Gain-of-function research (GoF research or GoFR) is medical research that genetically alters an organism in a way that may enhance the biological functions of gene products. This may include an altered pathogenesis, transmissibility, or host range, i.e., the types of hosts that a microorganism can infect. This research is intended to reveal targets to better predict emerging infectious diseases and to develop vaccines and therapeutics. For example, influenza B can infect only humans and harbor seals. Introducing a mutation that would allow influenza B to infect rabbits in a controlled laboratory situation would be considered a gain-of-function experiment, as the virus did not previously have that function. That type of experiment could then help reveal which parts of the virus's genome correspond to the species that it can infect, enabling the creation of antiviral medicines which block this function.
In virology, gain-of-function research is usually employed with the intention of better understanding current and future pandemics. In vaccine development, gain-of-function research is conducted in the hope of gaining a head start on a virus and being able to develop a vaccine or therapeutic before it emerges. The term "gain of function" is sometimes applied more narrowly to refer to "research which could enable a pandemic-potential pathogen to replicate more quickly or cause more harm in humans or other closely-related mammals."
Some forms of gain-of-function research (specifically work which involves certain select agent pathogens) carry inherent biosafety and biosecurity risks, and are thus also referred to as dual use research of concern (DURC). To mitigate these risks while allowing the benefits of such research, various governments have mandated that DURC experiments be regulated under additional oversight by institutions (so-called institutional "DURC" committees) and government agencies (such as the NIH's recombinant DNA advisory committee). A mirrored approach can be seen in the European Union's Dual Use Coordination Group (DUCG).
Importantly, the US and EU regulations both mandate that an unaffiliated member of the public (or several) be "active participants" in the oversight process. Significant debate has taken place in the scientific community on how to assess the risks and benefit of gain-of-function research, how to publish such research responsibly, and how to engage the public in an open and honest review. In January 2020, the National Science Advisory Board for Biosecurity convened an expert panel to revisit the rules for gain-of-function research and provide more clarity in how such experiments are approved, and when they should be disclosed to the public.
Experiments that have been referred to as "gain-of-function"
This section may require cleanup to meet Wikipedia's quality standards. The specific problem is: WP:PROSELINE. (April 2021)
In early 2011, two groups were investigating how flu viruses specific to birds could possibly cross over and create pandemics in humans: one led by Yoshihiro Kawaoka at the University of Wisconsin–Madison in Madison, Wisconsin and another led by Ron Fouchier at Erasmus University Medical Center in the Netherlands. Both groups had both serially passaged H5N1 avian influenza in ferrets, manually taking the virus from one ferret to another, until it was capable of spreading via respiratory droplets. The normally bird-specific virus, through replication over time in the ferrets' lungs, had adopted several amino acid changes that enabled it to replicate in the mammalian lungs, which are notably colder than those found in birds. This small change also allowed the virus to transmit via droplets in the air made when the ferrets' coughed or sneezed.
Proponents of the Kawaoka and Fouchier experiments cited several benefits: these answered the question of how a virus like H5N1 could possibly become airborne in humans, allowed other researchers to develop vaccines and therapeutics which specifically targeted these amino acid changes, and also demonstrated that there was a linkage between transmissibility in avian viruses and lethality: while the virus had become more transmissible, it had also become significantly less deadly. Various critics of the research (including members of Congress) responded to the publications with alarm. Others called the experiments an "engineered doomsday." Questions were raised by other scientists including Marc Lipsitch of the T. H. Chan School of Public Health at Harvard University about the relative risks and benefits of this research.
At an international technical consultation convened by the WHO it was concluded that this work was an important contribution to public health surveillance of H5N1 viruses and to a better understanding of the properties of these viruses, but that broader global discussions were needed. The European Academies of Science Advisory Council (EASAC) concluded that all required laws, rules, regulations, and codes of conduct are in place in several EU countries to continue this type of work responsibly. In the USA, where regulations were previously less strict than in the EU, a new governmental policy and review mechanism was launched for “Potential Pandemic Pathogen Care and Oversight” (P3CO).
In May 2013, a group led by Hualan Chen, director of China's National Avian Influenza Reference Laboratory, published several experiments they had conducted at the BSL3+ laboratory of the Harbin Veterinary Research Institute, investigating what would happen if a 2009 H1N1 circulating in humans infected the same cell as an avian influenza H5N1. Importantly, the experiments had been conducted before a research pause on H5N1 experiments had been agreed upon by the greater virologist community. They used these experiments to determine that certain genes, if reassorted in such a dual-infection scenario in the wild, would allow transmission of the H5N1 virus more easily in mammals (notably guinea pigs as a model organism for rodent species), proving that certain agricultural scenarios carry the risk of allowing H5N1 to cross over into mammals. As in the Fouchier and Kawaoka experiments above, the viruses in this study were also significantly less lethal after the modification.
Critics of the 2013 Chen group study (including Simon Wain-Hobson of the Pasteur Institute and former Royal Society President Robert May) decried this as an unsafe experiment that was unnecessary to prove the intended conclusions, calling Chen's work "appallingly irresponsible" and also raising concerns about the biosafety of the laboratory itself. Others (including the Director of the WHO Collaborating Centre on Influenza in Tokyo, Masato Tashiro) praised Chen's laboratory as "state of the art." Jeremy Farrar, director of the Oxford University Clinical Research Unit in Ho Chi Minh City, described the work as "remarkable" and said that it demonstrated the "very real threat" that "continued circulation of H5N1 strains in Asia and Egypt" poses.
A preprint by Boston University researchers, published on 14 October 2022, described their experiments splicing the SARS-CoV-2 BA.1 Omicron's spike protein into an ancestral SARS-CoV-2 variant isolated in the early days of the pandemic, creating a new chimeric version of the virus. All of the six mice exposed to the ancestral variant died; eight of the ten mice exposed to the chimeric variant died; and none of the ten mice exposed to Omicron died. This suggests that "mutations outside of spike are major determinants of the attenuated pathogenicity of Omicron 209 in K18-hACE2 mice". According to the preprint, the work was supported by grants from various branches of the NIH. (However, the NIH later denied funding the experiments. The researchers later stated the NIH did not fund the experiments directly.) On 17 October, the Daily Mail ran the headline "Boston University CREATES a new COVID strain that has an 80% kill rate — echoing dangerous experiments feared to have started the pandemic". (The headline was later flagged "as part of Facebook's efforts to combat false news and misinformation". PolitiFact noted the "lab leak" theory was unproven, and also stated "citing the 80% figure alone leaves out key context, including that the resulting strain was less fatal than the original, which killed 100% of mice. Experts say this kind of research is not unusual and the experiment was conducted in accordance with accepted safety procedures.") All research funded by the NIH that can make COVID more virulent or transmissible must undergo an extra gain-of-function review. Critics charged that, because the chimera could have combined Omicron's high transmissibility with the ancestral strain's lethality, the experiment should have undergone the extra review. The researchers deny that the research was funded by the NIH, and also deny that the experiment qualified as gain-of-function in the first place.
Gain-of-function research of concern
Significant debate has taken place in the scientific community on how to assess risk-benefit of gain-of-function research, and how to engage the public in deliberations for policymaking. These concerns encompass biosafety, relating to the accidental release of a pathogen into the population, biosecurity relating to the intentional release of a pathogen into the population, and bioethics, the principles of biorisk management and research review procedures.
Gain-of-Function Research: A Symposium
In December 2014, the National Research Council and the Institute of Medicine organized a two-day symposium to discuss the potential risks and benefits of gain-of-function research. The event was attended by scientists from around the world, including George Gao, Gabriel Leung and Michael Selgelid, Baruch Fischhoff, Alta Charo, Harvey Fineberg, Jonathan Moreno, Ralph Cicerone, Margaret Hamburg, Jo Handelsman, Samuel Stanley, Kenneth Berns, Ralph Baric, Robert Lamb, Silja Vöneky, Keiji Fukuda, David Relman, and Marc Lipsitch. Shortly thereafter, the US government granted exceptions to the GoFR moratorium to 7 out of 18 research projects that had been affected.
Gain-of-Function Research: A Second Symposium
On March 10–11, 2016, the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine held its second public symposium to discuss potential U.S. government policies for the oversight of gain-of-function (GOF) research. The symposium was held at the request of the U.S. government to provide a mechanism to engage the life sciences community and the broader public and solicit feedback on optimal approaches to ensure effective federal oversight of GOF research as part of a broader U.S. government deliberative process.
Academic advocacy groups
Cambridge Working Group
The Cambridge Working Group was formed by Harvard epidemiologist Marc Lipsitch with fellow scientists at a meeting held in Cambridge, Massachusetts, following a "trifecta" of biosecurity incidents involving the CDC, including the accidental exposure of viable anthrax to personnel at CDC's Roybal Campus, the discovery of six vials containing viable smallpox from the 1950s, labeled as Variola but in a box with other samples poorly labeled, at the FDA's White Oak campus, and the accidental shipping of H9N2 vials contaminated with H5N1 from the CDC lab to a USDA lab.
On July 14, 2014, the group published a Consensus Statement authored by 18 founding members, including Amir Attaran, Barry Bloom, Arturo Casadevall, Richard H. Ebright, Alison Galvani, Edward Hammond, Thomas Inglesby, Michael Osterholm, David Relman, Richard Roberts, Marcel Salathé and Silja Vöneky. Since its initial publication, over 300 scientists, academics, and physicians have added their signature.
The statement advocates for all work involving potential pandemic pathogens to be halted until a quantitative and objective assessment of the risks has been undertaken. It then argues that alternative approaches that do not involve such risks should be used instead.
The group engaged in public advocacy, influencing the US government's decision in December 2014 to suspend funding of research that would create certain types of novel potential pandemic pathogens.
Scientists for Science
Shortly after the Cambridge Working Group released its position statement, Scientists for Science was formed by 37 signatories taking an alternative position, that "biomedical research on potentially dangerous pathogens can be performed safely and is essential for a comprehensive understanding of microbial disease pathogenesis, prevention and treatment." Since its publication, the SfS statement has received 200+ signatures from working scientists, academics, and biosafety professionals.
One of the group's founding members, University of Pittsburgh virologist W. Paul Duprex, has argued (c. 2014) that the then-recent few events were exceptions to an overall good record of lab safety, and that these exceptions should not have been a reason for shutting down experiments that may have been of tangible benefit to public health. He and other SfS signatories have argued that these pathogens are already subject to extensive regulations and that it would be more advantageous and effective to focus on improving lab safety and oversight, ensuring that experiments are conducted in the public interest.
Notable signatories are Constance Cepko, Dickson Despommier, Erica Ollmann Saphire, Geoffrey Smith, Karla Kirkegaard, Sean Whelan, Vincent Racaniello and Yoshihiro Kawaoka. Columbia University virologist Ian Lipkin, who signed both statements, said "there has to be a coming together of what should be done".
Founders of both groups published a series of letters detailing their discussions and viewpoints. All authors, however, agreed that more education of the public and open discussion of the risks and benefits was necessary. Several also wrote that sensationalized headlines and framings of the ongoing process as a "debate" with "opposing sides" had negatively affected the process, while the reality is much more collegial.
International policies and regulations
International outlook and engagement on gain-of-function research policy and regulation vary by country and region. Due to the potential effect on the global community at large, the ethical acceptability of such experiments depends on the extent to which it is accepted internationally. In 2010, the World Health Organization developed a non-binding guidance document for DURC, summarizing the positions of many different nations as "self-governing" and others as strictly following oversight based on the International Health Regulations, the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention (BTWC), and the Center for International Security Studies' Biological Research Security System. The document also recommended the aforementioned as potential resources for countries to develop their own policies and procedures for DURC.
The European Academies Science Advisory Council has formed a working group to examine the issues raised by gain-of-function research and to make recommendations for the management of such research and its outputs. The possibility for developing common approaches between the United States and Europe has been explored.
In May 2014, the German National Ethics Council presented a report to the Bundestag on proposed guidance for governance of GoFR. The report called for national legislation on DURC. As of May 2021, the German government has not passed the endorsed legislation. The NEC also proposed a national code-of-conduct for researchers to consent, endorsing which experiments qualify as misconduct and which do not, based on founding principles of public benefit. The German Research Foundation and German National Academy of Sciences made a joint suggestion to expand the role of existing research ethics committees to also evaluate proposals of DURC.
Gain-of-function research moratorium
From 2014 to 2017, the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy and the Department of Health and Human Services instituted a gain-of-function research moratorium and funding pause on any dual-use research into specific pandemic-potential pathogens (influenza, MERS, and SARS) while the regulatory environment and review process were reconsidered and overhauled. Under the moratorium, any laboratory who conducted such research would put their future funding (for any project, not just the indicated pathogens) in jeopardy. The NIH has said 18 studies were affected by the moratorium.
The moratorium was a response to laboratory biosecurity incidents that occurred in 2014, including not properly inactivating anthrax samples, the discovery of unlogged smallpox samples, and injecting a chicken with the wrong strain of influenza. These incidents were not related to gain-of-function research. One of the goals of the moratorium was to reduce the handling of dangerous pathogens by all laboratories until safety procedures were evaluated and improved.
Subsequently, symposia and expert panels were convened by the National Science Advisory Board for Biosecurity (NSABB) and National Research Council (NRC). In May 2016, the NSABB published "Recommendations for the Evaluation and Oversight of Proposed Gain-of-Function Research". On 9 January 2017, the HHS published the "Recommended Policy Guidance for Departmental Development of Review Mechanisms for Potential Pandemic Pathogen Care and Oversight" (P3CO). This report sets out how "pandemic potential pathogens" should be regulated, funded, stored, and researched to minimize threats to public health and safety.
On 19 December 2017, the NIH lifted the moratorium because gain-of-function research was deemed "important in helping us identify, understand, and develop strategies and effective countermeasures against rapidly evolving pathogens that pose a threat to public health."
During the COVID-19 pandemic a number of speculative theories emerged about the origin of the SARS-CoV-2 virus and links to gain-of-function research. In January 2021, University of Saskatchewan virologist Angela Rasmussen wrote that one version of the information invoked previous gain-of-function work on coronaviruses to promulgate the idea that the virus was of laboratory origin. Rasmussen stated that this was unlikely, due to the intense scrutiny and government oversight to which GoFR is subject, and it is improbable that research on hard-to-obtain coronaviruses could occur under the radar.
In a congressional hearing on May 11, 2021, about Anthony Fauci's role as the Chief Medical Advisor to the United States Office of the President, senator Rand Paul stated that "the U.S. has been collaborating with Shi Zhengli of the Wuhan Virology Institute, sharing discoveries about how to create super viruses. This gain-of-function research has been funded by the NIH." Fauci responded "with all due respect, you are entirely and completely incorrect...the NIH has not ever and does not now fund gain-of-function research [conducted at] the Wuhan Institute of Virology." The Washington Post fact-checking team later rated Paul's statements as containing "significant omissions and/or exaggerations". NIH funding to the EcoHealth Alliance and later sub-contracted to the Wuhan Institute of Virology was not to support gain-of-function experiments, but instead to enable the collection of bat samples in the wild. EcoHealth Alliance spokesperson Robert Kessler has also categorically denied the accusation.
The Washington Post also quoted Rutgers University biosecurity expert Richard Ebright's dissenting opinion about Fauci's testimony, demonstrating that there is disagreement about what qualifies as "gain of function" research. Ebright asserted that experiments conducted under the EcoHealth grant "met the definition for gain-of-function research of concern under the 2014 Pause." MIT molecular biologist Alina Chan has argued that these experiments would not have been affected by the 2014 moratorium, because the experiments involved "naturally-occurring viruses" adding that the moratorium had "no teeth".
Several scientists have criticized the US government's GoFR regulations as having serious shortcomings (especially with regard to the NIH's funding of the EcoHealth Alliance grant proposal). Ebright has remarked that the process is not applied to all experiments which are implicated in the government's policies, while virologists David Relman and Angela Rasmussen have cited a worrying lack of transparency from oversight panels.
- ^ Osterhaus, A. D.; Rimmelzwaan, G. F.; Martina, B. E.; Bestebroer, T. M.; Fouchier, R. A. (2000-05-12). "Influenza B virus in seals". Science. 288 (5468): 1051–1053. Bibcode:2000Sci...288.1051O. doi:10.1126/science.288.5468.1051. ISSN 0036-8075. PMID 10807575. Retrieved 25 May 2021.
- ^ Gain-of-Function Research: Background and Alternatives. National Academies Press (US). 2015-04-13. Retrieved 25 May 2021.
- ^ a b c Imperiale, Michael J.; Howard, Don; Casadevall, Arturo (28 August 2018). The Silver Lining in Gain-of-Function Experiments with Pathogens of Pandemic Potential. Influenza Virus. Methods in Molecular Biology. Vol. 1836. pp. 575–587. doi:10.1007/978-1-4939-8678-1_28. ISBN 978-1-4939-8677-4. PMC 7120448. PMID 30151593.
- ^ a b Selgelid, Michael J. (2016-07-06). "Gain-of-Function Research: Ethical Analysis". Science and Engineering Ethics. 22 (4): 923–964. doi:10.1007/s11948-016-9810-1. PMC 4996883. PMID 27502512.
- ^ a b c "Recommended Policy Guidance for Departmental Development of Review Mechanisms for Potential Pandemic Pathogen Care and Oversight (P3CO)" (PDF). Department of Health and Human Services. Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response. 9 January 2017.
- ^ Gain of function: experimental applications relating to potentially pandemic pathogens (PDF). Halle (Saale): European Academies Science Advisory Council. October 2015. ISBN 978-3-8047-3481-4. Retrieved 25 May 2021.
- ^ a b The Current Policy Environment. National Academies Press (US). 2017-09-14. Retrieved 26 May 2021.
- ^ "Dual Use Research of Concern (DURC) Committee - NIH Office of Intramural Research". oir.nih.gov. Retrieved 26 May 2021.
- ^ "Gain-of-Function Research". United States Department of Health and Human Services.
- ^ a b Gain of function: experimental applications relating to potentially pandemic pathogens (PDF). European Academies Science Advisory Council. October 2015. ISBN 978-3-8047-3481-4.
- ^ Tools for the Identification, Assessment, Management, and Responsible Communication of Dual Use Research of Concern (PDF). Prepared by the National Institutes of Health on behalf of the United States Government. September 2014. Retrieved 26 May 2021.
- ^ Himmel, Mirko (September 2019). "Emerging Dual-use Technologies in the Life Sciences: Challenges and Policy Recommendations on Export Control SIPRI". www.sipri.org. 64. Retrieved 26 May 2021.
- ^ REPORT FROM THE COMMISSION TO THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND THE COUNCIL on the implementation of Regulation (EC) No 428/2009 setting up a Community regime for the control of exports, transfer, brokering and transit of dual-use items (PDF). Brussels: European Commission. 14 December 2018. Retrieved 26 May 2021.
- ^ Enserink, Martin (2014-05-07). "German Ethics Council: Government Should Regulate Dangerous Research". Science. Retrieved 26 May 2021.
- ^ Competing Responsibilities?: Addressing the Security Risks of Biological Research in Academia (PDF). American Association for the Advancement of Science. 20 January 2010. Retrieved 26 May 2021.
- ^ "United States Government Policy for Institutional Oversight of Life Sciences Dual Use Research of Concern" (PDF). S3: Dual Use Research of Concern. Public Health Emergency office of the United States Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved 26 May 2021.
- ^ Patrone, Daniel; Resnik, David; Chin, Lisa (September 2012). "Biosecurity and the Review and Publication of Dual-Use Research of Concern". Biosecurity and Bioterrorism. 10 (3): 290–298. doi:10.1089/bsp.2012.0011. ISSN 1538-7135. PMC 3440065. PMID 22871221.
- ^ "The Deep Dish on Institutional DURC Policy: Calling All Stakeholders!". Office of Science Policy. Retrieved 26 May 2021.
- ^ Board On Life, Sciences; Division on Earth Life Studies; Committee On Science, Technology; Policy Global, Affairs; Board on Health Sciences Policy; National Research Council; Institute of Medicine (2015). "Potential Benefits of Gain-of-Function Research National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2015. Potential Risks and Benefits of Gain-of-Function Research: Summary of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.". Potential Risks and Benefits of Gain-of-Function Research: Summary of a Workshop. National Research Council and Institute of Medicine. doi:10.17226/21666. ISBN 978-0-309-36783-7. PMID 25719185.
|last4=has generic name (help)
- ^ Schoch-Spana, Monica (April 1, 2015). "Public Engagement and the Governance of Gain-of-Function Research". Health Security. 13 (2): 69–73. doi:10.1089/hs.2015.0005. PMC 4394177. PMID 25813979.
- ^ Zimmer, Carl; Gorman, James (20 June 2021). "Fight Over Covid's Origins Renews Debate on Risks of Lab Work - Talk of 'gain-of-function' research, a muddy category at best, brings up deep questions about how scientists should study viruses and other pathogens". The New York Times. Retrieved 20 June 2021.
- ^ Subbaraman, Nidhi (2020-01-27). "US officials revisit rules for disclosing risky disease experiments". Nature. Nature News. doi:10.1038/d41586-020-00210-5. Retrieved 26 May 2021.
- ^ Kaiser, Jocelyn (24 January 2020). "After criticism, federal officials to revisit policy for reviewing risky virus experiments". Science.
- ^ a b Imai, Masaki; Watanabe, Tokiko; Hatta, Masato; Das, Subash C.; Ozawa, Makoto; Shinya, Kyoko; Zhong, Gongxun; Hanson, Anthony; Katsura, Hiroaki; Watanabe, Shinji; Li, Chengjun; Kawakami, Eiryo; Yamada, Shinya; Kiso, Maki; Suzuki, Yasuo; Maher, Eileen A.; Neumann, Gabriele; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro (2012). "Experimental adaptation of an influenza H5 HA confers respiratory droplet transmission to a reassortant H5 HA/H1N1 virus in ferrets". Nature. 486 (7403): 420–428. Bibcode:2012Natur.486..420I. doi:10.1038/nature10831. PMC 3388103. PMID 22722205.
- ^ a b Schrauwen, Eefje J. A.; Herfst, Sander; Leijten, Lonneke M.; van Run, Peter; Bestebroer, Theo M.; Linster, Martin; Bodewes, Rogier; Kreijtz, Joost H. C. M.; Rimmelzwaan, Guus F.; Osterhaus, Albert D. M. E.; Fouchier, Ron A. M.; Kuiken, Thijs; van Riel, Debby (April 2012). "The multibasic cleavage site in H5N1 virus is critical for systemic spread along the olfactory and hematogenous routes in ferrets". Journal of Virology. 86 (7): 3975–3984. doi:10.1128/JVI.06828-11. ISSN 1098-5514. PMC 3302532. PMID 22278228.
- ^ Connor, R. J.; Kawaoka, Y.; Webster, R. G.; Paulson, J. C. (1994-11-15). "Receptor specificity in human, avian, and equine H2 and H3 influenza virus isolates". Virology. 205 (1): 17–23. doi:10.1006/viro.1994.1615. ISSN 0042-6822. PMID 7975212. Retrieved 29 May 2021.
- ^ Dance, Amber (28 October 2021). "The shifting sands of 'gain-of-function' research". Nature. 598 (7882): 554–557. Bibcode:2021Natur.598..554D. doi:10.1038/d41586-021-02903-x. PMID 34707307. S2CID 240071919.
- ^ Belser, Jessica A.; Tumpey, Terrence M. (2013-12-05). "H5N1 pathogenesis studies in mammalian models". Virus Research. 178 (1): 168–185. doi:10.1016/j.virusres.2013.02.003. ISSN 1872-7492. PMC 5858902. PMID 23458998.
- ^ Holzer, Barbara; Morgan, Sophie B.; Matsuoka, Yumi; Edmans, Matthew; Salguero, Francisco J.; Everett, Helen; Brookes, Sharon M.; Porter, Emily; MacLoughlin, Ronan; Charleston, Bryan; Subbarao, Kanta; Townsend, Alain; Tchilian, Elma (2018-06-15). "Comparison of Heterosubtypic Protection in Ferrets and Pigs Induced by a Single-Cycle Influenza Vaccine". The Journal of Immunology. 200 (12): 4068–4077. doi:10.4049/jimmunol.1800142. ISSN 0022-1767. PMC 5985365. PMID 29703861. Retrieved 29 May 2021.
- ^ Belser, Jessica A.; Katz, Jacqueline M.; Tumpey, Terrence M. (2011-09-01). "The ferret as a model organism to study influenza A virus infection". Disease Models & Mechanisms. 4 (5): 575–579. doi:10.1242/dmm.007823. ISSN 1754-8403. PMC 3180220. PMID 21810904. Retrieved 29 May 2021.
- ^ Resnik, David B. (2013). "H5N1 Avian Flu Research and the Ethics of Knowledgg". The Hastings Center Report. 43 (2): 22–33. doi:10.1002/hast.143. ISSN 0093-0334. PMC 3953619. PMID 23390001.
- ^ Herfst, Sander; Schrauwen, Eefje J. A.; Linster, Martin; Chutinimitkul, Salin; de Wit, Emmie; Munster, Vincent J.; Sorrell, Erin M.; Bestebroer, Theo M.; Burke, David F.; Smith, Derek J.; Rimmelzwaan, Guus F.; Osterhaus, Albert D. M. E.; Fouchier, Ron A. M. (2012-06-22). "Airborne Transmission of Influenza A/H5N1 Virus Between Ferrets". Science. 336 (6088): 1534–1541. Bibcode:2012Sci...336.1534H. doi:10.1126/science.1213362. ISSN 0036-8075. PMC 4810786. PMID 22723413.
- ^ "Opinion An Engineered Doomsday". The New York Times. 2012-01-07.
- ^ Lipsitch, Marc (2018). "Why Do Exceptionally Dangerous Gain-of-Function Experiments in Influenza?". Influenza Virus. Methods in Molecular Biology (Clifton, N.J.). Vol. 1836. pp. 589–608. doi:10.1007/978-1-4939-8678-1_29. ISBN 978-1-4939-8677-4. ISSN 1940-6029. PMC 7119956. PMID 30151594.
- ^ Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Q.; Kong, H.; Jiang, Y.; Gao, Y.; Deng, G.; Shi, J.; Tian, G.; Liu, L.; Liu, J.; Guan, Y.; Bu, Z.; Chen, H. (2013). "H5N1 Hybrid Viruses Bearing 2009/H1N1 Virus Genes Transmit in Guinea Pigs by Respiratory Droplet". Science. 340 (6139): 1459–1463. Bibcode:2013Sci...340.1459Z. doi:10.1126/science.1229455. PMID 23641061. S2CID 206544849.
- ^ a b Yong, Ed (2013). "Scientists create hybrid flu that can go airborne". Nature News. doi:10.1038/nature.2013.12925. Retrieved 29 May 2021.
- ^ a b Fouchter, Ron A. M.; García-Sastre, Adolfo; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro; Barclay, Wendy S.; Bouvier, Nicole M.; Brown, Ian H.; Capua, Ilaria; Chen, Hualan; Compans, Richard W.; Couch, Robert B.; Cox, Nancy J.; Doherty, Peter C.; Donis, Ruben O.; Feldmann, Heinz; Guan, Yi; Katz, Jacqueline M.; Kiselev, Oleg I.; Klenk, H. D.; Kobinger, Gary; Liu, Jinhua; Liu, Xiufan; Lowen, Anice; Mettenletter, Thomas C.; Osterhaus, Albert D. M. E.; Palese, Peter; Petris, J. S. Malik; Perez, Daniel R.; Richt, Jürgen A.; Schultz-Cherry, Stacey; STteel, John; Subbarao, Kanta; Swayne, David E.; Takimoto, Toru; Tashiro, Masato; Taubenberger, Jeffrey K.; Thomas, Paul G.; Tripp, Ralph A.; Tumpey, Terrence M.; Webby, Richard J.; Webster, Robert G (2013-02-01). "Transmission Studies Resume For Avian Flu". Science. 339 (6119): 520–521. Bibcode:2013Sci...339..520F. doi:10.1126/science.1235140. ISSN 0036-8075. PMC 3838856. PMID 23345603.
- ^ a b Hvistendahl, Mara (2013-07-12). "Veterinarian-in-Chief". Science. 341 (6142): 122–125. Bibcode:2013Sci...341..122H. doi:10.1126/science.341.6142.122. ISSN 0036-8075. PMID 23846887. Retrieved 29 May 2021.
- ^ a b Callaway, Ewen; Kozlov, Max (21 October 2022). "Which COVID studies pose a biohazard? Lack of clarity hampers research". Nature. 611 (7934): 17–18. Bibcode:2022Natur.611...17C. doi:10.1038/d41586-022-03344-w. PMID 36271042. S2CID 253063691.
- ^ Chen, Da-Yuan; Kenney, Devin; Chin, Chue Vin; Tavares, Alexander H.; Khan, Nazimuddin; Conway, Hasahn L.; Liu, GuanQun; Choudhary, Manish C.; Gertje, Hans P.; O’Connell, Aoife K.; Kotton, Darrell N.; Herrmann, Alexandra; Ensser, Armin; Connor, John H.; Bosmann, Markus; Li, Jonathan Z.; Gack, Michaela U.; Baker, Susan C.; Kirchdoerfer, Robert N.; Kataria, Yachana; Crossland, Nicholas A.; Douam, Florian; Saeed, Mohsan (14 October 2022). "Role of spike in the pathogenic and antigenic behavior of SARS-CoV-2 BA.1 Omicron". bioRxiv. doi:10.1101/2022.10.13.512134. PMC 9580375. PMID 36263066.
- ^ Washington, District of Columbia 1800 I. Street NW. "PolitiFact - Claim that Boston University created COVID-19 strain with an 80% kill rate omits important details". @politifact. Retrieved 24 October 2022.
- ^ Piper, Kelsey (19 October 2022). "Why do labs keep making dangerous viruses?". Vox. Retrieved 24 October 2022.
- ^ "Gain-of-Function Research: A Symposium". National Academies.
- ^ "Summary Report – Dual Use Research on Microbes: Biosafety, Biosecurity, Responsibility" (PDF). Volkswagen Foundation. 12 December 2014.
- ^ Board On Life, Sciences; Division on Earth Life Studies; Board on Health Sciences Policy; Health Medicine, Division; Committee On Science, Technology; Policy Global, Affairs; National Academies Of Sciences, Engineering (March 2016). Millett, Piers; Husbands, Jo; Sharples, Frances; Thevenon, Audrey (eds.). Gain-of-Function Research: Summary of the Second Symposium (PDF). doi:10.17226/23484. ISBN 9780309440776. PMID 27403489. Retrieved January 29, 2021.
|author3=has generic name (help)
- ^ "CDC Director Releases After-Action Report on Recent Anthrax Incident; Highlights Steps to Improve Laboratory Quality and Safety". CDC. 2016-01-01. Retrieved 29 May 2021.
- ^ "Report on the Potential Exposure to Anthrax" (PDF). CDC. 11 July 2014. Retrieved 29 May 2021.
- ^ Kaiser, Jocelyn (8 July 2014). "Six vials of smallpox discovered in U.S. lab". Science. Retrieved 29 May 2021.
- ^ "Scientists call for limit on creating dangerous pathogens". Science. July 15, 2014.
- ^ a b Husbands, Jo L. (September 2018). "The challenge of framing for efforts to mitigate the risks of "dual use" research in the life sciences". Futures. 102: 104–113. doi:10.1016/j.futures.2018.03.007. ISSN 0016-3287. PMC 7094442. PMID 32226095.
- ^ "The Cambridge Working Group". Cambridgeworkinggroup.org. Retrieved 29 May 2021.
- ^ Burki, Talha (2018-02-01). "Ban on gain-of-function studies ends". The Lancet Infectious Diseases. 18 (2): 148–149. doi:10.1016/S1473-3099(18)30006-9. ISSN 1473-3099. PMC 7128689. PMID 29412966.
- ^ Lipsitch, Marc; Esvelt, Kevin; Inglesby, Thomas (2015-09-08). "Calls for Caution in Genome Engineering Should Be a Model for Similar Dialogue on Pandemic Pathogen Research". Annals of Internal Medicine. 163 (10): 790–791. doi:10.7326/M15-1048. ISSN 0003-4819. PMID 26344802. S2CID 37616990. Retrieved 29 May 2021.
- ^ a b Lipsitch, Marc; Inglesby, Thomas V. (December 12, 2014). "Moratorium on Research Intended To Create Novel Potential Pandemic Pathogens". mBio. 5 (6). doi:10.1128/mBio.02366-14. PMC 4271556. PMID 25505122.
- ^ Edelmann, Achim; Moody, James; Light, Ryan (2017-05-24). "Disparate foundations of scientists' policy positions on contentious biomedical research". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 114 (24): 6262–6267. Bibcode:2017PNAS..114.6262E. doi:10.1073/pnas.1613580114. ISSN 0027-8424. PMC 5474814. PMID 28559310.
- ^ "Scientists for Science". www.scientistsforscience.org. Retrieved 29 May 2021.
- ^ "Biologists Choose Sides In Safety Debate Over Lab-Made Pathogens". NPR. Retrieved 2021-05-07.
There are multiple events that have come together in a rather unusual convergence," says Paul Duprex, a microbiologist at Boston University. He sees the recent reports of lab mistakes as exceptions — they don't mean you should shut down basic science that's essential to protecting public health, he says."These viruses are out there. They cause disease; they have killed many, many people in the past," Duprex says. "We bring them to the laboratory to work with them.
- ^ "Scientists for Science". www.scientistsforscience.org. Retrieved 29 May 2021.
In recognition of this need, significant resources have been invested globally to build and operate BSL-3 and BSL-4 facilities, and to mitigate risk in a variety of ways, involving regulatory requirements, facility engineering, and training. Ensuring that these facilities operate safely and are staffed effectively so that risk is minimized is our most important line of defense, as opposed to limiting the types of experiments that are done.
- ^ a b c Duprex, W. Paul; Fouchier, Ron A. M.; Imperiale, Michael J.; Lipsitch, Marc; Relman, David A. (2015). "Gain-of-function experiments: time for a real debate". Nature Reviews Microbiology (published 2014-12-08). 13 (January 2015): 58–64. doi:10.1038/nrmicro3405. ISSN 1740-1534. PMC 7097416. PMID 25482289.
- ^ "Science Magazine - 05 September 2014 - page20". www.sciencemagazinedigital.org. Retrieved 2021-05-07.
- ^ Selgelid, M. J. (2016). "Gain-of-Function Research: Ethical Analysis". Science and Engineering Ethics. 22 (4): 923–964. doi:10.1007/s11948-016-9810-1. PMC 4996883. PMID 27502512.
- ^ "Dual Use Research of Concern (DURC)". World Health Organization. Archived from the original on October 29, 2013. Retrieved 4 February 2021.
- ^ "WHO | Responsible life sciences research for global health security". World Health Organization. Archived from the original on October 20, 2014.
- ^ The Current Policy Environment. National Academies Press (US). 14 September 2017.
- ^ International Policy. National Academies Press (US). 20 June 2016.
- ^ Lev, Ori (2019-09-01). "Regulating dual-use research: Lessons from Israel and the United States". Journal of Biosafety and Biosecurity. 1 (2): 80–85. doi:10.1016/j.jobb.2019.06.001. ISSN 2588-9338.
- ^ Harris, Elisa D.; Acton, James M.; Lin, Herbert (April 2016). Governance of Dual-Use Technologies: Theory and Practice American Academy of Arts and Sciences. American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Retrieved 29 May 2021.
- ^ "Biosecurity – freedom and responsibility of research" (PDF). German Ethics Council. Retrieved 29 May 2021.
- ^ Salloch, Sabine (2018-06-05). "The dual use of research ethics committees: why professional self-governance falls short in preserving biosecurity". BMC Medical Ethics. 19 (1): 53. doi:10.1186/s12910-018-0295-0. ISSN 1472-6939. PMC 5989368. PMID 29871633.
- ^ "U.S. Government Gain-of-Function Deliberative Process and Research Funding Pause on Selected Gain-of-Function Research Involving Influenza, MERS, and SARS Viruses" (PDF). U.S. Department of Health & Human Services. Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response. 17 October 2014.
- ^ McNeil, Donald G. Jr. (17 October 2014). "White House to Cut Funding for Risky Biological Study". The New York Times.
- ^ Kaiser, Jocelyn; Malakoff, David (17 October 2014). "U.S. halts funding for new risky virus studies, calls for voluntary moratorium". Science. 346 (6208): 404. doi:10.1126/science.346.6208.404. PMID 25342775. Retrieved 28 July 2016.
- ^ Imperiale, Michael J.; Casadevall, Arturo (2016). "Zika Virus Focuses the Gain-of-Function Debate". mSphere. 1 (2). doi:10.1128/mSphere.00069-16. PMC 4894681. PMID 27303723.
- ^ Kaiser, Jocelyn (19 December 2017). "NIH lifts 3-year ban on funding risky virus studies". Science. doi:10.1126/science.aar8074. Retrieved 31 May 2021.
- ^ Sun, Lena H. (2014-06-19). "CDC says about 75 scientists may have been exposed to anthrax". The Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved 2021-07-19.
- ^ Kaiser, Jocelyn (2014-07-08). "Six vials of smallpox discovered in U.S. lab". Science | AAAS. Retrieved 2021-07-19.
- ^ Kaiser, Jocelyn (2014-08-15). "CDC explains mix-up with deadly H5N1 avian flu". Science | AAAS. Retrieved 2021-07-19.
- ^ Akst, Jef (21 October 2014). "Moratorium on Gain-of-Function Research". The Scientist.
- ^ "RECOMMENDATIONS FOR THE EVALUATION AND OVERSIGHT OF PROPOSED GAIN-OF-FUNCTION RESEARCH" (PDF). United States Department of Health and Human Services. National Science Advisory Board for Biosecurity. May 2016. Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 January 2017.
- ^ Collins, Francis S. (19 December 2017). "NIH Lifts Funding Pause on Gain-of-Function Research". Director, National Institutes of Health.
- ^ Frutos, Roger; Gavotte, Laurent; Devaux, Christian A. (March 2021). "Understanding the origin of COVID-19 requires to change the paradigm on zoonotic emergence from the spillover to the circulation model". Infection, Genetics and Evolution. 95: 104812. doi:10.1016/j.meegid.2021.104812. PMC 7969828. PMID 33744401.
- ^ Van Beusekom, Mary (12 May 2020). "Scientists: 'Exactly zero' evidence COVID-19 came from a lab". CIDRAP. Retrieved 10 June 2021.
- ^ Hakim, Mohamad S. (2021-02-14). "SARS‐CoV‐2, Covid‐19, and the debunking of conspiracy theories". Reviews in Medical Virology. 31 (6): e2222. doi:10.1002/rmv.2222. ISSN 1052-9276. PMC 7995093. PMID 33586302.
Believers in conspiracy theories promote misinformation that the virus is not contagious, is the result of laboratory manipulation or is created to gain profit by distributing new vaccines...The believers of conspiracy will continuously search for 'scientific evidence' to defend their claims that SARS‐CoV‐2 is a human‐made virus, such as the case with an HIV‐1 bioRxiv paper that has been retracted.
- ^ Evans, Nicholas G. (26 August 2020). "Human Infection Challenge Studies: a Test for the Social Value Criterion of Research Ethics". mSphere. 5 (4): e00669-20. doi:10.1128/mSphere.00669-20. PMC 7364225. PMID 32669462.
- ^ Rasmussen A (2021). "On the origins of SARS-CoV-2". Nature Medicine. 27 (9): 9. doi:10.1038/s41591-020-01205-5. PMID 33442004. S2CID 231606580.
- ^ a b c d e "Analysis - Fact-checking the Paul-Fauci flap over Wuhan lab funding". The Washington Post. Retrieved 13 July 2021.
- ^ Kessler, Glenn. "About The Fact Checker". The Washington Post. Retrieved 13 July 2021.
- ^ Basu, Zachary. "Fauci and Rand Paul clash over NIH funding for Wuhan Institute of Virology". Axios. Retrieved 13 July 2021.
- ^ Robertson, Lori (21 May 2021). "The Wuhan Lab and the Gain-of-Function Disagreement". FactCheck.org. Retrieved 14 July 2021.
- ^ Zimmer, Carl; Gorman, James (20 June 2021). "Fight Over Covid's Origins Renews Debate on Risks of Lab Work". The New York Times. Retrieved 14 July 2021.
- European Academies' Science Advisory Council: Gain of function: experimental applications relating to potentially pandemic pathogens (Report)