Mahamahopadhyaya[2] Sir Gaṅgānāth Jhā (25 December 1872 – 9 November 1941) was a scholar of Sanskrit, Indian philosophy and Buddhist philosophy.[1]

Ganganath Jha
Born25 December 1872
Died9 November 1941
Prayagraj, India
OccupationSanskrit scholar

He is considered to have probably translated the most Sanskrit philosophical texts than any other scholar and notable examples of texts he has translated include the Slokavartika (1907), the Tantravarttika (1903-1924) and the Sabara-Bhashya (1933-1936). As per the Dutch orientalist, Jan Willem de Jong, his translations cannot be described as 'elegant or literal" though they render "well enough the general ideas expressed in the text."[3]

Early life edit

Ganganath Jha was born on the 25th of September, 1871 in the village of Sarisab-Pahi in Madhubani district of Bihar, British India. Through his ancestor, Achyut Jha, Ganganath Jha was related to the ruling family of the Raj Darbhanga estate.[1]

His education along with his brothers, was sponsored by Maharaja Lakshmeshwar Singh of Raj Darbhanga who also happened to be a relative of his. His schooling took place in the Raj School where he was taught in English. Following his schooling, he was sent to the city of Varanasi to study at the Government Sanskrit College where his principal was the German indologist, George Thibaut. Here he opted for the study of Sanskrit, English and philosophy. During his time here, he also came into contact with the Theosophical Society.[1]

Librarian of Raj Darbhanga edit

At the age of 24, due to the death of his grandmother, he had to cut his studies in Varanasi short and left for Darbhanga where he was appointed a librarian of the Darbhanga state by its Maharaja. He was paid a salary of Rs. 100 per month. This salary allowed Ganganath to keep his family in a comfortable situation. During his time as a librarian, he was contacted by Arthur Venis who requested if he could undertake the translation of the works of Kumārila Bhaṭṭa, an 8th century Indian philosopher and proponent of the Mīmāṃsā school, into English. With the help of various pandits of the time, he was able to translate various works from Sanskrit into English.[1]

Allahabad edit

In 1902, he was appointed a Professor of Sanskrit at Muir College in Allahabad following a recommendation from his former principal and associate, George Thibaut and his dismissal from Raj Darbhanga by Maharaja Rameshwar Singh due to some disagreements.[1] During his time here, he undertook a project with Thiabut to translate the following books: KhandanKhanda-Khadya, Advaita Siddhi, Nyaya-Sutra Bhashya and Vartika, Shabara Bhashya and the Vivarna-Prameya Sangraha. Following the completion of these translations, they were published in the quarterly journal, Indian Thought and were well-received.[1]

which he left in 1918 to become the first Indian principal of the Government Sanskrit College in Benares. Between 1920 and 1923 he served as a member of the Council of State in the Central British Government of India.[4][full citation needed]

He was vice-chancellor of the University of Allahabad from 1923 to 1932. The University of Allahabad established the Ganganath Jha Hostel in his honour.[5][6][7]

Honors and awards edit

  • Honorary Fellow of the Asiatic Society, 1924[8]
  • Campbell Memorial Gold Medal, Bombay Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, 1935[8]
  • Knight Bachelor, 1941 Birthday Honours List[9]

Literary work edit

Sir GN Jha written numerous books and translated many Sanskrit books into English.[10][page needed][11][page needed]

Books authored edit

Books translated edit

  • Chandogyopanishad, G.A. Nelson & Co., Madras, 1899.
  • Yoga-Darsana, Theosophical Publication, Bombay, 1907.
  • Gautam ka Nyaya Sutra, Oriental Book Agency, Poona, 1913.
  • The Purva-Mimansa Sastra of Gemini, Pāṇini office, Allahabad, 1916.
  • Sloka Vartika, Asiatic Society of Bengal, Calcutta, 1924.
  • Tantra-Bhasa, Oriental Book Agency, Poona, 1925.
  • Manusmriti, in five Volumes, Calcutta University, 1920–1926.
  • Yoga Sar Sangrah, Oriental Book Agency, Poona, 1931.
  • Tattvasamgraha of Shantarakshita, (in two Volumes), Baroda Oriental Institute, Baroda, 1936.
  • Shabarbhasya, (in three Voumes), Baroda Oriental Institute, Baroda, 1939.

Books edited edit

  • Memansa Nyaya Prakash, 1904.
  • Gautam Ka Nyayasutra, Oriental Book Agency, Poona, 1931.
  • Nyayadarshana, Coukhamba Sanskrit Series, Benares, 1925.
  • Jyant Bhatt ki Nyayakalika, Sanskrit Bhavan Texts, Benares, 1925.
  • Mimansa Paribhasha, Medical Hall Press, Benares, 1905.
  • Bhavana Vivek, Govt. Press, Allahabad, 1922.
  • Mimansa Mandan, Coukhamba Sanskrit Series, Benares, 1929.
  • Manusmriti, Asiatic Society, Bengal.
  • Tantra Ratna, Sanskrit Bhavan Texts, Benares, 1930.
  • Vad vinod, Indian Press, Allahabad, 1915.
  • Khandan Khanda Khadya, Coukhamba Sanskrit Series, Benares, 1914.
  • Purush Pariksha, Veledeiyer, Allahabad, 1911.
  • Kadambari, Sanskrit Bhavan Texts, Benares.
  • Prasanna Raghav Natan, Sanskrit Bhavan Texts, Benares.
  • Meghdootam, Sanskrit Bhavan Texts, Benares.

Ganganath Jha Research Institute edit

Rashtriya Sanskrit Sansthan (Ganganatha Jha Campus), formerly known as Ganganath Jha Research Institute (from 1943 to 1971) and Ganganatha Jha Kendriya Sanskrit Vidyapeeth (from 1971 to 2002 under the Ministry of HRD, Government of India) was founded on 17 November 1943 with a view to perpetuate the name and works of M. M. Dr. Sir Ganganatha Jha (b. 1871 & d.1941), an International figure of Orientology and Indology.[12] This is the research training centre of Rashtriya Sanskrit Sansthan from 2016 to 2017.[13]

References edit

  1. ^ a b c d e f g Jha, Hetukar (1992). Makers of Indian Literature: Ganganath Jha. Sahitya Akademi. pp. 15–65. ISBN 9788172013752.
  2. ^ Belvalkar, S.K. (1943). "OUR CORDIAL GREETINGS TO THE GANGANATH JHA RESEARCH INSTITUTE". Annals of the Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute. 24.
  3. ^ De Jong, Jan Willem (1969). "Reviewed Work: Tattva-kaumudī. Vācaspati Miśra's commentary on the Sāṁkhya-Kārikā. (= Poona Oriental Series, No. 10). Third edition by Mahāmahopādhyāya Ganganath Jha". Indo-Iranian Journal. 11: 308.
  4. ^ Autobiographical notes of Dr. Ganganath Jha, Ganganath Jha Sanskrit Vidyapeeth, Allahabad
  5. ^ "Ganganath jha was VC of University of Allahabad" Archived 7 January 2013 at the Wayback Machine. UoA's official web page say
  6. ^ “Ganganath Jha Hostel”. Reference of Ganganath Jha Hostel from J K Institute, Allahaabad University web page
  7. ^ “This hostel is in the list of University of Allahabad Hostel” Archived 4 February 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Its presence in Hostel's list of Allahabad University
  8. ^ a b Fellowships and Medals, asiaticsociety.org.in. Retrieved 26 June 2021.
  9. ^ The London Gazette, 12 June 1941
  10. ^ A. B. Keith, History of Sanskrit Literature, Motilal Banarsidass, Delhi.
  11. ^ A. A. Macdonell and A. B. Keith, Vedic Index of names and subjects, Choukhanba Vidya Bhavan, Benares, 1962.
  12. ^ "Ganganath Jha Research Institute (Rashtriya Sanskrit Sansthan)" Archived 26 June 2013 at the Wayback Machine. In 1945, after his death, his five sons established the Ganganath Jha Research Institute now called Rashtriya Sanskrit Sansthan
  13. ^ "Home". gnjhacampusrsks.org.

External links edit