Frederick II, Elector of Saxony

Frederick II, The Gentle (Friedrich, der Sanftmütige; Frederick the Gentle; 22 August 1412 – 7 September 1464) was Elector of Saxony (1428–1464) and was Landgrave of Thuringia (1440–1445).

Frederick II
Elector of Saxony
Reign4 January 1428 – 7 September 1464
PredecessorFrederick I
Landgrave of Thuringia
Reign7 May 1440 - 1445
PredecessorFrederick IV
SuccessorWilliam II
Margrave of Meissen and Duke of Saxony
Reign4 January 1428 – 7 September 1464
PredecessorFrederick IV/I
SuccessorAlbert IV/III
Born22 August 1412
Leipzig, Electorate of Saxony, Holy Roman Empire
Died7 September 1464(1464-09-07) (aged 52)
Leipzig, Electorate of Saxony, Holy Roman Empire
(m. 1431)
among others...
Amalia, Duchess of Bavaria
Anna, Electress of Brandenburg
Ernest, Elector of Saxony
Albert, Duke of Saxony
Hedwig, Abbess of Quedlinburg
HouseHouse of Wettin
FatherFrederick I, Elector of Saxony
MotherCatherine of Brunswick and Lunenburg

Biography edit

Frederick was born in Leipzig, the eldest of the seven children of Frederick I, Elector of Saxony, and Catherine of Brunswick and Lunenburg.

After the death of his father in 1428 he took over the government together with his younger brothers William III, Henry and Sigismund.[1] In 1433 the Wettins finally concluded peace with the Hussites and in 1438 Frederick led Saxon forces to victory in the Battle of Sellnitz. That same year it was considered the first federal state parliament of Saxony. The parliament received the right to find together in case of innovations in fiscal matters also without summoning by the ruler.

Also in 1438 it was decided that Frederick, and not his rival Bernard IV, duke of Saxe-Lauenburg, was entitled to exercise the Saxon electoral vote at the elections for the German throne. The elector then aided Albert II to secure this dignity, performing a similar service for his own brother-in-law, Frederick two years later.[1]

Ernest, Elector of Saxony (1464–1486), Frederick II, Elector of Saxony (1428–1464) and Albert III, Duke of Saxony (1486–1500); Fürstenzug, Dresden, Germany

After Henry's death in 1435, and Sigismund was forced to renounce and became a bishop (in 1440), Frederick and William divided their possessions. In the Division of Altenburg in 1445, William III received the Thuringian and Frankish part, and Frederick got the Eastern part of the principality. The mines remained common possessions. Disputes over the distribution led however in 1446 to the Saxon Brother War, which found an end only on 27 January 1451 with the peace of Naumburg.[2] In the Treaty of Eger in (1459), elector Frederick, Duke William III and the king of Bohemia George of Podebrady fixed the borders between Bohemia and Saxony, at the height of the Ore Mountains (German: Erzgebirge) and the middle of the Elbe which still holds today. It belongs therefore to the oldest still existing borders of Europe.

Frederick II of Saxony

After the death of Frederick, in Leipzig, both of his sons, Ernest and Albert, first took over the government together. After Duke William III died in 1482, Thuringia returned to Frederick's line.

Family and issue edit

In Leipzig, Electoral Saxony on 3 June 1431 Frederick married Margaret of Austria, the daughter of Ernest of Austria and Cymburgis of Masovia.[3] They had eight children:

  1. Amalia (b. Meissen, 4 August 1436 – d. Rochlitz, 19 October 1501), married on 21 March 1452 to Louis IX, Duke of Bavaria.
  2. Anna (b. Meissen, 7 March 1437 – d. Neustadt am Aisch, 31 October 1512), married on 12 November 1458 to Albert III Achilles, Elector of Brandenburg[3]
  3. Frederick (b. Meissen, 28 August 1439 – d. Meissen, 23 December 1451).
  4. Ernest, Elector of Saxony (b. Meissen, 24 March 1441 – d. Colditz, 26 August 1486).
  5. Albert, Duke of Saxony (b. Grimma, 31 July 1443 – d. Emden, 12 September 1500).
  6. Margaret (b. Meissen?, 1444 – d. Seusslitz?, ca. 19 November 1498), Abbess of Seusslitz.
  7. Hedwig (b. Meissen?, 31 October 1445 – d. Quedlinburg, 13 June 1511), Abbess of Quedlinburg (1458).
  8. Alexander (b. Meissen, 24 June 1447 – d. Meissen, 14 September 1447).

July 1455 saw the Prinzenraub, the attempt of a knight named Kunz von Kaufungen to abduct Frederick's sons Ernest and Albert. Having carried them off from Altenburg, Kunz was making his way to Bohemia when the plot was accidentally discovered and the princes restored.[1]

Ancestry edit

References edit

  1. ^ a b c   One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Frederick II., Elector of Saxony". Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 11 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 60.
  2. ^ Chisholm 1911.
  3. ^ a b Hohkamp 2007, p. 99.

Sources edit

  • Hohkamp, Michaela (2007). "Sisters, Aunts, and Cousins: Familial Architectures and the Political Field in Early Modern Europe". In Sabean, David Warren; Teuscher, Simon; Mathieu, Jon (eds.). Kinship in Europe: Approaches to Long-Term Development (1300-1900). Berghahn books. pp. 91–104.
  • (in German) Article in the ADB[permanent dead link]
  • (in German) Die Wettiner
Frederick II, Elector of Saxony
Born: 22 August 1412 Died: 7 September 1464
Regnal titles
Preceded by Elector of Saxony
Succeeded by
Duke of Saxony and
Margrave of Meissen

Succeeded by
Preceded by Landgrave of Thuringia
Succeeded by