The Tattva-saṃgraha is a text written by the 8th century Indian Buddhist pandit Śāntarakṣita. The text belongs to the 'tenets' (Tib. sgrub-mtha) genre and is an encyclopedic survey of Buddhist and non-Buddhist philosophical systems in the 8th century.[1]

Śāntarakṣita's student Kamalashila wrote a commentary on it, entitled Tattva-saṃgraha-pañjikā.


The Tattva-saṃgraha has twenty-six chapters on the following topics:[1]

  1. The Sāṃkhya doctrine of primordial matter (prakṛti) as the source of the physical world
  2. Various doctrines of God as the source of the world
  3. The doctrine of inherent natures (svabhāva) as the source of the world
  4. Bhartṛhari’s doctrine of Brahman-as-language as the source of the world
  5. The Sāṃkhya-Yoga doctrine of human spirit (puruṣa)
  6. Examination of the doctrines of the self (ātman) in the Nyāya, Mīmāṃsā, Sāṃkhya, Digambara Jaina, Advaita and Buddhist personalist (pudgalavādin) schools
  7. The doctrine of the permanence of things
  8. Various doctrines of karma and its ripening
  9. A critical examination of substance
  10. A critical examination of quality
  11. A critical examination of action
  12. A critical examination of universals
  13. A critical examination of particularity
  14. A critical examination of inherence (the relation between universals and particulars and between substances and qualities)
  15. An examination of words and their meanings
  16. An examination of sense perception
  17. An examination of inference
  18. An examination of other means of acquiring knowledge
  19. A critical examination of Jaina epistemology
  20. An examination of time
  21. A critical examination of materialism
  22. On the external world (that is, the world external to consciousness)
  23. A critical examination of revelation as a source of knowledge
  24. Examination of the idea that some propositions are self-validating
  25. Examination of the notion of supernormal powers


  1. ^ a b Hayes, Richard (2021), Zalta, Edward N. (ed.), "Madhyamaka", The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Fall 2021 ed.), Metaphysics Research Lab, Stanford University, retrieved 2022-08-26

External linksEdit