Five Graves to Cairo

Five Graves to Cairo is a 1943 war film directed by Billy Wilder and starring Franchot Tone and Anne Baxter. Set in World War II, it is one of a number of films based on Lajos Bíró's 1917 play Hotel Imperial: Színmű négy felvonásban, including the 1927 film Hotel Imperial. Erich von Stroheim portrays Field Marshal Erwin Rommel in a supporting performance.

Five Graves to Cairo
Five Graves to Cairo 1943 film poster.jpg
Theatrical release poster
Directed byBilly Wilder
Produced byB. G. DeSylva
Written byCharles Brackett
Billy Wilder
Based onHotel Imperial
by Lajos Bíró
StarringFranchot Tone
Anne Baxter
Akim Tamiroff
Erich von Stroheim
Music byMiklós Rózsa
CinematographyJohn F. Seitz
Edited byDoane Harrison
Distributed byParamount Pictures
Release date
  • May 4, 1943 (1943-05-04)
Running time
96 minutes
CountryUnited States
LanguageEnglish
Budget$855,000 (estimated)
Box office$1,650,000 (US rentals)[1]

PlotEdit

Corporal John Bramble is the sole survivor of a British tank crew after Erwin Rommel and his Afrika Korps capture Tobruk in June 1942 and pursue the British into Egypt. He stumbles across the North African desert into the town of Sidi Halfaya, where he finds the Empress of Britain, a small, isolated hotel owned by Farid. The only other eployee is the French chambermaid Mouche, as the cook fled with the British and the waiter Davos was killed the night before by German bombing.

Farid hides the unconscious Bramble when the swiftly advancing Germans take over the hotel to use as headquarters for Field Marshal Rommel and his staff. Bramble assumes the identity of Davos to save himself. When Rommel summons him to a private chat, Bramble is stunned to discover that Davos was a valued German spy, but manages to play along. He learns that he is to be sent to Cairo next.

Later, he steals a pistol from genial, music-loving Italian General Sebastiano, planning to serve the field marshal a bullet rather than coffee the next morning. Not wanting trouble, Mouche steals the pistol and waits on Rommel herself. When some captured British officers are brought to the hotel for a luncheon with Rommel, one of them (a past guest) realizes that Davos has been replaced. Bramble privately explains who he is and what he plans to do. The officer orders him to use his position of trust to instead gather military intelligence.

At the luncheon, Rommel teases his guests, allowing them to ask him twenty questions about his future plans. Bramble listens with interest. From the conversation and later remarks by Rommel, he eventually deduces that the field marshal, disguised as an archeologist before the war, had secretly prepared five hidden supply dumps, the "Five Graves to Cairo", for the conquest of Egypt. The final piece of the puzzle (their locations) falls into place when Bramble realizes that Rommel's cryptic references to points Y, P, and T refer to the precise locations of the letters of the word "Egypt" printed on his map.

Meanwhile, Bramble and Mouche clash. She despises the British, believing they abandoned the French, including her two brothers, at Dunkirk. He in turn becomes disgusted at how she plays up to the Germans. As it turns out, Mouche's motives are not mercenary; she pleads with Rommel to release her wounded soldier brother from a concentration camp. He is unmoved, but his aide, Lieutenant Schwegler, is more appreciative of her charms. He pretends to help her, showing her fake telegrams to and from Germany.

That night however, when everyone takes shelter in the cellar during an Allied air raid, Schwegler discovers the body of the real Davos (easily identifiable by his clubfoot), uncovered by the bombing. In the noise and confusion of the raid, Schwegler chases Bramble through the darkened hotel, before Bramble kills the German and hides the body in Mouche's part of the servants' room. When Mouche finds out, she threatens to unmask him.

However, she has a change of heart. Schwegler's body is soon found, and Rommel accuses her of killing his aide when she discovered he was lying about being able to release her brother. To protect Bramble, Mouche confirms this. Bramble leaves for Cairo, but arranges for Farid to present evidence the next day at Mouche's trial that "Davos" committed the crime.

Bramble's information allows the British to blow up the dumps and thus thwart Rommel's plans, culminating in the Second Battle of El Alamein. When Bramble returns to Sidi Halfaya in triumph with his unit, he is devastated to learn the Germans executed Mouche, even after she was exonerated of Schwegler's murder, because she would not stop saying that the British would be back. Bramble takes the parasol he bought her in Cairo, something she always wanted, and uses it to provide shade for her grave.

CastEdit

 
Peter van Eyck in the Five Graves to Cairo trailer.

ReceptionEdit

Bosley Crowther of The New York Times gave the film a mixed review. He admired one performance, writing, "... von Stroheim has all other movie Huns backed completely off the screen" and " ... whenever he appears in this picture, ... , he gives you the creeps and the shivers. Boy, what a nasty Hun!"[2] However, he was less than impressed with the rest, complaining, "As though this fanciful story weren't sufficiently hard to take, Charles Brackett and Billy Wilder, a couple of old-hand Paramount wags, have dressed it up with shenanigans which have the flavor of fun in a haunted house."[2] "It has a little something for all tastes, provided you don't give a darn."[2] The Variety magazine response was more generous, calling it "a dynamic, moving vehicle" and praising Wilder's handling of "the varied story elements, countless suspenseful moments and vivid portrayals in excellent fashion."[3] Dave Kehr of the Chicago Reader agreed, characterizing the film as a "crisp spy thriller" and, as Wilder's second stint at directing, "Excellent apprentice work, with many Wilder themes seething beneath the surface."[4]

ProductionEdit

Production lasted from January 4 to February 20, 1943. It was filmed at Paramount Studios, Hollywood, California, with some exteriors of Sidi Halfaya (a fictionalized version of Sidi Barrani) shot on location at the Salton Sea and other exteriors filmed at Camp Young at the Army Desert Training Center, Indio, California, where, with the cooperation of the Army Ground Forces, a battle sequence was staged, and in Yuma, Arizona.

Wilder wanted Cary Grant to play the role of Bramble. Grant was repeatedly asked by Wilder to star in several of his films, but though the two were friends, Grant consistently refused.

A Hollywood Reporter news item reported that in November 1942, David O. Selznick had agreed to lend Ingrid Bergman for this film. However, Paramount instead borrowed Anne Baxter from Twentieth Century-Fox.

The Germans are played by German actors and thus speak with the right accent, except for von Stroheim, who had emigrated from Austria to the US at the age of 24 and whose accent occasionally slips. The British hero is played by an American actor who speaks with an American accent.

The German tanks in the film are American M2 light tanks, which were used for training, while the British forces have the American M3 Medium tank which they were using at the time.

Academy Award nominationsEdit

Hans Dreier, Ernst Fegté and Bertram C. Granger were nominated for Best Art Direction, John F. Seitz for Best Cinematography, and Doane Harrison for Best Film Editing.[5]

Home mediaEdit

The film is available on VHS, DVD and Blu-ray.

LegacyEdit

Quentin Tarantino has listed the film as one of his 10 favourites of all time.[6]

Real life connectionEdit

Brigadier Dudley Clarke, the commander of the British deception department based in Cairo, saw Five Graves to Cairo in January 1944 and was inspired to create Operation Copperhead. General Bernard Montgomery had recently been transferred from North Africa to England to take command of the ground forces intended for the Normandy invasion. Clarke located a look-alike, pre-war actor Lieutenant M. E. Clifton James, and had him study Montgomery's appearance and mannerisms. The actor then made public visits to several Mediterranean bases in the guise of Montgomery just a few days before D-Day in an attempt to convince German intelligence that an Allied attack on Northern Europe was not imminent. Though the ruse did not appear to have any significant impact on German plans, the events of Operation Copperhead were in turn dramatized in a book and a movie, both entitled I Was Monty's Double.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Top Grossers of the Season", Variety, 5 January 1944 p 54
  2. ^ a b c Bosley Crowther (May 27, 1943). "Five Graves to Cairo (1943)". The New York Times. Retrieved February 23, 2010.
  3. ^ "Five Graves to Cairo". Variety. January 1, 1943. Retrieved February 23, 2010.
  4. ^ Dave Kehr. "Five Graves to Cairo". Chicago Reader. Retrieved February 23, 2010.
  5. ^ "Academy Awards Search: Five Graves to Cairo". Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences.
  6. ^ "Quentin Tarantino's handwritten list of the 11 greatest films of all time". Far Out Magazine.

External linksEdit