 24.9 g Vitamin B12 1.54 µg
Fats 27.7 g Vitamin A, RAE 165 µg
Carbohydrates 2.22 g Vitamin A, IU 563 IU
Sugars 2.22 g Vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol) 0.24 mg
Calcium, Ca 700 mg Vitamin D (D2 + D3), International Units 20 IU
Iron, Fe 0.24 mg Vitamin D (D2 + D3) 0.5 µg
Magnesium, Mg 29 mg Vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) 0.5 µg
Sodium, Na 819 mg Vitamin K (phylloquinone) 2.3 µg

Protection edit

The term "Gouda" is not restricted to cheese of Dutch origin.[21] However, "Boerenkaas", "Noord-Hollandse Gouda", and "Gouda Holland" are protected geographical indications in the European Union.[22][23] These cheeses can be made only in the Netherlands (although not only in the Dutch provinces of North Holland and South Holland, in which Gouda is situated) and can use milk produced only by Dutch cows.[24][25]

See also edit

References edit

  1. ^ "Gouda noun". Merriam-Webster. Retrieved 8 September 2019.
  2. ^ "European commission confirms protection for Gouda Holland". DutchNews.NL. 7 October 2010. Retrieved 7 October 2010.
  3. ^ "History of Gouda Cheese - Health Benefits of Dutch Yellow Cheese". www.historyofcheese.com. Retrieved 29 November 2023.
  4. ^ "Gouda | cheese". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 7 June 2018.
  5. ^ Alkmaar cheese market - Cheese Bargaining. kaasmarkt.nl; Vereniging voor Vreemdelingenverkeer (VVV), NL.
  6. ^ "Geschichte des Käses". de:Centrale Marketing-Gesellschaft der deutschen Agrarwirtschaft mbH (CMA). Archived from the original on 13 June 2006.
  7. ^ "Gouda Holland PGI / Noord-Hollandse Gouda PDO". agriculture.ec.europa.eu. Retrieved 5 October 2023.
  8. ^ "Gouda". Cheese.com. Retrieved 14 August 2014.
  9. ^ Ridgway, Judy (2002). The Cheese Companion: The Connoisseur's Guide (2nd ed.). Apple. p. 103. ISBN 1840923393. Retrieved 9 December 2017.
  10. ^ "Gouda: Making the Cheese". New England Cheesemaking Supply Company. Retrieved 14 August 2014.
  11. ^ "Frisian Farms Small Batch Gouda: Our Process". Archived from the original on 1 March 2015. Retrieved 14 August 2014.
  12. ^ Gouda Cheese, ScienceDirect
  13. ^ a b c Jo, Y.; Benoist, D. M.; Ameerally, A.; Drake, M. A. (1 March 2018). "Sensory and chemical properties of Gouda cheese". Journal of Dairy Science. 101 (3): 1967–1989. doi:10.3168/jds.2017-13637. ISSN 0022-0302. PMID 29274971.
  14. ^ a b "FoodData Central". fdc.nal.usda.gov. Retrieved 24 July 2023.
  15. ^ Whetstine, M. E. Carunchia; Drake, M. A.; Nelson, B. K.; Barbano, D. M. (1 February 2006). "Flavor Profiles of Full-Fat and Reduced-Fat Cheese and Cheese Fat Made from Aged Cheddar with the Fat Removed Using a Novel Process1". Journal of Dairy Science. 89 (2): 505–517. doi:10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(06)72113-0. ISSN 0022-0302. PMID 16428619.
  16. ^ Hermans, Wesley J H; Fuchs, Cas J; Hendriks, Floris K; Houben, Lisanne H P; Senden, Joan M; Verdijk, Lex B; van Loon, Luc J C (1 April 2022). "Cheese Ingestion Increases Muscle Protein Synthesis Rates Both at Rest and During Recovery from Exercise in Healthy, Young Males: A Randomized Parallel-Group Trial". The Journal of Nutrition. 152 (4): 1022–1030. doi:10.1093/jn/nxac007. PMC 8971000. PMID 35020907.
  17. ^ Thompson, Natalia (13 May 2023). "What Does Gouda Cheese Taste Like?". Flavorful Home. Retrieved 24 July 2023.
  18. ^ "Gouda - Cheese.com". www.cheese.com. Retrieved 24 July 2023.
  19. ^ "Gouda | Everything you need to know about Gouda cheese | Castello | Castello". www.castellocheese.com. Retrieved 24 July 2023.
  20. ^ Collins, Amanda (11 October 2021). "What Does Gouda Cheese Taste Like: An Exact Answer 2023". Good Tasting Meals. Retrieved 24 July 2023.
  21. ^ "Kwaliteit Goudse kaas brokkelt af". Nieuwsblad.be (in Dutch). Brussels. Archived from the original on 30 May 2012. Retrieved 11 December 2007.
  22. ^ "COMMISSION REGULATION (EU) No 1122/2010 of 2 December 2010 - entering a designation in the register of protected designations of origin and protected geographical indications (Gouda Holland (PGI))". Official Journal of the European Union.
  23. ^ "Noord-Hollandse Gouda". Agriculture Quality Policy. European Commission. Archived from the original on 3 March 2008. Retrieved 11 December 2007.
  24. ^ "Gouda Holland, Edam Holland to get protected status". DutchNews.nl. 14 September 2010. Retrieved 14 November 2013.
  25. ^ "Dutch cheeses Edam Holland and Gouda Holland granted protected status | Press release". Government.nl. 8 October 2010. Retrieved 14 November 2013.

External links edit