Generalmajor is the Germanic variant of major general, used in a number of Central and Northern European countries.

Austria Edit

Belgium Edit

Denmark Edit

Major general
Army and Air force insignia
Country  Denmark
Service branch  Royal Danish Army
  Royal Danish Air Force
Rank groupGeneral officer
NATO rank codeOF-7
Pay gradeM404
FormationBefore 1671
Next higher rankGeneralløjtnant
Next lower rankBrigadegeneral
Equivalent ranksKontreadmiral

Generalmajor is the second lowest general officer rank in the Royal Danish Army and Royal Danish Air Force. As a two-star rank it is the equivalent to the rank of counter admiral in the Royal Danish Navy.[2]

The rank is rated OF-7 within NATO.[3] It has the grade of M404 within the Ministry of Defence's pay structure.[4] The rank of major general is reserved for the Chief of the army and air force.[5]

History Edit

On 25 May 1671, the ranks were codified, by King Christian V, with the publication of the Danish order of precedence. Here generals of the branch were placed below Lieutenant field marshal (Danish: Feltmarskal Lieutenant), and above the noble rank of Count and the military rank of Lieutenant general.[6]

As part of the Army Reform of 1867, the ranks of Major, Lieutenant colonel were removed and only a single "General" rank was kept.[7] After the 1880 reform, the general officer ranks were reintroduced.[8] Commanding generals of the 1st and 2nd General Command were made Lieutenant generals while everyone else were made Major general.[8]

Insignia Edit

The first official uniform was instituted on 29 September 1737.[9] The first few uniform designs have not survived, though they were likely red, highly ornamented coats without collar.[10] The red coat remained until 1768, when Comte de Saint-Germain instituted white uniforms for generals, these were however removed shortly after, in 1769.[11] In 1772, the first real ranks were introduced to the Danish Army; these were gold rings on the cuffs, with three for full generals, two for Lieutenant generals, and one for major generals.[12] This uniform saw a number of changes until 1785, when the cuff ranks were removed.[13]

In 1801, new uniforms were introduced for the whole army. Along with the new uniforms, epaulette ranks were introduced for officers, with generals wearing six-pointed stars on their epaulettes.[14][5] The general ranks remained largely unchanged from their introduction until 1979, and the adoption of NATO STANAG 2116.[5] The adoption created the new rank of Brigadier general, which would receive the one star, meaning the major general would receive two stars.[5]

Rank insignia Edit

Finland Edit

Germany Edit

Major general
Army and Air Force insignia
Country  Germany
Service branch  German Army
  German Air Force
NATO rank codeOF-7
Non-NATO rankO-8
Next higher rankGeneralleutnant
Next lower rankBrigadegeneral
Equivalent ranksKonteradmiral

It is the third-highest general officer rank in the German Army (Heer) and German Air Force (Luftwaffe). This rank is also used in the Austrian Armed Forces, but is abbreviated as GenMjr.

Historically, German Army ranks for its generals prior to 1945 were offset by one from those of most other major European armies. Thus, prior to 1945, the Generalmajor rank in the German Army was equivalent to the brigadier general rank in other armies, and so forth.

Generalmajor in modern Germany Edit

The rank is rated OF-7 in NATO, and is grade B7 in the pay rules of the Federal Ministry of Defence. It is equivalent to Konteradmiral in the German Navy (Marine) or to Generalstabsarzt, and Admiralstabsarzt in the Zentraler Sanitätsdienst der Bundeswehr.

On the shoulder straps (Heer, Luftwaffe) there are two golden pips (stars) in golden oak leaves.

Heer Luftwaffe ... to service uniform
Bundeswehr sequence of ranks ascending
junior rank:

(German officer rank)

senior rank:

Generalmajor in East Germany Edit

Generalmajor was in the so-called "armed organs of the GDR" (German: Bewaffnete Organe der DDR), represented by Ministry of National Defence, and Ministry for State Security, the lowest general officer rank, comparable to the one-star rank in many NATO-Armed forces (Rangcode OF-6). This was in reference to Soviet military doctrine and in line with other armed forces of the Warsaw Pact.

The equivalent rank of the Volksmarine (GDR Navy) was the Konteradmiral, often called simply Herr Admiral for short.

Junior rank
National People's Army rank
Senior rank
Rank insignias Generalmajor / Konteradmiral (OF-6)
  Stasi   Land forces   Air Force   GDR Border troops   Volksmarine
Generalmajor Konteradmiral

Generalmajor of the Wehrmacht Edit

Generalmajor was in the German Reich and Nazi Germany the lowest general officer rank, comparable to the one-star rank in many NATO-Armed forces (Rangcode OF-6). It was equivalent to Konteradmiral in the Kriegsmarine, and SS-Brigadeführer in the Waffen-SS until 1945.

Rank insignia Generalmajor / Konteradmiral
Branch German Army Luftwaffe Waffen-SS Kriegsmarine
Collar       None
und Generalmajor
der Waffen-SS
Sequence of ranks ascending
Junior rank:

(German officer rank)

Senior rank:

Norway Edit

Sweden Edit

See also Edit

References Edit

  1. ^ Mygind, A. (1999). Den landmilitære embedsetat og centraladministratio (1763 - 1848) (in Danish). Forsvarets Arkiver. p. 9. Retrieved 16 May 2022.
  2. ^ STANAG 2116, p. B-2.
  3. ^ STANAG 2116, p. A-2.
  4. ^ Ministry of Defence 2017.
  5. ^ a b c d Hedegaard 1986.
  6. ^ 2017.
  7. ^ Klint 1965, p. 8.
  8. ^ a b Ministry of War 1880, p. 35.
  9. ^ Petersen 2014, p. 31.
  10. ^ Petersen 2014, pp. 31–32.
  11. ^ Petersen 2014, p. 36.
  12. ^ Petersen 2014, p. 39.
  13. ^ Petersen 2014, p. 41.
  14. ^ Petersen 2014, p. 42.

  • (17 May 2017). "Rangforordningen, 25. maj 1671" (in Danish). Retrieved 15 March 2021.
  • Hedegaard, Ole A. (1 January 1986). "Nyt militært gradstegn - en ny/gammel tradition!". (in Danish). Archived from the original on 28 August 2018. Retrieved 28 August 2018.
  • Klint, Helge (1965). "Træk af Hærstabens historie". Hærkommandoens Årsskrift (in Danish). Nyt Nordisk Forlag: 5–11.
  • Military Committee Land Standardization Board (13 January 2021). STANAG 2116 (7th ed.). NATO Standardization Agency.
  • Ministry of Defence (9 January 2017). "Historik". (in Danish). Forsvarsministeriets Personalestyrelse. Archived from the original on 22 February 2019. Retrieved 8 April 2021.
  • Ministry of War (1880). "Love og Bestemmelser, som angaae hæren". Kundgjørelser for hæren samt Love og Bestemmelser, som angaae hæren (in Danish). Copenhagen.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link)
  • Petersen, Karsten Skjold (2014). Kongens klæder - Hærens uniformer og udrustning i Danmark-Norge (in Danish) (1st ed.). Slovenia: Historika. ISBN 9788793229006.