First Epistle of Peter

The First Epistle of Peter[a] is a book of the New Testament. The author presents himself as Peter the Apostle. The ending of the letter includes a statement that implies that it was written from “Babylon”, which may be a reference to Rome. The letter is addressed to the "chosen pilgrims of the diaspora" in Asia Minor suffering religious persecution.

Papyrus 72; the left page shows the end of 1 Peter.



The authorship of 1 Peter has traditionally been attributed to the Apostle Peter because it bears his name and identifies him as its author (1:1). Although the text identifies Peter as its author, the language, dating, style, and structure of this letter have led most scholars to conclude that it is pseudonymous.[3][4][5] Many scholars argue that Peter was not the author of the letter because its writer appears to have had a formal education in rhetoric and philosophy, and an advanced knowledge of the Greek language,[6] none of which would be usual for a Galilean fisherman.

New Testament scholar Graham Stanton rejects Petrine authorship because 1 Peter was most likely written during the reign of Domitian in AD 81, which is when he believes widespread Christian persecution began, which is long after the death of Peter.[7][page needed] More recent scholars such as Travis Williams say that the persecution described does not appear to be describing official Roman persecutions after Peter's death, thus not directly ruling out an early date for the composition of the epistle.[8]

Another dating issue is the reference to "Babylon" in chapter 5 verse 13, generally agreed to be a claim the letter was written from Rome. It is believed that the identification of Rome with Babylon, the ancient enemy of the Jews, only came after the destruction of the Temple in AD 70.[9] Other scholars doubt Petrine authorship because they are convinced that 1 Peter is dependent on the Pauline epistles and thus was written after Paul the Apostle's ministry because it shares many of the same motifs espoused in Ephesians, Colossians, and the Pastoral Epistles.[10]

Others argue that it makes little sense to ascribe the work to Peter when it could have been ascribed to Paul.[8] Alternatively, one theory supporting legitimate Petrine authorship of 1 Peter is the "secretarial hypothesis", which suggests that 1 Peter was dictated by Peter and was written in Greek by his secretary, Silvanus (5:12). John Elliot disagrees, suggesting that the notion of Silvanus as secretary or author or drafter of 1 Peter introduces more problems than it solves, and claims that the Greek rendition of 5:12 suggests that Silvanus was not the secretary, but the courier/bearer of 1 Peter.[11] Like English translations generally, the more recent NRSV (2021) translation of this verse from the Greek does not exclude understanding Silvanus as secretary: "Through Silvanus, whom I consider a faithful brother, I have written this short letter to encourage you and to testify that this is the true grace of God. Stand fast in it." Some see Mark as a contributive amanuensis in the composition and writing of the work.[12][13]

On the one hand, some scholars such as Bart D. Ehrman are convinced that the language, dating, literary style, and structure of this text makes it implausible to conclude that 1 Peter was written by Peter.[9] According to these scholars, it is more likely that 1 Peter is a pseudonymous letter, written later by an unknown Christian in his honor.

On the other hand, some scholars argue that there is enough evidence to conclude that Peter did, in fact, write 1 Peter. For instance, there are similarities between 1 Peter and Peter's speeches in the Biblical book of Acts,[14] allusions to several historical sayings of Jesus indicative of eyewitness testimony (e.g., compare Luke 12:35 with 1 Peter 1:13, Matthew 5:16 with 1 Peter 2:12, and Matthew 5:10 with 1 Peter 3:14),[15] and early attestation of Peter's authorship found in 2 Peter (AD 60–160)[16] and the letters of Clement (AD 70–140),[8] all supporting genuine Petrine origin. Ultimately, the authorship of 1 Peter remains contested.

Oldest surviving manuscripts


The original manuscript of this letter is lost, as are several centuries of copies. The text of the surviving manuscripts varies. The oldest surviving manuscripts that contain some or all of this book include:

In Greek
In Latin



1 Peter is addressed to the "elect resident aliens" scattered throughout Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia, and Bithynia. The five areas listed in 1:1 as the geographical location of the first readers were Roman provinces in Asia Minor. The order in which the provinces are listed may reflect the route to be taken by the messenger who delivered the circular letter. The recipients of this letter are referred to in 1:1 as "exiles of the Dispersion". In 1:17, they are urged to "live in reverent fear during the time of your exile".[7][page needed] The social makeup of the addressees of 1 Peter is debatable because some scholars interpret "strangers" (1:1) as Christians longing for their home in heaven, some interpret it as literal "strangers", or as an Old Testament adaptation applied to Christian believers.[7][page needed]

While the new Christians have encountered oppression and hostility from locals, Peter advises them to maintain loyalty both to their religion and the Roman Empire (1 Peter 2:17).[18]

The author counsels (1) to steadfastness and perseverance under persecution (1–2:10); (2) to the practical duties of a holy life (2:11–3:13); (3) he adduces the example of Christ and other motives to patience and holiness (3:14–4:19); and (4) concludes with counsels to pastors and people (chap. 5).



David Bartlett uses the following outline to structure the literary divisions of 1 Peter:[10]

Gravestone in the Czech Republic quoting 1 Peter 2:21 — "To this you were called, because Christ suffered for you, leaving you an example, that you should follow in his steps."
  • Greeting (1:1–2)
  • Praise to God (1:3–12)
  • God's Holy People (1:13–2:10)
  • Life in Exile (2:11–4:11)
  • Steadfast in Faith (4:12–5:11)
  • Final Greeting (5:12–14)



The Petrine author writes of his addressees undergoing "various trials" (1 Peter 1:6), being "tested by fire" (which isn't a physical reference but a metaphor for a spiritual warfare; 1:7), maligned "as evildoers" (2:12) and suffering "for doing good" (3:17). Based on such internal evidence, biblical scholar John Elliott summarizes the addressees' situation as one marked by undeserved suffering.[19][page needed] Verse 3:19, "Spirits in prison", is a continuing theme in Christianity, and one considered by most theologians to be enigmatic and difficult to interpret.[20]

A number of verses in the epistle contain possible clues about the reasons Christians experienced opposition. Exhortations to live blameless lives (2:15; 3:9, 13, 16) may suggest that the Christian addressees were accused of immoral behavior, and exhortations to civil obedience (2:13–17) perhaps imply that they were accused of disloyalty to governing powers.[6]

However, scholars differ on the nature of persecution inflicted on the addressees of 1 Peter. Some read the epistle to be describing persecution in the form of social discrimination, while some read them to be official persecution.[21]

English translation of 1 Peter from the 1578 Geneva Bible.

Social discrimination of Christians


Some scholars believe that the sufferings the epistle's addressees were experiencing were social in nature, specifically in the form of verbal derision.[19][page needed] Internal evidence for this includes the use of words like "malign" (2:12; 3:16), and "reviled" (4:14). Biblical scholar John Elliott notes that the author explicitly urges the addressees to respect authority (2:13) and even honor the emperor (2:17), strongly suggesting that they were unlikely to be suffering from official Roman persecution. It is significant to him that the author notes that "your brothers and sisters in all the world are undergoing the same kinds of suffering" (5:9), indicating suffering that is worldwide in scope. Elliott sees this as grounds to reject the idea that the epistle refers to official persecution, because the first worldwide persecution of Christians officially meted by Rome did not occur until the persecution initiated by Decius in AD 250.

Official persecution of Christians


On the other hand, scholars who support the official persecution theory take the exhortation to defend one's faith (3:15) as a reference to official court proceedings.[6] They believe that these persecutions involved court trials before Roman authorities, and even executions.[citation needed]

One common supposition is that 1 Peter was written during the reign of Domitian (AD 81–96). Domitian's aggressive claim to divinity would have been rejected and resisted by Christians. Biblical scholar Paul Achtemeier believes that persecution of Christians by Domitian would have been in character, but points out that there is no evidence of official policy targeted specifically at Christians. If Christians were persecuted, it is likely to have been part of Domitian's larger policy suppressing all opposition to his self-proclaimed divinity.[6] There are other scholars who explicitly dispute the idea of contextualizing 1 Peter within Domitian's reign. Duane Warden believes that Domitian's unpopularity even among Romans renders it highly unlikely that his actions would have great influence in the provinces, especially those under the direct supervision of the senate such as Asia (one of the provinces 1 Peter is addressed to).[22]

Also often advanced as a possible context for 1 Peter is the trials and executions of Christians in the Roman province of Bithynia-Pontus under Pliny the Younger. Scholars who support this theory believe that a famous letter from Pliny to Emperor Trajan concerning the delation of Christians reflects the situation faced by the addressees of this epistle.[23][24] In Pliny's letter, written in AD 112, he asks Trajan if the accused Christians brought before him should be punished based on the name 'Christian' alone, or for crimes associated with the name. For biblical scholar John Knox, the use of the word "name" in 4:14–16 is the "crucial point of contact" with that in Pliny's letter.[23] In addition, many scholars in support of this theory believe that there is content within 1 Peter that directly mirrors the situation as portrayed in Pliny's letter. For instance, they interpret the exhortation to defend one's faith "with gentleness and reverence" in 3:15–16 as a response to Pliny executing Christians for the obstinate manner in which they professed to be Christians. Generally, this theory is rejected mainly by scholars who read the suffering in 1 Peter to be caused by social, rather than official, discrimination.[25]

The Harrowing of Hell


The author refers to Jesus, after his death, proclaiming to spirits in prison (3:18–20). This passage, and a few others (such as Matthew 27:52 and Luke 23:43), are the basis of the traditional Christian belief in the descent of Christ into hell, or the harrowing of hell.[26] Though interpretations vary, some theologians[who?] see this passage as referring to Jesus, after his death, going to a place (neither heaven nor hell in the ultimate sense) where the souls of pre-Christian people waited for the Gospel. The first creeds to mention the harrowing of hell were Arian formularies of Sirmium (359), Nike (360), and Constantinople (360). It spread through the west and later appeared in the Apostles' Creed.[26]

Submissiveness of women


1 Peter 3:1 instructs women to submit to their husbands, echoing the instructions in the First Epistle to the Corinthians.

See also



  1. ^ The book is sometimes called the First Letter of Peter, or simply 1 Peter.[1] It is most commonly abbreviated as "1 Pet."[2]


  1. ^ ESV Pew Bible. Wheaton, IL: Crossway. 2018. p. 1014. ISBN 978-1-4335-6343-0. Archived from the original on 3 June 2021.
  2. ^ "Bible Book Abbreviations". Logos Bible Software. Archived from the original on 21 April 2022. Retrieved 21 April 2022.
  3. ^ Moyise, Steve (9 December 2004). The Old Testament in the New. A&C Black. p. 116. ISBN 978-0-567-08199-5.
  4. ^ Stephen L. Harris (1992). Understanding the Bible. Mayfield. p. 388. ISBN 978-1-55934-083-0. Most scholars believe that 1 Peter is pseudonymous (written anonymously in the name of a well-known figure) and was produced during postapostolic times.
  5. ^ Dale Martin 2009 (lecture). "24. Apocalyptic and Accommodation" on YouTube. Yale University. Accessed 22 July 2013. Lecture 24 (transcript)
  6. ^ a b c d Achtemeier, Paul. Peter 1 Hermeneia. Fortress Press. 1996
  7. ^ a b c Stanton 2003.
  8. ^ a b c Williams 2012, pp. 28–.
  9. ^ a b Ehrman, Bart D. (2011). Forged. HarperOne, HarperCollins. pp. 65–77. ISBN 978-0-06-201262-3.
  10. ^ a b Bartlett, David, New Interpreter's Bible Commentary, 1 Peter. Abingdon Press. 1998
  11. ^ Elliot, John. 1 Peter: Anchor Bible Commentary. Yale University Press. 2001.
  12. ^ Williams 2012, pp. 25–.
  13. ^ Moon, Jongyoon (2009). Mark As Contributive Amanuensis of 1 Peter?. Münster: LIT. ISBN 978-3-643-10428-1.
  14. ^ Daniel Keating, First and Second Peter Jude (Grand Rapids: Baker Academic, 2011) 18. Norman Hillyer, 1 and 2 Peter, Jude, New International Biblical Commentary (Peabody, MA: Henrickson, 1992), 1–3. Karen H. Jobes, 1 Peter (Grand Rapids: Baker, 2005), 14–19.
  15. ^ Lane, Dennis; Schreiner, Thomas (2016). "Introduction to 1 Peter". ESV Study Bible. Wheaton, IL: Crossway. p. 2401.
  16. ^ Bauckham, RJ (1983), Word Bible Commentary, Vol. 50, Jude – 2 Peter, Waco
  17. ^ Bruce M. Metzger, The Early Versions of the New Testament, Oxford University Press, 1977, p. 316.
  18. ^ W. R. F. Browning. 10 May 2012. "Peter, first letter of", A Dictionary of the Bible. Oxford Reference Online. Oxford University Press. University of Chicago.
  19. ^ a b Elliott 2000.
  20. ^ "Preached to the spirits in prison: I Peter iii:18–20", Christian Monthly Standard.
  21. ^ Mason, Eric F.; Martin, Troy W. (2014). Reading 1–2 Peter and Jude : A Resource for Students. Atlanta, GA: Society of Biblical Literature. pp. 16–17. ISBN 978-1-58983737-9.
  22. ^ Warden, Duane. "Imperial Persecution and the Dating of 1 Peter and Revelation". Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 34:2. 1991
  23. ^ a b Knox, John. "Pliny and I Peter: A Note on I Peter 4:14–16 and 3:15". Journal of Biblical Literature 72:3. 1953
  24. ^ Downing, F Gerald. "Pliny's Prosecutions of Christians: Revelation and 1 Peter". Journal for the Study of the New Testament 34. 1988
  25. ^ Ferguson, Everett. "Persecution in the Early Church: Did You Know?". Christian History | Learn the History of Christianity & the Church. Retrieved 8 February 2024.
  26. ^ a b Cross, F. L. 2005, ed. "Descent of Christ into Hell." The Oxford dictionary of the Christian church. New York: Oxford University Press.



Online translations of the First Epistle of Peter



First Epistle of Peter
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Books of the Bible
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