Fort Liberty, formerly Fort Bragg, is a military installation of the United States Army in North Carolina, and is one of the largest military installations in the world by population, with over 52,000 military personnel.[2] The military reservation is located within Cumberland and Hoke counties,[3] and borders the towns of Fayetteville, Spring Lake, and Southern Pines.

Fort Liberty
Cumberland / Hoke counties (main post),
Harnett County (Linden Oaks)
near Fayetteville, North Carolina
Barracks of the 1st Brigade, 82nd Airborne Division at Fort Liberty
TypeArmy base
Site information
Controlled byUnited States
Site history
Built1918
In use1918–present
Garrison information
Current
commander
Colonel John Wilcox
Garrison XVIII Airborne Corps
For tenant units, see below
Fort Liberty is located in the United States
Fort Liberty
Fort Liberty
Location in the United States
Fort Liberty is located in North Carolina
Fort Liberty
Fort Liberty
Location in North Carolina
Coordinates: 35°8′21″N 78°59′57″W / 35.13917°N 78.99917°W / 35.13917; -78.99917
CountryUnited States
StateNorth Carolina
CountyCumberland
Area
 • Total251.0 sq mi (650.2 km2)
 • Land249.7 sq mi (646.8 km2)
 • Water1.3 sq mi (3.4 km2)
Population
 (2010)
 • Total39,457
 • Density158.02/sq mi (61.01/km2)
Time zoneUTC−5 (Eastern (EST))
 • Summer (DST)UTC−4 (EDT)
ZIP Codes
28307, 28310
Area codes910, 472
FIPS code37-24260[1]

Fort Liberty covers over 251 square miles (650 km2). It is the home of the Army's XVIII Airborne Corps and is the headquarters[4] of the United States Army Special Operations Command, which oversees the U.S. Army 1st Special Forces Command (Airborne) and 75th Ranger Regiment. It is also home to the U.S. Army Forces Command, U.S. Army Reserve Command, and Womack Army Medical Center. Fort Liberty maintains two airfields: Pope Field, where the United States Air Force stations global airlift and special operations assets as well as the Air Force Combat Control School, and Simmons Army Airfield, where Army aviation units support the needs of airborne and special operations forces on post.

History edit

 
The Special Warfare Memorial Statue by Donald De Lue (1968) at Fort Bragg

World War I edit

Camp Bragg was established in 1918 as an artillery training ground. The Chief of Field Artillery, General William J. Snow, was seeking an area having suitable terrain, adequate water, rail facilities, and a climate suitable for year-round training, and he decided that the area now known as Fort Liberty met all of the desired criteria.[5] Camp Bragg was named for Braxton Bragg, a former U.S. Army artillery commander and West Point graduate who later fought for the Confederacy during the American Civil War.[citation needed]

The aim was for six artillery brigades to be stationed there and $6,000,000 was spent on the land and cantonments.[6] There was an airfield on the camp used by aircraft and balloons for artillery spotters. The airfield was named Pope Field on 1 April 1919, in honor of First Lieutenant Harley H. Pope,[6] an airman who was killed while flying nearby. The work on the camp was finished on 1 November 1919.[6]

The original plan for six brigades was abandoned after World War I ended[6] and once demobilization had started. The artillerymen, and their equipment and material from Camp McClellan, Alabama, were moved to Fort Bragg and testing began on long-range weapons that were a product of the war.[6] The six artillery brigades were reduced to two cantonments and a garrison was to be built for Army troops as well as a National Guard training center.[6] In early 1921 two field artillery units, the 13th and 17th Field Artillery Brigades, began training at Camp Bragg. The same year, the Long Street Church and six acres of property were acquired for the reservation.[7] The church was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1974.[8]

Due to the post-war cutbacks, the camp was nearly closed for good when the War Department issued orders to close the camp on 7 August 1921. General Albert J. Bowley was commander at the camp and after much campaigning, and getting the Secretary of War to visit the camp, the closing order was canceled on 16 September 1921. The Field Artillery Board was transferred to Fort Bragg on 1 February 1922.[citation needed]

Camp Bragg was renamed Fort Bragg, to signify becoming a permanent Army post, on 30 September 1922. From 1923 to 1924 permanent structures were constructed on Fort Bragg, including four barracks.[6]

World War II edit

By 1940, the year after World War II started, the population of Fort Bragg was 5,400 and by the following year had reached 67,000. Various units trained at Fort Bragg during World War II, including the 9th Infantry Division, 2nd Armored Division, 82nd Airborne Division, 100th Infantry Division, and various field artillery groups. The population reached a peak of 159,000 during the war years.[9]

Cold War edit

 
An Army Special Forces operator with his customized M4 carbine prepares to breach an entryway while training in close quarters battle tactics at Fort Bragg, mid 1999

Following World War II, the 82nd Airborne Division was permanently stationed at Fort Bragg, the only large unit there for some time. In July 1951, the XVIII Airborne Corps was reactivated at Fort Bragg. Fort Bragg became a center for unconventional warfare, with the creation of the Psychological Warfare Center in April 1952, followed by the 10th Special Forces Group.[10]

In 1961, the 5th Special Forces Group (Airborne) was activated at Fort Bragg, with the mission of training counter-insurgency forces in Southeast Asia. Also in 1961, the "Iron Mike" statue, a tribute to all Airborne soldiers, past, present, and future was dedicated. In early 1962 the 326 Army Security Agency Company, de-activated after the Korean War, was reactivated at Fort Bragg under XVIIIth Corps. In August of that year, an operational contingent of that Company was relocated to Homestead AFB Florida, due to the Cuban Missile Crisis. Circa 1963, that contingent was reassigned to the newly created USASA 6th Field Station.[11] More than 200,000 young men underwent basic combat training here during the period 1966–70. At the peak of the Vietnam War in 1968, Fort Bragg's military population rose to 57,840. In June 1972, the 1st Corps Support Command arrived at Fort Bragg.[12]

In the 1980s, there was a series of deployments of tenant units to the Caribbean, first to Grenada in 1983, Honduras in 1988, and to Panama in 1989. The 5th Special Forces Group departed Fort Bragg in the late 1980s.[13]

Middle East wars edit

 
Soldiers of the 82nd Airborne Division with their M4 carbines training on Fort Bragg, December 2005

In 1990, the XVIII Airborne Corps and the 82nd Airborne Division deployed to Saudi Arabia in support of Operation Desert Shield and Operation Desert Storm. In the mid- and late 1990s, there was increased modernization of the facilities in Fort Bragg. The World War II wooden barracks were largely removed, a new main post exchange was built, and Devers Elementary School was opened, along with several other projects.[14]

As a result of campaigns in Afghanistan and Iraq, the units on Fort Liberty have seen a sizeable increase to their operations tempo (OPTEMPO), with units conducting two, three, or even four or more deployments to combat zones. As directed by law, and in accordance with the recommendations of the 2005 Base Realignment and Closure Commission, Fort McPherson, Georgia, closed and U.S. Army Forces Command and U.S. Army Reserve Command relocated to Fort Bragg, North Carolina. A new FORSCOM/U.S. Army Reserve Command Headquarters facility completed construction at Fort Bragg in June 2011. Forces Command hosted 24 June 2011, an Army "Casing of the Colors" ceremony on Fort McPherson and an "uncasing of colors ceremony" on 1 August 2011, at Fort Bragg. On 1 March 2011, Pope Field, the former Pope Air Force Base, was absorbed into Fort Bragg.[citation needed]

Name change to Fort Liberty edit

 
Fort Liberty, main gate sign (All-American gate) 2 June 2023

On 1 January 2021, the United States Senate passed a veto override of the William M. (Mac) Thornberry National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2021. This new law mandated Congress to establish a commission for the renaming of Department of Defense properties named after Confederate leaders. In March 2022, the commission published a list of 87 potential names for nine Army installations, including Fort Bragg, named after Confederate General Braxton Bragg.[15][16]

In May 2022, the commission officially recommended that Bragg be renamed Fort Liberty. The commission further gave the Pentagon until October to accept the name change; Secretary of Defense Lloyd J. Austin did so on 6 October 2022. Secretary Austin stated in the memorandum accepting the name change: "In the words of Admiral Michelle M. Howard, the Naming Commission's chair, the commission's goal was to inspire Service members and military communities 'with names or values that have meaning.' The Department's implementation of the Commission's recommendations will do just that - and will give proud new names that are rooted in their local communities and that honor American heroes whose valor, courage, and patriotism exemplify the very best of the United States military."[17] Fort Liberty is the only installation not to be named after a specific person or people.

According to a memorandum published by the Pentagon, the new name changes would cost the Department of Defense $62.5 million. In particular, the change to Fort Liberty would cost the Department of Defense $6,374,230, making it the most expensive name change.[18][19] In accordance with the National Defense Authorization Act, the local garrison had until early 2024 to complete the name change.[20]

On 2 June 2023, Fort Liberty officially adopted its new name in a public ceremony.[21]

2024 Republican presidential candidates Ron DeSantis and Mike Pence both pledged to rename the base back to Fort Bragg if elected president, before each dropping out of the race.[22][23][24][25][26]

Tenant units edit

List of units (by SSI)
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     

The major commands at the installation are the United States Army Forces Command, the United States Army Reserve Command, and the United States Army Special Operations Command. Several airborne and special operations units of the United States Army are stationed at Fort Liberty, notably the 82nd Airborne Division, the 3rd Special Forces Group (Airborne), and the Delta Force. The latter is controlled by the Joint Special Operations Command, based at Pope Field within Fort Liberty.

Geography and ecology edit

Fort Liberty is at 35°8'21" north, 78°59'57" west (35.139064, −78.999143).[27]

According to the United States Census Bureau, the post has a total area of 19.0 square miles (49.2 km2), of which 19.0 square miles (49.1 km2) of it is land and 0.1 square miles (0.26 km2) of it is water. The total area is 0.32% water.

Kiest, Simmons, Boundary Line, McFayden, Hurley and Holland lakes are intensively managed to maintain fish populations. Croatan, Quail, Deer Pen, Overhills, Big Muddy, Little Muddy, Texas, MacArthur, Smith, Mott, and Lindsay lakes are managed, but are not normally treated or restocked since their fish populations are respectable and are maintained naturally.[28] A 1.1 MW floating solar plant with a 2 MW battery was installed on Big Muddy lake for $36 million.[29][30]

 
Saint Francis' satyr imago

Fort Liberty is the only locality where the endangered Saint Francis' satyr butterfly (Neonympha mitchellii francisci) is known to occur. St. Francis' satyr is found in wetland habitats dominated by graminoids and sedges, such as abandoned beaver dams or along streams with beavers.

Fort Bragg fever, a bacterial zoonotic disease, has been named after it, in reference to an outbreak in 1942.

In 1990, the endangered red-cockaded woodpecker came under the protection of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. This caused a tremendous problem for Fort Liberty, where many of these birds lived. Training stopped, ranges were closed, and troops were temporarily moved to other installations for training.

The Army and the conservationists eventually came to an agreement, which put in place training restrictions around the woodpeckers' habitat. White stripes were painted on trees to indicate the location of the habitats, and restrictions limited the scope and duration of training that could take place within 200 feet (61 m) of these locations.

Today, the clusters of woodpeckers has more than doubled in size (200 to 493), and many of the training restrictions have been lifted.[31]

Demographics edit

Historical population
CensusPop.Note
197046,995
198037,834−19.5%
199034,744−8.2%
200029,183−16.0%
source:[32]

As of the census[1] of 2000, there were 29,183 people, 4,315 households, and 4,215 families residing on the base. The population density was 1,540.0 inhabitants per square mile (594.6/km2). There were 4,420 housing units at an average density of 233.3 per square mile (90.1/km2). Fort Bragg was not recorded as a census-designated place for the 2010 census.

Racial makeup edit

In 2000, the racial makeup of the base was 58.1% European American, 25.3% African-American, 1.2% Native American, 1.8% Asian, 0.9% Pacific Islander, 8.3% from other races, and 4.4% from two or more races. 15.8% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.

Households edit

In 2000, there were 4,315 households, out of which 85.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 88.9% were married couples living together, 7.2% had a female householder with no husband present, and 2.3% were non-families. 2.1% of all households were made up of individuals, and 0.0% were someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.72, and the average family size was 3.74.

Ages edit

The age distribution in 2000 was 25.8% under the age of 18, 40.9% from 18 to 24, 32.3% from 25 to 44, 1.1% from 45 to 64, and 0.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 22 years. For every 100 females, there were 217.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 293.5 males. All of these statistics are typical for military bases.[citation needed]

Income edit

The median income for a household on the base at the 2000 census was $30,106, and the median income for a family was $29,836. 10.0% of the population and 9.6% of families were below the poverty line. Out of the total population, 11.4% of those under the age of 18 and 0.0% of those 65 and older were living below the poverty line.

Housing edit

Corvias-managed housing under IMCOM is attracting national attention because of reports of lead contamination, black mold, and asbestos from base residents.[33]

Task & Purpose confirmed on 12 February 2024 that trash pickup at the installation is not occurring on a timely basis;[34] the waste management contractor was terminated for not emptying the waste dumpsters on a timely basis; the garrison command stated that trash pickup at "barracks, child development centers, dining facilities and medical facilities" is now getting higher priority.[35]

Education edit

Dependents of staff are educated by Department of Defense Education Activity (DoDEA) schools for K–8.[36]

  • Albritton Middle School
  • Shugart Middle School
  • Irwin Intermediate School
  • Bowley Elementary School
  • Devers Elementary School
  • Gordon Elementary School
  • Poole Elementary School
  • Shugart Elementary School
  • Hampton Primary School

For high school students attend local public schools based on what county they reside in:[36] Cumberland County Schools for Cumberland County residents,[37] and Hoke County Schools for Hoke County residents.[38] The Cumberland County parts of the military reservation are assigned to EE Smith High School.[3]

The Linden Oaks area, within Harnett County, is in Harnett County Schools, and is assigned to Overhills High School.[3]

Notable events edit

  • In January 1942, Mickey Rooney visited Fort Bragg to entertain the soldiers.[39] Two years later, he was drafted and served in the Army until the end of World War II.
  • On 12 October 1961, President John F. Kennedy visits Fort Bragg and the U.S. Army Special Warfare Center and officializes the wear of the Green Beret.[40]
  • On 17 February 1970, Captain Jeffrey R. MacDonald murdered his pregnant wife and two daughters. The events surrounding the murders were retold in the book Fatal Vision, itself made into a television miniseries of the same name.[41]
  • On 10 May 1987, President Ronald Reagan visits during a USO show with Bob Hope and other celebrities.[42]
  • On 1 July 1987, a C-130 crashes during a public demonstration at the Sicily Drop Zone. Four airmen and one soldier die.[43]
  • In 1988, U.S. Army Specialist Ronald Gray raped and murdered a female soldier and civilians.
  • On 23 March 1994, twenty-four members of Fort Bragg's 82nd Airborne Division were killed and over 100 others injured while preparing for a routine airborne training operation during the Green Ramp disaster at neighboring Pope Air Force base. It was the worst peacetime loss of life suffered by the division since the end of World War II.
  • On 27 October 1995, Sergeant William Kreutzer, Jr. opened fire at Fort Bragg, killing an officer and wounding 18 other soldiers.
  • Throughout 2002, there were three murders of military wives and one murder of a military ex-wife by the soldiers they were married to, and the murder of a husband in the military by his wife, all the soldiers stationed at Fort Bragg. Legal representatives or the soldiers argued the drug Mefloquine, also known as Larium, was responsible for their diminished mental capacity that led to the murders of their spouses. The Pentagon and the Army Medical Department sent specialists and investigators to address the situation. Reports released later attributed the murders to have come from psychological problems, not the drugs.[44][45][46][47]
  •  
    President George W. Bush Meets U.S. Airborne and Special Forces Troops Following his Remarks During an Independence Day Celebration at Fort Bragg in North Carolina. 4 July 2006
    On 28 June 2005, President George W. Bush gave a nationally televised speech at Fort Bragg to reaffirm the United States' mission in Iraq.
  • On 13 December 2011, WWE hosted its annual Tribute to the Troops for Fort Bragg at the Fayetteville Crown Coliseum with special guest stars Robin Williams, Nickelback, and Mary J. Blige.
  • On 14 December 2011, President Barack Obama gave a nationally televised speech thanking soldiers for their service in Operation Iraqi Freedom.[48]
  • In 2012, Ashley Broadway, the same-sex spouse of Lieutenant Colonel Heather Mack, was denied full membership to the Association of Bragg Officers' Spouses.[49]
  • On 28 June 2012, Specialist Ricky G. Elder shot and killed Lieutenant Colonel Roy L. Tisdale of the 525th Battlefield Surveillance Brigade during a safety brief. The soldier also shot himself and injured two other fellow soldiers.[50] He later died of his injuries.[51]
  • On 20 January 2013, Army Times highlights the experience of a married same-sex couple at Fort Bragg, both service members, who are denied the housing allowance and other benefits that are available to different-sex married service members.[52]
  • On 8 March 2016, Major League Baseball announced that the Atlanta Braves and Miami Marlins would play a special neutral-site game, the Fort Bragg Game, at the newly constructed Fort Bragg Stadium, on 3 July 2016. It was the first time that an active military installation has hosted a regular-season game of a professional sports league. The game was attended primarily by military members.[53] In addition, the game was the first Major League Baseball regular season game ever held in the state of North Carolina.[54] The ballpark was built on a disused golf course and sat 12,500 fans for the game, a 5–2 Marlins win televised live on ESPN. Following the conclusion of the game, the grandstands and other facilities were removed, and the field became a multi-use sporting ground.[55]
     
    Sgt. 1st Class Alex Burnett and Atlanta Braves pitcher Arodys Vizcaino switch head gear on Sunday, 3 July 2016, prior to the start of the Miami Marlins and Braves regular season game at Fort Bragg, N.C. Fort Bragg..
  • On 21 October 2020, the official Fort Bragg Twitter account sent out several sexually charged tweets.[56]
  • On 18 April 2021, Rolling Stone reported that at least 44 soldiers had died at Fort Bragg in 2020, including a number of unsolved murders apparently linked to drug-trafficking among special operations soldiers.[57]

Notable people edit

Burials edit

Actress Martha Raye is buried on Fort Liberty in commemoration of her work with the USO during World War II and Vietnam.[58]

See also edit

Notes edit

  1. ^ a b "U.S. Census website". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on 9 July 2021. Retrieved 31 January 2008.
  2. ^ "Military Installation Overview- In-depth Look at Fort Bragg". Department of Defense. Archived from the original on 24 February 2021. Retrieved 25 June 2021.
  3. ^ a b c "Finding A School Local School Districts" (PDF). U.S. Department of Defense. Retrieved 4 July 2022. - Info on high school assignments also stated in this document
  4. ^ "USASOC Headquarters Fact Sheet". USASOC HQ Fact Sheet. N.p., n.d. Web. 5 January 2017
  5. ^ "Fort Bragg History". Fort Liberty. U.S. Army Fort Liberty. Archived from the original on 2 July 2013. Retrieved 16 July 2013.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g "1919–1939". XVIII Airborne. Archived from the original on 4 March 2010. Retrieved 13 July 2010.
  7. ^ Survey and Planning Unit Staff (October 1973). "Long Street Church" (PDF). National Register of Historic Places - Nomination and Inventory. North Carolina State Historic Preservation Office. Archived (PDF) from the original on 27 August 2020. Retrieved 1 January 2015.
  8. ^ "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service. 9 July 2010.
  9. ^ "History of Fort Bragg, 1940s". bragg.army.mil. Archived from the original on 3 February 2007. Retrieved 25 January 2007.
  10. ^ "History of Fort Bragg, 1950s". bragg.army.mil/ Fort Bragg's online website. Archived from the original on 3 February 2007. Retrieved 25 January 2007.
  11. ^ "History of Fort Bragg, 1960s". bragg.army.mil/ Fort Bragg's online website. Archived from the original on 3 February 2007. Retrieved 25 January 2007.
  12. ^ "History of Fort Bragg, 1970s". bragg.army.mil/ Fort Bragg's online website. Archived from the original on 3 February 2007. Retrieved 25 January 2007.
  13. ^ "History of Fort Bragg". bragg.army.mil/ Fort Bragg's online website. Archived from the original on 3 February 2007. Retrieved 25 January 2007.
  14. ^ "History of Fort Bragg, 1990s". bragg.army.mil/ Fort Bragg's online website. Archived from the original on 3 February 2007. Retrieved 25 January 2007.
  15. ^ Brook, Matthew Brown and Tom Vanden. "Trump vetoes national defense bill, though Congress has votes to override". USA Today. Retrieved 26 October 2022.
  16. ^ O'Brien, Connor. "The Pentagon has 3 years to strip Confederate names from bases. Here's what comes next". Politico. Retrieved 26 October 2022.
  17. ^ Lee, Hannah. "Fort Bragg no more, Fort Liberty is official - Up and Coming Weekly". www.upandcomingweekly.com. Retrieved 26 October 2022.
  18. ^ "Fort Bragg name change to Fort Liberty likely to cost more than $6M, new report finds". Retrieved 12 June 2023.
  19. ^ "The Naming Commission". The Naming Commission. Archived from the original on 22 September 2022. Retrieved 12 June 2023.
  20. ^ Forgey, Quint. "Commission recommends 9 new names for Army bases that honor Confederates". Politico. Retrieved 26 October 2022.
  21. ^ "Fort Bragg changes name to Fort Liberty, part of U.S. Army plan to rename installations honoring Confederate soldiers". PBS NewsHour. 2 June 2023. Retrieved 23 June 2023.
  22. ^ "DeSantis vows to restore the name of Fort Bragg, named for confederate". Tampa Bay Times. Retrieved 23 June 2023.
  23. ^ "DeSantis pledges to restore name of Confederate general Braxton Bragg to Fort Liberty". The Independent. 10 June 2023. Retrieved 23 June 2023.
  24. ^ Hippensteel, Chris (10 June 2023). "Ron DeSantis Vows to Undo Fort Bragg Name Change". The Daily Beast. Retrieved 23 June 2023.
  25. ^ "Military base shed its confederate name; DeSantis, Pence want to bring it back". MSNBC.com. Retrieved 23 June 2023.
  26. ^ "Mike Pence: Fort Liberty Will Once Again Be Fort Bragg | C-SPAN.org". www.c-span.org. Retrieved 23 June 2023.
  27. ^ "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. 12 February 2011. Archived from the original on 24 August 2019. Retrieved 23 April 2011.
  28. ^ Lake Information Sheet, Fort Bragg Wildlife Branch, archived from the original on 16 June 2018, retrieved 16 June 2018
  29. ^ Lewis, Michelle (1 October 2020). "EGEB: Ft. Bragg gets the largest floating solar in the southeast". Electrek. Archived from the original on 10 November 2020. Retrieved 1 October 2020.
  30. ^ Calma, Justine (14 June 2022). "US Army deploys its first floating solar array". The Verge. Retrieved 24 March 2023.
  31. ^ Brooks, Drew. "Fort Liberty and Red-cockaded Woodpecker Co-exist". Military.com. Fayetteville Observer. Archived from the original on 23 January 2016. Retrieved 21 August 2014.
  32. ^ "CENSUS OF POPULATION AND HOUSING (1790–2000)". U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on 1 July 2021. Retrieved 25 July 2010.
  33. ^ "Military families say housing on bases has lead, mold, other problems". NBC News. Archived from the original on 10 March 2019. Retrieved 11 March 2019.
  34. ^ Sarah Sicard (13 February 2024) Trash at Fort Liberty is piling up faster than it can be removed
  35. ^ Patty Nieberg (12 February 2024) Fort Liberty's trash has not been picked up in weeks "Troops say dumpsters are overflowing after weeks of missed garbage collection as the base seeks a contractor".
  36. ^ a b "Fort Liberty/Cuba Community". Department of Defense Education Activity. Retrieved 5 July 2022.
  37. ^ "2020 CENSUS - SCHOOL DISTRICT REFERENCE MAP: Cumberland County, NC" (PDF). U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved 4 July 2022. - Text list
  38. ^ "2020 CENSUS - SCHOOL DISTRICT REFERENCE MAP: Hoke County, NC" (PDF). U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved 5 July 2022. - Text list - "Fort Liberty Schools" refers to the DoDEA schools.
  39. ^ Associated Press. "WWII Entertainment Rooney 1942". Richmond.com. Richmond Times-Dispatch. Archived from the original on 9 October 2017. Retrieved 7 July 2016.
  40. ^ "Green Berets - John F. Kennedy Presidential Library & Museum". www.jfklibrary.org. Archived from the original on 1 November 2015. Retrieved 20 October 2015.
  41. ^ "Fatal Vision. TV Mini Series. 1984". IMDb. Retrieved 12 June 2023.
  42. ^ "Meeting with Celebrities". Archived from the original on 21 October 2015. Retrieved 21 October 2015.
  43. ^ United Press International (1 July 1987). "4 Killed in Air Show Plane Crash". L.A. Times. Archived from the original on 6 March 2016. Retrieved 2 March 2016.
  44. ^ "A Bitter Pill Worth Swallowing?". Washington Post. 28 October 2002. Retrieved 3 July 2022.
  45. ^ "Fort Bragg Killings Linked to Drug?". ABC News. 23 August 2002. Retrieved 3 July 2022.
  46. ^ "Ft. Bragg killings report released". Recordnet.com. 7 November 2002. Retrieved 3 July 2022.
  47. ^ Benjamin, Mark (9 August 2002). "Army eyes malaria drug in Bragg killings". United Press International. Retrieved 3 July 2022.
  48. ^ Nicholas, Peter (14 December 2011). "At Ft. Bragg, Obama welcomes troops home from Iraq". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 17 December 2012. Retrieved 26 January 2013.
  49. ^ Brooks, Drew (26 January 2013). "Lesbian Wife Named Fort Bragg's Spouse of the Year". Military.com. Fayetteville Observer. Archived from the original on 22 January 2016. Retrieved 29 August 2015.
  50. ^ "Official: Battalion commander dead in Fort Bragg shooting". MSNBC. Archived from the original on 22 October 2013. Retrieved 22 October 2013.
  51. ^ Santora, Marc (1 July 2012). "Gunman in Fort Bragg Shooting Dies". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 27 June 2017. Retrieved 27 February 2017.
  52. ^ Crary, David; Miesecker, Michael (20 January 2013). "DOMA a roadblock for same-sex military couples". Army Times. Retrieved 22 January 2013.
  53. ^ Brooks, Drew (8 March 2016). "Braves, Marlins to play at Fort Bragg this summer in new ballpark". The Fayetteville Observer. Fayetteville Publishing Co. Archived from the original on 16 March 2020. Retrieved 8 March 2016.
  54. ^ Carter, Andrew (3 July 2016). "Fort Bragg celebrates history in first Major League Baseball game in North Carolina". The News & Observer. Fort Bragg: The McClatchy Company. Archived from the original on 5 July 2016. Retrieved 3 July 2016.
  55. ^ Mock, Joe (4 July 2016). "Marlins top Braves in unique Fort Bragg Game". USA Today. Fort Bragg: Gannett Company. Archived from the original on 4 July 2016. Retrieved 4 July 2016.
  56. ^ "Lewd tweets on Fort Bragg account were from administrator, not a hack as Army first said". NBC News. Fort Bragg: NBC News. 23 October 2020. Archived from the original on 2 December 2020. Retrieved 23 October 2020.
  57. ^ Harp, Seth (18 April 2021). "The Fort Bragg Murders". Rolling Stone. Wenner Media Co. Archived from the original on 2 September 2021. Retrieved 3 September 2021.
  58. ^ "Martha Raye Buried at Fort Bragg". Gadsden Times. Associated Press. 23 October 1994. Archived from the original on 10 June 2020. Retrieved 6 October 2012.

Further reading edit

  • van Lunteren, Frank, Birth of a Regiment: The 504th Parachute Infantry Regiment in Sicily and Salerno. Permuted Press LLC, 2022.

External links edit

Government
General information