Federation for American Immigration Reform
The Federation for American Immigration Reform (FAIR) is a non-profit organization in the United States that advocates for lower immigration. The group publishes position papers, organizes events, and runs campaigns in order to influence US immigration policies.
Otis L. Graham, Jr.
|Founded at||Washington, DC|
|Legal status||Non-profit tax exempt|
|Daniel A. Stein, President (1988-)|
|Affiliations||Immigration Reform Law Institute (IRLI) (est. 1987) FAIR Congressional Task Force (FCTF) (est. 2004)|
Center for Immigration Studies (CIS) (est. 1985)
(FYE December 2016)
FAIR was founded in 1979 by ophthalmologist John Tanton, former historian of labor movements and director of the Center for the Study of Democratic Institutions Otis L. Graham, Jr. and Sidney Swensrud, a former chairman of Gulf Oil and former governing board member of Planned Parenthood.
According to the Southern Poverty Law Center, Tanton became leader of several anti-immigration groups and held white supremacist beliefs while he led the organization. The SPLC lists FAIR as a hate group, a categorization that FAIR denies.
According to their website, FAIR seeks a moratorium on net immigration by anyone other than refugees and the spouses and minor children of U.S. citizens. FAIR also believes that the economic and social growth in the United States are no longer sustainable at the current rate of the influx of immigrants into the country.
In 2004, the Federation for American Immigration Reform cooperated with the group called Protect Arizona Now in order to support the passage of Proposition 200, which shares the similarities with California’s Proposition 187 in which undocumented immigrants are restricted from public benefits and voting because they are most likely unable to provide the required proof of citizenship. It also made the crime of a public official not reporting illegal status a class 2 misdemeanor.
The "founder of the modern immigration reform movement"—John Tanton—an ophthalmologist in Petoskey, Michigan—"saw a threat coming in the soaring rates of immigration" and that the "environment was threatened by overpopulation".:174 Frustrated by the lack of interest of his "liberal colleagues in groups such as Planned Parenthood and the Sierra Club where he was actively engaged, he helped establish "three major national groups"—FAIR, Numbers USA the Center for Immigration Studies—to fight to reduce [legal and illegal] immigration."
Tanton—along with University of North Carolina professor, Otis Graham and former Gulf Oil CEO, Sydney Swensrud—established FAIR in 1979. In 1982 Tanton also established U.S. Inc, a foundation chaired by Tanton with financial support from Cordelia Scaife May which would over the years, serve as a funding conduit for FAIR, Numbers USA, the Center for Immigration Studies, and many other groups.
FAIR's first executive director was environmental lawyer Roger Conner. Other co-founders included feminist Sharon Barnes, philanthropists Jay Harris and Stewart Mott (of the Stewart R. Mott Foundation) and William Paddock, dean of Zamorano the Pan American School of Agriculture Dan Stein has been president of FAIR since 1988.
In American Immigration: An Encyclopedia of Political, Social, and Cultural Change, Brian N. Fry described Tanton as the "leader of the drive to restrict immigration" starting in the mid-1970s. Fry described those who favored maintaining or increasing immigration numbers as "expansionists" and those who sought to reduce them as ""restrictionists." Fry traced "restrictions roots" to a surprising surge in illegal and legal immigration—the "new immigration"—following the 1964 termination of the Bracero Program and the enactment of the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965.:281–84
Under Lyndon B. Johnson the Immigration Act "officially committed the United States, for the first time, to accepting immigrants of all nationalities on a roughly equal basis" by eliminating "national-origin quotas." According to The Atlantic, the effects of the Immigration Act were at odds with its "original intention" and it "inadvertently changed America". Whereas previously the vast majority of immigrants came to the United States from "northern and western Europe", under the Immigration Act—through the family unification process—non-European immigrants brought family members to the United States in numbers that were not expected. A nativist sentiment emerged at "the prospect of a nonwhite U.S. majority. It was in this context that Tanton as President of Zero Population Growth from 1975–77 attempted to get members to "support immigration restrictions." When they were unwilling, he launched FAIR with seed money in 1979.
Throughout the 1980s FAIR's lobbying efforts on Capitol Hill met with more success as did their direct mail campaigns. FAIR received funds from donors such as Cordelia Scaife May (1928–2005) through her Laurel Foundation:283(1928–2005) and the Pioneer Fund which contributed $1.2 million to FAIR in the 1980s and early 1990s.:195:291
Following negative publicity about FAIR receiving funds from Pioneer Fund when they were revealed in a Los Angeles Times article,:282 FAIR stopped "receiving grants" from Pioneer that required "public disclosure." The SPLC claimed FAIR continued to "receive private financial support from Pioneer's leaders for several years."
Tanton had wanted FAIR to focus on issues related to Hispanics in the United States, such as "cultural division" and bilingualism. He was unable to convince FAIR's board of directors to shift their focus. However FAIR helped Tanton establish U.S. English as the umbrella organization for "projects pertaining to overpopulation, immigration, and the environment.:281 Through the work of Senator Samuel Ichiye Hayakawa (R-CA) (1906–1992) and Tanton, U.S. English became a well-organized and well-funded official movement resulting in a twenty-two states enacting official language laws to protect English between 1981–97. From 2007–15, Julie Kirchner was FAIR's executive director.
In 1991 historian Eric Hobsbawm explained the rise of FAIR, US English and English first in the United States in the 1980s as part of a larger political phenomenon of xenophobia that "feeds on hostility towards the new mass migrations".:556 He quoted a Czech historian, "Where old social relations become unstable, amid the rise of general insecurity, belonging to a common language and culture may become the only certainty in society, the only value beyond ambiguity and doubt.":537, 555–56:168
FAIR became "the stuff of lore in 2007, with their successful campaign against Bush's proposed Immigration Reform which represented "a systemic overhaul including a path to citizenship for most illegal immigrants." "FAIR rallied talk show hosts...The Center for Immigration Studies published "studies of the bill's perceived flaws" and "Numbers USA jammed the Capitol's phones." FAIR had become the "most important organization [in the United States] fueling the backlash against immigration" and Tanton was perceived as the leader. As a result, liberal groups who opposed FAIR focused on Tanton who was at that time "in his 32nd year on the board." Tanton was concerned that US birthrates had dropped "below replacement level.:174 In 1986 Tanton wrote memos to FAIR colleagues—which became known as the WITAN memos—predicting a "Latin onslaught" and worried that high Latino birth rates and low US birthrates would lead "the present majority to hand over its political power to a group that is simply more fertile". He was concerned Latinos would "bring with them the tradition of the mordida ['bribe'], the lack of involvement in public affairs." He asked, "What are the differences in educability between Hispanics (with their 50% dropout rate) and Asiatics (with their excellent school records and long tradition of scholarship)?" The memos—which became known as the WITAN memos—were leaked to the press in 1988.:23
He warned that unless Latino immigration was restricted it would ultimately "lead to linguistic, economic, racial and religious "apartheid" in the United States.":174 He cautioned, "I've come to the point of view that for European-American society and culture to persist requires a European-American majority, and a clear one at that.":203 When the WITAN memos were leaked to the press in 1988, Tanton eventually had to resign from U.S. English. although he denied the accusations.
In 2007 FAIR began holding its signature "Hold Their Feet to the Fire" annual event of "like-minded talk radio hosts" held in Washington, D.C. Their tenth annual "Hold Their Feet to the Fire" (F2F) radio row broadcast was held in Washington in June, 2016 with "50 talk radio hosts from across the country [broadcasting] live both days, debating immigration policy and interviewing members of Congress, media figures, law enforcement officials, experts, activists, and those who live and work along the southern border."
In 2008, Lou Dobbs a regular F2F attendee broadcast on live television from the event’s rally, commended FAIR. He was fired from CNN in 2009 and hired at Fox the next year, to run a similar show.
At the second annual "Hold Their Feet to the Fire" event in 2008 on the theme of immigration that was aired on C-SPAN, Joyce Kaufman responded to callers via the telephone and electronic mail. At the ninth annual "radio row" on June 22 and 23, 2016 fifty talk show hosts from all over the United States broadcast their shows and debated immigration policy." Participants included radio personalities Phil Valentine—who is on Talkers Magazine's Heavy Hundred list, Genesis Communications Network’s Mike Siegel, WCRS's Anne Eller in Greenwood, KID's Neal Larson in Idaho Falls, KIDO's Kevin Miller in Boise, and KMED's Bill Meyer in Oregon.
In September 2009 two divisive issues—immigration and health care—became "politically linked" when partisan health reform opponents challenged what they perceived as subsidized health care for illegal immigrants. By early September the bipartisan Gang of Six negotiations on a compromise for the health care reform bill, had fallen apart. Senators who had previously "embraced the framework" were convinced by Senate Republican Leader Mitch McConnell that they were being politically unwise. Their rhetoric turned "shrill" and "anti-reform" with one Senator talking about "death panels that would kill grandma." The furor on immigration "escalated" into what The Washington Post called a "proxy war." FAIR's annual "Hold their Feet to the Fire" event" in Washington on September 14 and 15, was described by The Post as a "Capitol Hill lobbying push..[with] 47 conservative radio hosts holding a 'town hall of the airwaves'... [highlighting] the costs of illegal immigration."
America's Voice's Director Frank Sharry said, "conservative activists" had attempted to "intimidate" Congress by "tapping into a thin but vocal vein of populist anger... We didn't call them out last time, we thought we were in a political debate. Now we realize it's part political debate and... part culture war. These talk-show guys and FAIR, this isn't about immigration policy, as much as they think there are way too many Latinos in this country and they want to get rid of a couple of million of them." The SPLC strongly denounced FAIR and its founder. FAIR president Dan Stein stated in The Post article that the SPLC had "decided to engage in unsubstantiated, invidious name-calling, smearing millions of people in this movement who simply want to see the law enforced and, frankly, lower levels of immigration" and that "America's Voice and allied groups were 'juvenile mud throwers who seem unprepared to engage in serious public debate'. The Center for Immigration Studies's Mark Krikorian, said, "Right now there are a lot of members of Congress [congressional Democrats] who might have thought the immigration issue wasn't as hot for opponents as it was a couple of years ago. They were disabused of that notion."
In a 2011 article in The New York Times, a former aide to President Ronald Reagan, Linda Chavez, was cited as saying that 77-year-old Tanton was "the most influential unknown man in America." In a 2011 interview published in The New York Times and The Houston Chronicle, FAIR's President Dan Stein said, "Is FAIR responsible for everything [John Tanton] said in his private correspondence? No, I love John, but he's had no significant control over FAIR for years."
During President Obama's tenure, FAIR's President Dan Stein was particularly critical of Eric Holder as Attorney General (2009-2015), calling Holder "the chief dismantler of laws this administration found to be politically inconvenient, notably all those related to immigration enforcement and the law's administration." In 2014 in a FAIR press release, they strongly challenged Holder's lawsuits against Arizona, South Carolina and Alabama, states that opposed sanctuary cities' protecting illegal immigrants.
In an interview with Florida radio host Joyce Kaufman, Stein warned that the United States was at "the verge of 'civil violence' thanks to "Holder and immigration reform advocates". Kaufman shared Stein's concerns that President Obama had "done nothing but destroy everything my country represented."
With the election of President Trump, some of the United States' "most ardent" advocates for reducing immigration levels—such as FAIR, the Center for Immigration Studies, and NumbersUSA—have an opportunity "to dramatically reduce legal immigration". These three groups enjoy "formidable grassroots support" across the United States. As of the end 2016, FAIR's annual budget reached $11.2 million.
A 2017 FAIR report claimed that undocumented immigrants in the United States cost taxpayers approximately $134.9 billion. This report included the children of undocumented immigrants, even those who were U.S. citizens, in the cost calculation. According to the Associated Press, "the estimate was criticized for making broad generalizations and other major methodological flaws."
FAIR has created several affiliated groups in order to maximize its effectiveness. In 1987, FAIR founded the Immigration Reform Law Institute (IRLI) which claims that the rights, privileges, and property of U.S. citizens are threatened by immigration. In 2004, FAIR also established the FAIR Congressional Task Force (FCTF) as a 501(c)(4) organization who believe that promoting public welfare requires drastic restrictions on legal immigration. The Center for Immigration Studies (CIS) was spun off from FAIR in 1985.
The Southern Poverty Law Center (SPLC) currently classifies FAIR as a hate group, citing among other things the organization's anti-Latino and anti-Catholic attitudes, its acceptance of $1.2 million from a racist foundation, the Pioneer Fund, its hiring as key officials men who also joined white supremacist groups, having board members who also write regularly for hate publications, its promotion of racist conspiracy theories, and the white supremacist beliefs of its founder. In 1982, John Tanton wrote "As Whites see their power and control over their lives declining, will they simply go quietly into the night? Or will there be an explosion." The SPLC issued an intelligence report in 2007, after which they added FAIR to its list of hate groups.
FAIR responded to this charge by stating that there is no factual basis for the accusation; that FAIR has compiled a long record of mainstream credibility and respect on immigration issues and has always opposed discrimination on the basis of race, ethnicity, or religion; and that the accusation is an "act of desperation, resulting from the SPLC's failure to convince the American people of their viewpoint."
In August 2018, FAIR's former press secretary, Joe Gomez, filed a complaint with the Washington, D.C. Office of Human Rights, alleging racist, xenophobic, and ableist harassment at FAIR.As part of a settlement agreement, Gomez subsequently retracted his accusations against FAIR in February 2019.
- "IRLI official webpage". Immigration Reform Law Institute. nd. Retrieved May 3, 2017.
- "FAIR Congressional Task Force". FCTF. nd. Retrieved August 28, 2015. url has security warning
- "CIS About Us Webpage". Center for Immigration Studies. nd. Retrieved July 2, 2018.
- Federation for American Immigration Reform: About FAIR, fairus.org; accessed February, 2017.
- "FAIR's About Us Page". www.fairus.org. Retrieved July 2, 2018.
- Gerald Baumgarten (2000). "Is FAIR Unfair? The Federation for American Immigration Reform (FAIR)" (PDF). Anti Defamation League. Retrieved 20 February 2017.
- Sidney Swensrud, 95, hands on executive who expanded Gulf Oil, The New York Times, June 1, 1996; retrieved March 5, 2016.
- Connor, Roger (March 2, 1980). "U.S.A. Must Stop the Illegal Tide". Sarasota Herald-Tribune. p. 2F.
- "John Tanton is the Mastermind Behind the Organized Anti-Immigration Movement". Intelligence Report. Southern Poverty Law Center. 2002 (106). 2002. Retrieved March 5, 2016.
- Heidi Beirich (November 30, 2008). "John Tanton's Private Papers Expose More Than 20 Years of Hate". Intelligence Report (Winter 2008). Southern Poverty Law Center.
- Beirich, Heidi. "Federation for American Immigration Reform". Southern Poverty Law Center.
- "A Guide to Understanding the Tactics of the Southern Poverty Law Center in the Immigration Debate" (PDF). Federation for American Immigration Reform. Retrieved May 17, 2019.
- "Why America Needs an Immigration Time-Out". Federation for American Immigration Reform. Retrieved July 2, 2015.
- Wilson, T.D. (2008). "Research Note: Issues of Production vs. Reproduction/Maintenance Revisited: Towards an Understanding of Arizona's Immigration Policies". Anthropological Quarterly. 81 (3): 713–18. doi:10.1353/anq.0.0026. Retrieved March 5, 2016.
- James Crawford (ed.). "Symbolic Implications of Language Conflict". Language Loyalties: A Source Book on the Official English Controversy. University of Chicago Press.
- Jason DeParle (April 17, 2011). "The Anti-Immigration Crusader: the Evolution of a Political Movement, and Its Controversial Leader". The New York Times.
One group that Dr. Tanton nurtured, Numbers USA, doomed President George W. Bush's legalization plan [in 2007] ago by overwhelming Congress with ... the group for four years under his umbrella organization, U.S. Inc. restraints ... he saw a new threat emerging: soaring rates of immigration. Time and again, Dr. Tanton urged liberal colleagues in groups like Planned Parenthood and the Sierra Club to seek immigration restraintspaywall
- Jason DeParle (April 17, 2011). "The Anti-Immigration Crusader: the Evolution of a Political Movement, and Its Controversial Leader". Houston Chronicle. Retrieved May 4, 2017.
- Kathleen R. Arnold (2011). Anti-Immigration in the United States: A Historical Encyclopedia. Santa Barbara, California: Greenwood Press. ISBN 9780313375224.
- Rick Oltman (September 30, 2016). "A Tribute to Dr. Tanton". U.S. Inc. Retrieved May 4, 2017.
- Heidi Beirich (January 31, 2009), "The Nativist Lobby: Three Faces of Intolerance", Southern Poverty Law Center, retrieved May 4, 2017
- "John Tanton's network of anti-immigrant groups includes these 13 organizations", Southern Poverty Law Center, retrieved May 4, 2017,
Population-Environment Balance 1973, joined board in 1980; Federation for American Immigration Reform (FAIR), 1979, founded and funded; U.S. Inc., 1982, founded and funded; American Immigration Control Foundation (AICF) 1983, funded; U.S. English, 1983, founded and funded; Center for Immigration Studies (CIS), 1985, founded and funded; The Social Contract Press, 1990, founded and funded; American Patrol/Voice of Citizens Together 1992, funded; California Coalition for Immigration Reform (CCIR), 1994, funded; ProEnglish 1994, founded and funded; NumbersUSA 1996, founded and funded; Californians for Population Stabilization 1996, funded (founded separately in 1986); ProjectUSA, 1999, funded.
- Joe Holley (March 13, 2008). "Obituaries: William C. Paddock, 86; Fought Famine". Washington Post. Retrieved 20 February 2017.
- Brian N. Fry (November 2013). "Anti-Immigrant Backlash: 1965–2001". In James Ciment, John Radzilowski (eds.). American Immigration: An Encyclopedia of Political, Social, and Cultural Change (2 ed.). Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-0-7656-8212-3.CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter (link)
- Tom Gjelten (October 2, 2015). "The Immigration Act That Inadvertently Changed America: Fifty years after its passage, it's clear that the law's ultimate effects are at odds with its original intent". The Atlantic. Retrieved May 3, 2017.
- Robert Wald Sussman (October 6, 2014). "Modern Racism and Anti-Immigration Policies". The Myth of Race: The Troubling Persistence of an Unscientific Idea. Harvard University Press. p. 384. ISBN 9780674417311.
- Johnna A. Pro and Marylynne Pitz (January 27, 2005). "Obituary: Cordelia Scaife May – Reclusive Mellon heiress known for her generosity". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Retrieved May 4, 2017.
- "Federation for American Immigration Reform". Southern Poverty Law Center. Montgomery, Alabama. Retrieved May 5, 2017.
- "From the Archives: Ex-Sen. Hayakawa Dies; Unpredictable Iconoclast". Los Angeles Times. February 28, 1992. Retrieved May 5, 2017.
- "DHS Announces New CIS Ombudsman Julie Kirchner" (Press release). United States Department of Homeland Security. May 2, 2017. Retrieved September 1, 2017.
- Eric Hobsbawm (November 10, 1991). "The Perils of the New Nationalism". The Nation. Hobswan was citing another author
- Ana Celia Zentella (1999). "Language Policy: Planning and US Colonialism: The Puerta Rican Thorn in English-Only's Side". In Thom Huebner, Kathryn Anne Davis, and Joseph Lo Bianco (eds.). Sociopolitical Perspectives on Language Policy and Planning in the USA. Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company. pp. 155–73. ISBN 9789027241238.
"This volume is the result of a colloquium on socio-political dimensions of language policy and language planning held at the 1997 American Association of Applied Linguistics (AAAL) Conference." [FAIR's rise to prominence in the 1980s has been of interest to linguists and was discussed within the context of the 1997 American Association of Applied Linguistics colloquim. Zentella cited Hobsbaum]CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter (link)
- Heidi Beirich (December 2007). "Federation for American Immigration Reform's Hate Filled Track Record". Intelligence Report. No. 128.
After issuing this report in December 2007, the Southern Poverty Law Center added the Federation for American Immigration Reform to its list of hate groups.
- "Silva Trevino Amicus Brief" (PDF). Latino Justice. June 17, 2015. Retrieved May 4, 2017.
- "Memo to WITAN IV Attendees from John Tanton". Southern Poverty Law Center. Intelligence Report. January 20, 2009. Retrieved May 4, 2017.
- Neil Foley (2014). "Fortress America". Mexicans in the Making of America. Harvard University. ISBN 978-0-674-04848-5.
- Mark Potok (Spring 2004). "Tanton resignation". Intelligence Report. Southern Poverty Law Center. pp. 59–63.
- Tanton, John (October 30, 1988). "U.S. English – it's being victimized by the 'Big Lie'". Houston Chronicle. p. 5.
- "Hold Their Feet to the Fire event page". www.fairus.org. Retrieved July 8, 2018.
- "FAIR annual gathering". The New York Times. April 17, 2011.
- Nick Fernandez (June 21, 2016). "Hate Group FAIR Hosting Annual Event With Anti-Immigrant Radio Hosts". Media Matters. Retrieved May 6, 2017.
- Weiner, Rachel (2009-08-02). "Lou Dobbs A "Publicity Nightmare" For CNN: AP". Huffingtonpost.com. Retrieved 2010-04-12.
- Lou Dobbs' new Fox Business show gets a start date and a name, The Huffington Post, March 3, 2011.
- "Campaign 2008 and Immigration". C-SPAN. September 10, 2008. Retrieved May 5, 2017.
- "Heavy Hundred". Talkers Magazine. June 23, 2016. Retrieved May 6, 2017.
- "The Voice Of Greenwood (WCRS)". Tune In. Retrieved May 6, 2017.
- "Phil Valentine". Talkers Magazine. June 23, 2016. Retrieved May 6, 2017.
- "Hold Their Feet to the Fire". September 2009. Retrieved May 6, 2017.
summary: 2009 participants included Leland Conway of WLAP in Lexington, KY, Inga Barks of KERN/KMJ in Bakersfield & Fresno, CA; Doug Guetzloe of WAMT in Orlando, Florida; Dave Elswick of KARN in Little Rock, AR: Pamela Furr of WVNN in Huntsville, AL; Steve Gill of SLAC in Nashville, TN; Helen Glover of WHJJ in Providence, RI; Heidi Harris of KDWN in Las Vegas, NV; Joe Thomas of WCHV in Charlottesville, VA; Joyce Kaufman of WFTL in Miami/Ft. Lauderdale, FL; Lars Larson in Los Angeles, CA; Dan Rivers of WKBN in Youngstown, OH; Gary Sutton of WSBA in York, PA; Jon David Wells of KLIF in Altoona, PA; and Roger Hedgecock of KOGO in San Diego, California...Other participants included Jeff Sessions and Mark Levin"
- "Hold Their Feet to the Fire". May 8, 2012. Retrieved May 6, 2017.
summary F2F 2012 talk show hosts: Roger Hedgecock, Lars Larson, Joyce Kaufman, Dave Elswick, Helen Glover, Armstrong Williams, Heidi Harris, Dale Jackson, Leland Conway, Tom Marr, Steve Gill, Howie Carr, Martha Zoller, Les Kinsolving, Jeff Katz, Rob Schilling, Phil Valentine, and Charles Butler"
- Hsu, S.S. (September 15, 2009). "Immigration, Health Debates Cross Paths". The Washington Post. Retrieved May 6, 2017.
- "What The 'Gang Of Six' Wants From Health Care Bill". NPR. September 9, 2009. Retrieved May 6, 2017.
- Norm Ornstein (July 2015). "The Birth of Obamacare". The Atlantic. Retrieved May 6, 2017.
- "Holder Legacy: Leaves Behind Weakened Immigration Enforcement and Dysfunctional System". Federation for American Immigration Reform. Press Release. Washington, D.C. September 25, 2014. Retrieved May 4, 2017.
- Amy Guthrie (October 25, 2007). "Joyce Kaufman Hates Immigrants!". Miami New Times.
- Jonathan Ernst and Molly Ball (March 20, 2017). "The Unsung Architect of Trumpism: Kellyanne Conway's theory that Republicans could win a presidential election with an anti-immigration message had a major influence on Trump's platform—and his win". Retrieved May 3, 2017.
- "Charity Navigator". Retrieved July 1, 2018.
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- "FAIR: Response to the Southern Poverty Law Center". Federation for American Immigration Reform. December 14, 2007. Archived from the original on February 17, 2012. Retrieved July 2, 2015.
- "Beware the Politicized "Hate Group" Designations by the Southern Poverty Law Center (SPLC)". Federation for American Immigration Reform (FAIR)'s Investigative Alert. Federation for American Immigration Reform. nd. Retrieved May 6, 2017.
- Janik, Rachel (30 August 2018). "Former press secretary of anti-immigrant hate group FAIR alleges he was discriminated against and taunted for being Mexican American". Southern Poverty Law Center. Retrieved 1 September 2018.
- Moyer, Justin Wm. (February 21, 2019). "Latino man reaches settlement with immigration reform group where he worked". Washington Post.