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Garrett James Hardin (April 21, 1915 – September 14, 2003) was an American ecologist and philosopher who warned of the dangers of human overpopulation. His exposition of the tragedy of the commons, in a famous 1968 paper in Science, called attention to "the damage that innocent actions by individuals can inflict on the environment". He is also known for Hardin's First Law of Human Ecology: "We can never do merely one thing. Any intrusion into nature has numerous effects, many of which are unpredictable.":112
Garrett Hardin (1986)
Garrett James Hardin
April 21, 1915
Dallas, Texas, U.S.
|Died||September 14, 2003 (aged 88)|
|Known for||The Tragedy of the Commons (essay)|
Hardin received a B.S. in zoology from the University of Chicago in 1936 and a PhD in microbiology from Stanford University in 1941 where his dissertation research addressed symbiosis among microorganisms. Moving to the University of California, Santa Barbara in 1946, he served there as Professor of Human Ecology from 1963 until his (nominal) retirement in 1978. He was among the first members of the Society for General Systems Research.
Major works and positionsEdit
A major focus of his career, and one to which he returned repeatedly, was the issue of human overpopulation. This led to writings on controversial subjects such as advocating abortion rights, which earned him criticism from the political right, and advocating eugenics by forced sterilization, and strict limits to non-western immigration, which earned him criticism from the political left. In his essays, he also tackled subjects such as conservation and creationism.
Neomalthusian approach and "Tragedy of the commons"Edit
In 1968 Hardin applied his conceptual model developed in his essay "The tragedy of the commons" to human population growth, the use of the Earth's natural resources, and the welfare state. His essay cited an 1833 pamphlet by the English economist William Forster Lloyd which included an example of herders sharing a common parcel of land, which would lead to overgrazing.
Hardin blamed the welfare state for allowing the tragedy of the commons; where the state provides for children and supports over-breeding as a fundamental human right, Malthusian catastrophe is inevitable. Hardin stated in his analysis of the tragedy of the commons that "Freedom in a commons brings ruin to all.":1244 However, environmental historians Joachim Radkau, Alfred Thomas Grove and Oliver Rackham denounced Hardin "as an American with no notion at all how Commons actually work".
In addition, Hardin's pessimistic outlook was subsequently contradicted by Elinor Ostrom's later work on success of co-operative structures like the management of common land, for which she shared the 2009 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences with Oliver E. Williamson. In contrast to Hardin, they stated neither commons or "Allmende" in the generic nor classical meaning are bound to fail; to the contrary "the wealth of the commons" has gained renewed interest in the scientific community. Hardin's work was also criticized as historically inaccurate in failing to account for the demographic transition, and for failing to distinguish between common property and open access resources.
Despite the criticisms, the theory has nonetheless been influential. For example, in 2016, Michelle DeRobertis et al published a paper called "The Tragedy of the Commons of the Urban (and Suburban) Arterial", which found a parallel to Hardin’s argument in the "freedom to drive" problem, in which overuse of public roads by automobiles limits the freedom to make other transportation mode choices such as walking. 
It should be noted that Lloyd's original example, re-discovered by Hardin, could only apply to unregulated use of land regarded as a common resource. Normally, rights of use of Common land in England and Wales were, and still are, closely regulated, and available only to "commoners". If excessive use was made of common land, for example in overgrazing, a common would be "stinted", that is, a limit would be put on the number of animals each commoner was allowed to graze. These regulations were responsive to demographic and economic pressure; thus rather than let a common become degraded, access was restricted even further. Controls on usage can help mitigate the tragedy of the commons.
Living Within LimitsEdit
In 1993, Garrett Hardin published Living Within Limits: Ecology, Economics, and Population Taboos, which he described at the time as a summation of all his previous works. The book won the 1993 Phi Beta Kappa Award in Science. In the book, he argues that the natural sciences are grounded in the concept of limits (such as the speed of light), while social sciences, such as economics, are grounded in concepts that have no limits (such as the widespread "infinite-Earth" economic models). He notes that most of the more notable scientific (as opposed to political) debates concerning ecological economics are between natural scientists, such as Paul R. Ehrlich, and economists, such as Julian Simon, one of Ehrlich's most well known and vocal detractors. A strong theme throughout the book is that economics, as a discipline, can be as much about mythology and ideology as it is about real science.
Hardin goes on to label those who reflexively argue for growth as "growthmaniacs", and argues against the institutional faith in exponential growth on a finite planet. Typical of Hardin's writing style, he illustrates exponential growth by way of a Biblical metaphor. Using compound interest, or "usury", he starts from the infamous "thirty pieces of silver" and, using 5% compounded interest, finds that after around 2,000 years, "every man, woman, and child would be entitled to only (!) 160,000 earth-masses of gold". As a consequence, he argues that any economy based on long-term compound interest must eventually fail due to the physical and mathematical impossibility of long-term exponential growth on a finite planet. Hardin writes, "At this late date millions of people believe in the fertility of money with an ardor seldom accorded to traditional religious doctrines".:67 He argues that, contrary to some socially-motivated claims, population growth is also exponential growth, therefore even a little would be disastrous anywhere in the world, and that even the richest nations are not immune.
Participation in death-with-dignity movement and suicideEdit
Hardin, who suffered from a heart disorder and the aftermath of childhood poliomyelitis, and his wife, Jane, who suffered from Lou Gehrig's disease, were members of End-of-Life Choices, formerly known as the Hemlock Society.
Racist sentiments and association with white nationalismEdit
Hardin caused controversy for his support of anti-immigrant causes during his lifetime and possible connections to the white nationalist movement. The Southern Poverty Law Center noted that Hardin served on the board of the Federation for American Immigration Reform and Social Contract Press and co-founded the anti-immigration Californians for Population Stabilization and The Environmental Fund, which according to the SPLC "served to lobby Congress for nativist and isolationist policies."
In October 1974, he published the article "Living on a Lifeboat" in BioScience magazine, arguing that contributing food to help the Ethiopian famine would add to overpopulation, which he considered the root of Ethiopia's problems.
Hardin at points also supported racist and white nationalist thought. In 1994, he was one of 52 signatories on "Mainstream Science on Intelligence", an editorial written by Linda Gottfredson and published in the Wall Street Journal, which declared the consensus of the signing scholars on issues related to race and intelligence following the publication of the book The Bell Curve. It claimed that the average IQ among the African-American population was only 85, amongst other pseudo-scientific and scientifically racist- based claims. On February 11, 1998, he debated Christian philosopher William Lane Craig at the University of California, Santa Barbara.
Hardin's last book The Ostrich Factor: Our Population Myopia (1999), a warning about the threat of overpopulation to the Earth's sustainable economic future, called for coercive constraints on "unqualified reproductive rights" and argued that affirmative action is a form of racism.
- 1965, Nature and Man's Fate New American Library. ISBN 0-451-61170-5
- 1972, Exploring new ethics for survival: the voyage of the spaceship Beagle Viking Press. ISBN 0-670-30268-6
- 1973, Stalking the Wild Taboo W. Kaufmann. ISBN 0-913232-03-3
- 1974, Mandatory Motherhood: The True Meaning of 'Right to Life' Beacon Press. ISBN 0-8070-2177-6
- 1977, The Limits of Altruism: an Ecologist's view of Survival Indiana University Press. ISBN 0-253-33435-7
- 1980, Promethean Ethics: Living With Death, Competition, and Triage University of Washington Press. ISBN 0-295-95717-4
- 1982, Naked Emperors: Essays of a Taboo-Stalker William Kaufmann, Inc. ISBN 0-86576-032-2
- 1985, Filters Against Folly, How to Survive despite Economists, Ecologists, and the Merely Eloquent Viking Penguin. ISBN 0-670-80410-X
- 1993, Living Within Limits: Ecology, Economics, and Population Taboos Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-509385-2
- 1999, The Ostrich Factor: Our Population Myopia Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-512274-7
Selected journal articlesEdit
- Hardin, G. (1960). "The Competitive Exclusion Principle". Science. 131 (3409): 1292–1297. Bibcode:1960Sci...131.1292H. doi:10.1126/science.131.3409.1292. PMID 14399717.
- Hardin, G (1968). "The Tragedy of the Commons". Science. 162 (3859): 1243–1248. Bibcode:1968Sci...162.1243H. doi:10.1126/science.162.3859.1243. PMID 5699198.
- Hardin, G. (1969). "Not peace, but ecology". Brookhaven Symposia in Biology. 22: 151–161. PMID 4906521.
- Hardin, G. (1970). "Everybody's guilty. The ecological dilemma". California Medicine. 113 (5): 40–47. PMC 1501799. PMID 5485232.
- Hardin, G. (1974). "Commentary: Living on a Lifeboat". BioScience. 24 (10): 561–568. Bibcode:1985BioSc..35..499W. doi:10.2307/1296629. JSTOR 1296629. PMID 11661143.
- Hardin, Garrett (1974). "Lifeboat Ethics: the Case Against Helping the Poor". Psychology Today. 8: 38–43.
- Hardin, Garrett (November 1976). "Living with Faustian Bargain". Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists. 32 (8): 25–29. ISSN 0096-3402.
- Hardin, G. (1980). "Ecology and the Death of Providence". Zygon. 15: 57–68. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9744.1980.tb00376.x.
- Hardin, G. (1982). "Discriminating Altruisms". Zygon. 17 (2): 163–186. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9744.1982.tb00477.x.
- Hardin, G. (1983). "Is Violence Natural?". Zygon. 18 (4): 405–413. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9744.1983.tb00524.x.
- Hardin, G. (1985). "Human Ecology: The Subversive, Conservative Science". Integrative and Comparative Biology. 25 (2): 469–476. doi:10.1093/icb/25.2.469.
- Hardin, G. (1986). "AIBS News". BioScience. 36 (9): 599–606. Bibcode:1985BioSc..35..499W. doi:10.2307/1310194 (inactive 2018-09-11). JSTOR 1310194.
- Hardin, G. (1994). "The tragedy of the unmanaged commons". Trends in Ecology & Evolution. 9 (5): 199. doi:10.1016/0169-5347(94)90097-3. PMID 21236819.
- Hardin, G. (1998). "Essays on Science and Society: Extensions of "The Tragedy of the Commons"". Science. 280 (5364): 682–683. doi:10.1126/science.280.5364.682.
Chapters in booksEdit
- 1993. The entire text of Garrett Hardin's Living Within Limits: Ecology, Economics, and Population Taboos, Chapter Eight, Growth: Real and Spurious Reprinted at GarrettHardinSociety.org, by permission of Oxford University Press, Inc
- 1991. "Paramount positions in ecological economics." In Costanza, R. (editor) Ecological Economics: The Science and Management of Sustainability, New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 0-231-07562-6
- 1991. "The tragedy of the 'Unmanaged' commons – population and the disguises of providence." In: R. V. Andelson, (editor), Commons Without Tragedy, London: Shepheard-Walwyn, pp. 162–185. ISBN 0-389-20958-9 (U.S.)
- Hardin, G (1968). "The Tragedy of the Commons". Science. 162 (3859): 1243–1248. Bibcode:1968Sci...162.1243H. doi:10.1126/science.162.3859.1243. PMID 5699198.
- Lavietes, Stuart (October 28, 2003). "Garrett Hardin, 88, Ecologist Who Warned About Excesses". The New York Times. Retrieved 2010-05-24.
- Miller, George Tyler (1993). Environmental Science: Sustaining the Earth. Wadsworth Publishing. ISBN 9780534178086.
- Hardin, Garrett (1944-07-01). "Symbiosis of Paramecium and Oikomonas". Ecology. 25 (3): 304–311. doi:10.2307/1931278. ISSN 1939-9170. JSTOR 1931278.
- Hardin, Garrett (1973). "Chapter 1: I Become an Abortionist". Stalking the Wild Taboo. William Kaufmann, Inc. pp. 3–9. ISBN 978-0-913232-03-3.
- Hardin, Garrett (1982). "Chapter 22: Conservation's Secret Question". Naked Emperors. William Kaufmann, Inc. pp. 190–195. ISBN 978-0-86576-032-5.
- Hardin, Garrett (1982). "Chapter 7: "Scientific Creationism" — Marketing Deception as Truth". Naked Emperors. William Kaufmann, Inc. pp. 49–57. ISBN 978-0-86576-032-5.
- Radkau, Joachim (2008). Nature and Power: A Global History of the Environment. Cambridge University Press. p. 71. ISBN 978-0-521-85129-9. Radkau cites Grove and Rackham, The Nature of Mediterranean Europe: An Ecological History.
- Araral, E. (2014). "Ostrom, Hardin and the commons: A critical appreciation and a revisionist view". Environmental Science & Policy. 36: 11–23. doi:10.1016/j.envsci.2013.07.011.
- Bollier, David; Helfrich, Silke, eds. (2014). The Wealth of the Commons: A World Beyond Market and State. Levellers Press. ISBN 978-1-937146-14-6.
- Dasgupta, Partha (2001). Human Well-Being and the Natural Environment. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780199247882.
- Ciriacy-Wantrup, S.V.; Bishop, R.C. (October 1975). "'Common Property' as a Concept in Natural Resources Policy" (PDF). Natural Resources Journal. 15: 713–727. Retrieved 2014-12-12.
- De robertis, Michelle, et al, "issue_id":411307,"view":"articleBrowser","article_id":"2793834"} The Tragedy of the Commons of the Urban (and Suburban) Arterial, ITE Journal, Volume: 87 Issue Number: 6, November 2017
- Cox, Susan Jane Buck (Spring 1985). "No tragedy of the commons" (PDF). Journal of Environmental Ethics. 7 (1): 49–61. doi:10.5840/enviroethics1985716. Retrieved 2014-12-12.
- Stalking the Wild Taboo – Stalkers: Hardin: Book Review Archived 2010-11-14 at the Wayback Machine.
- Hardin, Garrett (1993). "Living Within Limits, Chapter 8" (PDF). Retrieved 8 August 2017.
- Hardin, Garrett (1993). Living Within Limits. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780198024033. "Chapter 8. Growth Real and Spurious" available online at Garrett Hardin Society.
- Uh, not sure what to put here. Personal acquaintance? Keynote Address 'We must learn again for ourselves what we have inherited', Wilderness Conference, SF, 1970, or perhaps *A 110. The economics of wilderness. Natural History, 78(6):20-27. 1969.
- Steepleton, Scott (19 September 2003). "Pioneering professor, wife die in apparent double suicide". Santa Barbara News-Press. Retrieved 2007-09-28.
- "Garrett Hardin". Southern Poverty Law Center. Retrieved 2018-07-20.
- Hardin, Garrett (October 1974). "Commentary: Living on a Lifeboat" (PDF). BioScience. 24 (10): 561–568. Bibcode:1985BioSc..35..499W. doi:10.2307/1296629. JSTOR 1296629.
- Gottfredson, Linda (December 13, 1994). "Mainstream Science on Intelligence" (PDF). Wall Street Journal. p. A18. Retrieved 2014-12-12.
- on YouTube February 11, 1998.
- Williams, Peter S. (2009). A Sceptic's Guide to Atheism: God is Not Dead. Authentic Media. ISBN 978-1842276174.
- "Phi Beta Kappa Award in Science – List of Previous Winners". The Phi Beta Kappa Society. Retrieved 2010-12-06.
- Locher, Fabien (2013). "Cold War Pastures: Garrett Hardin and the 'Tragedy of the Commons'" (PDF). Revue d'Histoire Moderne et Contemporaine. 60 (1): 7–36.
- Hardin, Garrett (1985). Filters Against Folly: How to Survive Despite Economists, Ecologists, and the Merely Eloquent. Viking Penguin, Inc. ISBN 978-0670804108.