Fort Myers, Florida
Fort Myers or Ft. Myers, is the county seat and commercial center of Lee County, Florida, United States. It has grown rapidly in recent years. As of the 2010 census, the city population was 62,298 and in 2017 was estimated at 79,943.
Fort Myers, Florida
Sidney and Berne Davis Art Museum in downtown Fort Myers
"City of Palms"
Location in Lee County, Florida
U.S. Census Bureau map showing city limits
|Coordinates: Coordinates: |
|Founded||March 24, 1886|
|• Mayor||Randy Henderson, Jr.|
|• Total||48.97 sq mi (126.84 km2)|
|• Land||39.78 sq mi (103.02 km2)|
|• Water||9.20 sq mi (23.82 km2)|
|Elevation||10 ft (3 m)|
| • Estimate |
|• Density||1,939.46/sq mi (748.84/km2)|
|Time zone||UTC-5 (Eastern (EST))|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC-4 (EDT)|
|GNIS feature ID||0282700|
Fort Myers is a gateway to the Southwest Florida region and a major tourist destination within Florida. The winter estates of Thomas Edison ("Seminole Lodge") and Henry Ford ("The Mangoes") are major attractions. The city is named after Colonel Abraham Myers.
Spain originally had colonial influence in Florida, succeeded by Great Britain and, lastly, the United States.
During the Second Seminole War, between 1835 and 1842, the US Army operated Fort Dulany at Punta Rassa, at the mouth of the Caloosahatchee River. When a hurricane destroyed Fort Dulany in October 1841, army operations were moved up the Caloosahatchee River to a site named Fort Harvie. Fort Harvie was abandoned in 1842, as the Second Seminole War wound down. After a white trader was killed by Seminoles on the Peace River in 1849, the Army returned to the Caloosahatchee River in 1850. The new Fort Myers was built on the burned ruins of Fort Harvie. The fort was named for Brevet Colonel Abraham Charles Myers, quartermaster for the Army's Department of Florida. It covered about 139 acres (56 ha), and soon had 57 buildings, including a two-story blockhouse that was pictured in Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper, and a 1,000-foot-long (300 m) wharf at which ships could dock. Irvin Solomon notes that Fort Myers was described "as 'one of the finest and largest' forts of the Seminole Wars". It was abandoned in 1858, at the end of the Third Seminole War.
The United States Army set up a camp on Useppa Island, near the entrance to Charlotte Harbor, in December 1863. It was intended as a place from which to recruit Union sympathizers and Confederate deserters and conscription-evaders, and to raid into the interior and interfere with Confederate efforts to round-up cattle for supply to the Confederate Army. After some probes along the Peace and Myakka rivers, which had mixed results, operations were moved to the mainland. Troops from the 47th Pennsylvania Infantry Regiment and the 2nd Regiment of Florida Rangers (later reorganized as the 2nd Florida Cavalry Regiment (Union)) left Key West for Fort Myers early in January 1864. The Union soldiers reached Fort Myers quickly enough to capture three Confederate sympathizers before they could act on orders to burn the fort to keep it out of Union hands. Beyond the principal reason for occupying the fort of providing support for Union sympathizers and local residents disaffected with Confederate taxation and conscription, the fort provided access to the large cattle herds in southern Florida, support for the blockade of the southwest Florida coast being conducted by the U.S. Navy, and a haven for any escaped slaves in the area.
In April 1864, after the troops from the 47th Pennsylvania Infantry Regiment had been transferred to Louisiana, Companies D and I of the 2nd United States Colored Infantry Regiment were transferred from Key West to Fort Myers, and remained at the fort until it was abandoned. Company G of the regiment had also been sent to Fort Myers by early May.  Solomon argues that Brevet Brigadier General Daniel Phineas Woodbury, commandant of the District of Key West and the Tortugas, intended that action to be an irritant to the Confederacy. The presence of the black soldiers, who made up the majority of troops used in raids into Confederate territory, played on Confederate fears of armed blacks. It was reported that Woodbury took pleasure in placing a "prickly pear cactus under the Confederate saddle".
By the Spring of 1864, Fort Myers was protected by a 500-foot-long (150 m) breastwork, 7 feet (2.1 m) high and 15 feet (4.6 m) wide, extending in an arc around the land side of the fort. The Seminole War-era blockhouse had been repaired and another two-story blockhouse built. The fort was soon harboring more than 400 civilians and Confederate army deserters. Many of the white men enlisted in the 2nd Florida Union Cavalry. Although designated as cavalry, the members of the regiment stationed at Fort Myers were never mounted. Escaped slaves that came to the fort were recruited into the 2nd United States Colored Infantry Regiment.
The Union achieved control of the full length of the Mississippi River after the fall of Vicksburg in July 1863. The Confederate Army then became dependent on Florida for most of its supply of beef. By the end of 1863 between 1,000 and 2,000 head of cattle were being shipped to the Confederate Army from Florida every week. As 1864 progressed, Union troops and sympathizers began driving cattle to Punta Rassa to supply Union ships on blockade duty and Union-held Key West, reducing the supply of cattle available to Confederate forces. The increased shipping from Punta Rassa led the Union Army to built a barracks and a wharf there. By one Confederate estimate, the Union shipped 4,500 head of cattle from Punta Rassa.
The Battle of Fort Myers was fought on February 20, 1865, in Lee County, Florida during the last months of the American Civil War. This small engagement is known as the "southernmost land battle of the Civil War." (However, see Battle of Palmito Ranch.)
Settlement and FoundingEdit
The Fort Myers community was founded after the American Civil War by Captain Manuel A. Gonzalez on February 21, 1866. Captain Gonzalez was familiar with the area as a result of his years of service delivering mail and supplies to the Union Army at the Fort during the Seminole Indian Wars and Civil War. When the U.S. Government abandoned the fort following the Civil War, Gonzalez sailed from Key West, Florida to found the community. Three weeks later, Joseph Vivas and his wife, Christianna Stirrup Vivas, arrived with Gonzalez's wife, Evalina, and daughter Mary.
Gonzalez settled his family near the abandoned Fort Myers, where he began the area's first trading post. Gonzalez traded tobacco, beads, and gunpowder, and sold otter, bobcat, and gator hide, to the neighboring Seminole. A small community began to form around the trading post.
In the late 19th century, northerners began to travel to Florida in the winter. Some saw development opportunities. In 1881, the wealthy industrialist Hamilton Disston of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania came to the Caloosahatchee Valley. He planned to dredge and drain the Everglades for development. Diston connected Lake Okeechobee with the Caloosahatchee River; this allowed steamboats to run from the Gulf of Mexico to Lake Okeechobee and up the Kissimmee River.
On August 12, 1885, the small town of Fort Myers—all 349 residents—was incorporated. By that time, it was the second-largest town on Florida's Gulf Coast south of Cedar Key.
In 1885, inventor Thomas Alva Edison was cruising Florida's west coast and stopped to visit Fort Myers. He soon bought 13 acres along the Caloosahatchee River in town. There he built his home "Seminole Lodge", as a winter retreat. It included a laboratory for his continuing work. After the Lodge was completed in 1886, Edison and his wife, Mina, spent many winters in Fort Myers. Edison also enjoyed local recreational fishing, for which Fort Myers had gained a national reputation.
In 1898, the Royal Palm Hotel was constructed. This luxury hotel attracted many tourists and established Fort Myers nationally as a winter resort destination.
On May 10, 1904, access to the Fort Myers area was greatly improved with the opening of the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad, connecting Punta Gorda to Fort Myers. This route provided Lee County both passenger and freight railroad service.
In 1908, the Arcade Theater was constructed in downtown Fort Myers. It served originally as a vaudeville house. Thomas Edison viewed films here for the first time with friends Henry Ford and Harvey Firestone. With the growth of the film industry, the Arcade Theatre was converted into a full movie house. A wall divided the stage in order to form two screening rooms. Changes in moviegoing habits since the late 20th century have led to the renovation of the theater for use again in live performance. It is now host to the Florida Repertory Theatre, a performing arts hall.
During the period of 1914-1918 (World War I), Edison became concerned about America's reliance on foreign supplies of rubber. He partnered with tire producer Harvey Firestone, of the Firestone Tire and Rubber Company, and Henry Ford, of the Ford Motor Company, to try to find a rubber tree or plant that could grow quickly in the United States. He sought one that would contain enough latex to support his research endeavor. In 1927, the three men contributed $25,000 each, and created the Edison Botanic Research Corporation in an attempt to find a solution to this problem.
In 1928, the Edison Botanic Research Corporation laboratory was constructed. It was in Fort Myers that Edison conducted the majority of his research and planted exotic plants and trees. He sent results and sample rubber residues to West Orange, New Jersey, for further work at his large Thomas A. Edison "Invention Factory" (now preserved in the Thomas Edison National Historical Park). Through Edison's efforts, the royal palms lining Riverside Avenue (now McGregor Boulevard) were imported and planted. They inspired Fort Myers' nickname as "City of Palms".
After testing 17,000 plant samples, Edison eventually discovered a source in the plant Goldenrod (Solidago leavenworthii). The rubber project was transferred to the United States Department of Agriculture five years later.
In 1916, automobile magnate Henry Ford purchased the home next door to Edison's from Robert Smith of New York. Ford named his estate "the Mangoes". Ford's craftsman-style "bungalow" was built in 1911 by Smith. Ford, Harvey Firestone and Edison, were the three top leaders in American industry. They were part of an exclusive group titled "the Millionaires' Club". The three men have been memorialized in statues in downtown Fort Myers' Centennial Park.
On Sunday, May 25, 1924 two black teenagers, R.J. Johnson, 14, and Milton Wilson, 15, were spotted by a passerby swimming with two white girls on the outskirts of Fort Myers, then a segregated city. The two boys and girls lived near each other, were long familiar and played with each other as children. The swimming was reported as a rape by someone, although one of the girls and her brother denied any rape.
Just before sunset the rape report resulted in white residents on foot, horseback and in cars gathering at a white girl’s residence. From there they began invading black homes and yards in a search for Johnson and Wilson. A black church service was cancelled.
During the evening, chaos spread through the city as the search continued. A gas truck drove into the segregated black community with the intention of burning it down if the boys weren’t found.
R.J. Johnson was arrested but the mob broke him out of jail, overpowering the sheriff. He was taken to a tree along Edison Avenue, hanged and shot. Around 4:45 am on May 26, Wilson was found hiding in a railroad box car. He was taken from the box car, hanged, castrated and shot multiple times. His body was then dragged down Cranford Avenue by a Model T.
On Monday the afternoon edition of the Fort Myers News-Press was headlined “Negroes Pay Penalty for Horrible Crime Committed Yesterday.”
On the same day a jury convened and absolved the sheriff.
Bridge and boom
In 1924, with the beginning of construction of the Edison Bridge, named for Thomas Edison, the city's population steadily grew. The bridge was opened on February 11, 1931, the 84th birthday of its namesake. Edison dedicated the bridge, and was the first to drive across it. Thomas Edison died in 1931.
In the decade following the bridge's construction, the city had a real estate boom. Several new residential subdivisions were built beyond Downtown, including Dean Park, Edison Park, and Seminole Park  Edison Park, located across McGregor Boulevard from the Edison and Ford properties, includes a number of Fort Myers' most stately homes. The historic development showcases a variety of architectural styles. In the 21st century, it is known for its community activities and strong neighborhood ties.
In 1947, Mina Edison deeded Seminole Lodge to the City of Fort Myers, in memory of her late husband and for the enjoyment of the public. By 1988, the adjacent Henry Ford winter estate was purchased by the city and opened for public tours in 1990. The combined properties today are known as the Edison and Ford Winter Estates.
Geography and climateEdit
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 40.4 square miles (105 km2), of which 31.8 square miles (82 km2) is land and 8.6 square miles (22 km2) (21.25%) is water.
The temperature rarely rises to 100 °F (38 °C) or lowers to the freezing mark. Rainfall averages just over 56 inches per year, strongly concentrated during the rainy season (June to September) with its frequent showers and thunderstorms; on average, these four months deliver 68 percent of annual rainfall. From October to May, average monthly rainfall is less than three inches. In years with drier than average conditions from winter into mid-spring, drought can develop, and brush fires can be a significant threat. Reflecting the June to September wet season, Fort Myers has 89 days annually in which a thunderstorm is close enough for thunder to be heard, the most in the nation.
The monthly daily average temperature ranges from 64.2 °F (17.9 °C) in January to 83.4 °F (28.6 °C) in August, with the annual mean being 75.1 °F (23.9 °C).
|Climate data for Fort Myers, Florida (Page Field), 1981–2010 normals|
|Record high °F (°C)||90
|Average high °F (°C)||75
|Daily mean °F (°C)||64.2
|Average low °F (°C)||54
|Record low °F (°C)||27
|Average rainfall inches (mm)||1.89
|Average rainy days (≥ 0.01 in)||5.5||5.2||6.2||4.2||6.8||16.0||17.6||17.9||15.4||6.8||4.4||4.5||110.5|
|Source: NOAA (extremes 1892–present)|
|Fort Myers Demographics|
|2010 Census||Fort Myers||Lee County||Florida|
|Population, percent change, 2000 to 2010||+29.2%||+40.3%||+17.6%|
|Population density||1,559.1/sq mi||788.7/sq mi||350.6/sq mi|
|(Non-Hispanic White or Caucasian)||54.6%||53.9%||57.9%|
|Black or African-American||32.3%||18.3%||16.0%|
|Hispanic or Latino (of any race)||20.0%||20.4%||22.5%|
|Native American or Native Alaskan||0.6%||0.4%||0.4%|
|Pacific Islander or Native Hawaiian||0.1%||0.1%||0.1%|
|Two or more races (Multiracial)||2.8%||2.1%||2.5%|
The population of Lee County, Florida and the Cape Coral-Fort Myers Metropolitan Statistical Area has grown 40.3 percent since the census in 2000, much faster than the average growth rate of 17.6 percent experienced throughout the State of Florida.
Fort Myers is governed by a six-member city council where each member is elected from a single member ward. The city practices a council–manager form of government where the city council is responsible for the legislative functions of the municipality. The city council is responsible for establishing policy, passing local ordinances, voting appropriations, and developing an overall vision for the city.
The mayor is elected in a citywide vote. The current mayor of Fort Myers is Randy Henderson, Jr.
Policing of Fort Myers is performed by the Fort Myers Police Department.
See: Lee County School District for other public schools in the area.
- Secondary schools in the city include:
- Dunbar High School whose Science Olympiad teams won 15th place overall in the 2007 Florida State Science Olympiad, including a win in the remote sensing category.
- Fort Myers Senior High School, an International Baccalaureate school, is ranked as one of the best public schools in the nation by Newsweek magazine.
- Bishop Verot High School, a private, Roman Catholic high school in Fort Myers, operated by the Diocese of Venice, Florida.
Institutions of higher learning in the city include:
- Hodges University
- Keiser University
- Nova Southeastern University
- Rasmussen College
- Southern Technical College
- Fort Myers Technical College
See: Lee County Library System for other libraries in the county. Library Services include:
- Fort Myers Regional Library: The Fort Myers Regional Library is the hub for the Lee County Library System, holding the main collections of legal, business, news, and financial information. The Library is located in Downtown Fort Myers at 2450 Main Street and is home to Cornog Plaza.
- Dunbar-Jupiter Hammon Public Library: The library officially opened on October 7, 1974. The founders named the library Jupiter Hammon Public Library in honor of the first African poet to have his work published. Dunbar, the community's name, was added at the request of its residents. The library was moved in 1996 to its current location at 3095 Blount Street. It is home to the largest African-American book collection in Southwest Florida.
Points of interestEdit
- The Calusa Nature Center and Planetarium is a private, not-for-profit, environmental education organization. Set on a 105-acre (0.42 km2) site, it has a museum, three nature trails, a planetarium, butterfly and bird aviaries, a gift shop and meeting and picnic areas.
- City of Palms Park, former home of the Boston Red Sox spring training program, close to downtown Fort Myers.
- Edison and Ford Winter Estates
- Edison Mall
- Historic Downtown, waterfront entertainment district
- Murphy-Burroughs House
- Imaginarium Science Center
- Southwest Florida Museum of History
The Fort Myers Metropolitan Area is served by two separate airports in and around the city limits.
- The area is primarily served by Southwest Florida International Airport (RSW), located southeast of the city. The airport, which sits on 13,555 acres of land is the 45th busiest airport (by annual passengers). In 2017 the airport served 8,842,549 people. It has been ranked as one of the top ten under ten million in the United States.
- The Fort Myers area is secondarily served by Page Field, which is a small airport whose primary traffic consist of smaller aircraft.
Fort Myers in popular cultureEdit
- The abandoned city scene with the Edison Theatre, from the movie Day of the Dead (1985) was filmed in downtown Fort Myers.
- Some courthouse and other "city" scenes in Just Cause (1995) were filmed in downtown Ft. Myers.
- Part of the independent film Trans (1999) was filmed in Fort Myers, Florida.
- Dan Vogelbach - MLB player
- Nate Allen - safety for Miami Dolphins
- Haley Bennett - actress
- Jason Bartlett - Tampa Bay Rays shortstop
- Bob Beamon - track and field athlete, gold medalist in 1968 Summer Olympics long jump, world record holder 1968 to 1991
- Bert Blyleven – Hall of Fame pitcher for Minnesota Twins, Texas Rangers, Pittsburgh Pirates, Cleveland Indians and California Angels
- James Carlos Blake - author and former faculty member of Edison Community College
- Phillip Buchanon – cornerback for the Washington Redskins, Tampa Bay Buccaneers, Houston Texans, Oakland Raiders
- Stacy Carter – former WWE wrestler
- Terrence Cody – nose tackle for Baltimore Ravens
- Casey Coleman - former pitcher for Chicago Cubs 
- Bill Davey – professional bodybuilder
- Noel Devine – running back for CFL's Montreal Alouettes
- Richard Fain - former NFL player
- Earnest Graham – NFL running back, Tampa Bay Buccaneers
- Mike Greenwell – former Boston Red Sox left fielder and NASCAR driver
- Mario Henderson – offensive tackle, Oakland Raiders
- Nolan Henke – professional golfer
- Anthony Henry – cornerback, Detroit Lions, Dallas Cowboys, Cleveland Browns
- Adam Johnson - former pitcher for Minnesota Twins
- Tarah Kayne - figure skater, 2016 national champion
- Jevon Kearse – defensive end, Philadelphia Eagles, Tennessee Titans
- Terri Kimball – Playboy Playmate of the Month for May 1964
- Derek Lamely - professional golfer
- Craig Leon – music and visual producer of the Ramones, Blondie, Luciano Pavarotti, Joshua Bell
- George McNeill - professional golfer
- Peter Mellor - English-born American footballer and coach
- Terry-Jo Myers - professional golfer, winner of three LPGA Tour tournaments
- Seth Petruzelli – professional MMA fighter
- Plies (Algernod Lanier Washington) – rapper
- Lennie Rosenbluth (born 1933) - college and NBA basketball player
- Deion Sanders – Hall of Fame NFL cornerback for six teams, inducted to Pro Football Hall of Fame as a Dallas Cowboy, and Major League Baseball outfielder for five teams
- Peggy Schoolcraft – professional bodybuilder, 1997 NPC Team Universe Champion
- Chad Senior - two-time Olympian (Sydney Australia, 2000 - Athens Greece, 2004), competed in pentathlon
- Vonzell Solomon – American Idol third-place finisher
- Greg Spires- former NFL player
- Elissa Steamer – professional skateboarder
- Sammy Watkins - wide receiver for Buffalo Bills, Los Angeles Rams
- Tommy Watkins – former Minnesota Twins baseball player
- Jeremy Ware - cornerback for Oakland Raiders
- Walt Wesley – professional basketball player (1966–1976) for Cincinnati Royals and six other NBA teams
- Cliff Williams – bass player for AC/DC
- Julio Zuleta – former first baseman for Chicago Cubs
- Verna Aardema - children's book author
- G. Harold Alexander - Florida Republican Party state chairman, c. 1952-1964
- Patty Berg – Hall of Fame golfer, one of LPGA's founders
- Gerard Damiano – adult film director
- Thomas Edison – improved and perfected the incandescent light bulb and audio recording methods, had a winter estate next to Henry Ford's
- Harvey Firestone – founded Firestone Tire Company, had a winter estate near Edison and Ford's homes
- Henry Ford – founded the Ford Motor Company, and father of the assembly line, had a winter estate next to Thomas Edison's
- Charles Ghigna – poet and children's author known as "Father Goose;" boyhood home 1950-1973
- Sara Hildebrand – United States Olympic diver (2000, 2004)
- Andrew Jacobson (born 1985) - Major League Soccer player
- Jerry Lawler – WWE wrestler and announcer
- Denise Masino – professional bodybuilder
- Mindy McCready – country music artist
- Diamond Dallas Page – former WCW and WWE wrestler, actor
- Kimberly Page – former member of the WCW Nitro Girls and Playboy model
- Marius Russo - professional baseball player
- Walt Wesley - professional basketball player
Fort Myers has a twinning agreement with:
- Santiago de los Caballeros (Dominican Republic)
- "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. 2011-02-12. Retrieved 2011-04-23.
- "2016 U.S. Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved Jul 7, 2017.
- "US Board on Geographic Names". United States Geological Survey. 2007-10-25. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
- "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2018-09-11.
- "Population and Housing Unit Estimates". Retrieved April 3, 2019.
- "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Archived from the original on 2011-05-31. Retrieved 2011-06-07.
- "Population and Housing Unit Estimates". Retrieved June 9, 2017.
- "Southwest Florida Visitor Center". Swflvisitor.com. Retrieved 17 November 2017.
- "The History of Downtown Fort Myers". Downtown Fort Myers. Archived from the original on 25 December 2010. Retrieved 26 December 2010.
- Gannett, Henry (1905). The Origin of Certain Place Names in the United States. Govt. Print. Off. p. 129.
- McCarthy, Kevin M. (2014-12-01). Caloosahatchee River Guidebook. Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 9781561646531.
- Dibble, Ernest F. (Fall 1999). "Giveaway Forts: Territorial Forts and the Settlement of Florida". The Florida Historical Quarterly. 78 (2): 207–233. JSTOR 30149384.
- Sustar, Pamela (2008). Historic Lee County: The Story of Fort Myers & Southwest Florida. San Antonio, Texas: Historical Publishing Network. pp. 9–10. ISBN 9781893619876. Retrieved 15 January 2019.
- Solomon 1993, pp. 129–32.
- "Fort Myers Florida History". Fortmyers-online.com. Retrieved 17 November 2017.
- Dillon 1984, pp. 317–19, 324–25.
- Solomon 1993, pp. 133, 134, 136.
- Solomon 1993, pp. 133–34.
- Buker 1993, p. 139.
- Solomon 1993, pp. 133–34, 143.
- Solomon 1993, pp. 136–37, 160.
- Solomon 1993, pp. 140–141.
- Dillon 1984, p. 329.
- Buker 1993, p. 160.
- "Founder's kin converge at City of Palms". News-press.com. Retrieved 17 November 2017.
- "Exclusive: History Uncovered along Fort Myers Riverfront". News-Press. 5 June 2012. Archived from the original on 2013-06-30. Retrieved 2013-04-17.
- "Influential Local Capt. Manuel Gonzalez /Archived copy". 29 July 2009. Archived from the original on 2013-06-29. Retrieved 2013-04-17.
- "The History of Fort Myers - Greater Fort Myers Chamber of Commerce". Fortmyers.org. Retrieved 17 November 2017.
- "History of Ft Myers". Myriverdistrict.com. Retrieved 17 November 2017.
- Technology, Florida Center for Instructional. "Royal Palm Hotel in Fort Myers". Fcit.usf.edu. Retrieved 17 November 2017.
- Turner, Gregg M., A Journey Into Florida Railroad History, University Press of Florida, Library of Congress #2007050375, ISBN 978-0-8130-3233-7, p. 156
- "Arcade Theater in Fort Myers, FL - Cinema Treasures". cinematreasures.org. Retrieved 17 November 2017.
- Zeitlin, Janine (May 21, 2014). "Lynching history spurs call for closure, 90 years later". Fort Myers News-Press (May 21, 2014). Gannett Co. Retrieved 6 May 2019.
- McGregor history, Fort Myers Online
- "NowData - NOAA Online Weather Data". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 2012-02-13.
- "Weather Variety - Annual Days With Thunderstorms". Weatherpages.com. Archived from the original on 2012-02-20. Retrieved 2012-06-12.
- "Census Of Population And Housing". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved 2014-09-19.
- "American FactFinder2". Census.gov. Archived from the original on 2013-09-11. Retrieved Nov 13, 2014.
- 2007 Scores. Dunbar is also Home to the First Ever Microsoft Certified High School in the world.. Archived 2008-02-06 at the Wayback Machine
- "America's Top Public High Schools - Newsweek Best High Schools". Newsweek.com. Retrieved 17 November 2017.
- "Keiser University- Ft. Myers". Keiser University. Retrieved 3 April 2010.
- "NSU Campus info". Nova Southeastern University. Retrieved 3 August 2011.
- "Rasmussen College- Ft. Myers campus". Retrieved 25 June 2010.
- Logan, Casey (June 8, 2015). "Fort Myers, Cape Coral technical institutes now colleges". News-Press. Retrieved 9 June 2015.
- "Dunbar Jupiter Hammon Public Library". Leegov.com. Archived from the original on 2016-04-13. Retrieved 2016-04-20.
- "Welcome to Calusa Nature Center & Planetarium". Calusanature.com. Retrieved 2012-06-12.
- "LeeTran". Lee County Southwest Florida. Retrieved 17 November 2017.
- Stetson, Nancy (September 7, 2011). "STARRING SW FLORIDA". Florida Weekly. Retrieved 25 July 2014.
- "Production Credits - The Beaches of Fort Myers & Sanibel". Fortmyers-sanibel.com. Retrieved 17 November 2017.
- "Filmed in Fort Myers - Film Fort Myers" (PDF). Filmfortmyers.com. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 August 2016. Retrieved 17 November 2017.
- James Carlos Blake (1998). Red Grass River: A Legend. New York: Avon.
- "Broadcasters | twinsbaseball.com: Team". Mlb.mlb.com. Retrieved 2010-07-29.
- Nobles, Charlie (November 27, 2001). "COLLEGES; Hurricanes' Buchanon Might Be the Best of the Best". The New York Times. Retrieved April 2, 2010.
- Lawler, Jerry (2002). It's Good to be the King...Sometimes. World Wrestling Entertainment. ISBN 978-0-7434-5768-2.
- "'Bama's mountain of a nosetackle: 365-pound Terrence Cody". CNN. September 25, 2008. Retrieved April 2, 2010.
- "Casey Coleman Stats". Baseball Almanac. Retrieved November 26, 2012.
- "Pro Profiles - Bill Davey Pro Bodybuilding Profile". Bodybuilders.com. 1966-07-20. Retrieved 2010-07-29.
- Peek into inner circle shows Noel Devine's no deviant Archived 2007-10-02 at the Wayback Machine, August 28, 2006
- Mark Aumann, NASCAR.COM (2006-05-17). "Ex-ballplayer Greenwell to make Truck debut - May 17, 2006". Nascar.Com. Retrieved 2010-07-29.
- "Mario Henderson". Nfl.com. 1984-10-29. Retrieved 2010-07-29.
- "Nolan Henke - Golf - CBSSports.com PGA". Cbssports.com. Retrieved 2010-07-29.
- "Adam Johnson Stats - Baseball-Reference.com". Baseball-Reference.com. Retrieved 17 November 2017.
- "Terri Kimball - Terri Kimball Nude - Terri Kimball Pics". Playboy.com. 2009-01-27. Archived from the original on 2010-01-17. Retrieved 2010-07-29.
- "Derek Lamely". PGA Tour. Archived from the original on October 19, 2012. Retrieved November 26, 2012.
- LPGA Tour profile for Terry-Jo Myers Archived June 29, 2011, at the Wayback Machine
- Wetzel, Dan. "Final curtain for the Kimbo show - UFC - Yahoo! Sports". Sports.yahoo.com. Retrieved 2010-07-29.
- "Warner Music Canada - Plies". Warnermusic.ca. Archived from the original on 2011-06-07. Retrieved 2010-07-29.
- "ESPN.com: Where Sanders goes, teams win". Espn.go.com. 1967-08-09. Retrieved 2010-07-29.
- "Peggy Schoolcraft IFBB Pro Bodybuilder". Bodybuilding.com. October 9, 2002. Retrieved 8 September 2011.
- "2001 Ms. International results". Getbig.com. March 2, 2001. Retrieved 8 September 2011.
- "Vonzell Solomon". American Idol. Retrieved 2010-07-29.
- "In-Spires". Naplesnews.com. Retrieved 17 November 2017.
- Lisa Winston (2010-02-15). "Article | MiLB.com News | The Official Site of Minor League Baseball". Web.minorleaguebaseball.com. Retrieved 2010-07-29.
- "Jeremy Ware Stats - Pro-Football-Reference.com". Pro-Football-Reference.com. Retrieved 17 November 2017.
- "Walt Wesley NBA & ABA Statistics". Basketball-Reference.com. Retrieved 2010-07-29.
- "Florida: Edison Pageant of Light (Local Legacies: Celebrating Community Roots - Library of Congress)". Lcweb2.loc.gov. Retrieved 2010-07-29.
- "Hildebrand Hired as First Diving Coach at Florida Gulf Coast". Swimming World. August 31, 2006. Retrieved 2 March 2018.
- "Singer Mindy McCready taken into custody". USA Today. July 26, 2007. Retrieved May 2, 2010.
- Buker, George E. (1993). Blockaders, Refugees, & Contrabands: Civil War on Florida's Gulf Coast, 1861-1865. Tuscaloosa, Alabama: Thr Univeristy of Alabama Press. ISBN 0-8173-1296-X.
- Dillon, Rodney E., Jr. (January 1984). ""The Little Affair": The Southwest Florida Campaign, 1863–1864". The Florida Historical Quarterly. 62 (3): 314–31. JSTOR 30146289.
- Solomon, Irvin D. (October 1993). "Southern Extremities: The Significance of Fort Myers in the Civil War". The Florida Historical Quarterly. 72 (2): 129–152. JSTOR 30148691.