Fielding H. Yost
Fielding Harris Yost (//; April 30, 1871 – August 20, 1946) was an American football player, coach and college athletics administrator. He served as the head football coach at: Ohio Wesleyan University, the University of Nebraska, the University of Kansas, Stanford University, San Jose State University, and the University of Michigan, compiling a college football career record of 198–35–12. During his 25 seasons as the head football coach at Ann Arbor, Yost's Michigan Wolverines won six national championships, captured ten Big Ten Conference titles, and amassed a record of 165–29–10.
Yost in 1902
|Born||April 30, 1871|
Fairview, West Virginia
|Died||August 20, 1946 (aged 75)|
Ann Arbor, Michigan
|Coaching career (HC unless noted)|
|1900||San Jose State|
|Administrative career (AD unless noted)|
|Head coaching record|
|Accomplishments and honors|
|6 National (1901–1904, 1918, 1923) |
10 Western / Big Ten (1901–1904, 1906, 1918, 1922–1923, 1925–1926)
|College Football Hall of Fame|
Inducted in 1951 (profile)
From 1901 to 1905, his "Point-a-Minute" squads had a record of 55–1–1, outscoring their opponents by a margin of 2,821 to 42. The 1901 team beat Stanford, 49–0, in the 1902 Rose Bowl, the first college football bowl game. Under Yost, Michigan won four straight national championships from 1901 to 1904 and two more in 1918 and 1923.
In 1921, Yost became Michigan's athletic director and served in that capacity until 1940. He was inducted into the College Football Hall of Fame as a coach in 1951. Yost was also a successful business person, lawyer, and author; but he is best known as a leading figure in pioneering the development of college football into a national phenomenon.
- 1 Early life
- 2 College
- 3 Coaching career
- 4 Athletic director
- 5 Later years and death
- 6 Personal
- 7 Legacy
- 8 Head coaching record
- 9 See also
- 10 Notes
- 11 References
- 12 Bibliography
- 13 External links
Yost was born in Fairview, West Virginia, in April 1871. Yost's family had settled in West Virginia, in 1825. He was the oldest of four children of Parmenus (sometimes Permenus) Wesley Yost (1845–1920) and Elzena Jane (Ammons) Yost (1852–1943), both natives of West Virginia. His father was a farmer and a Confederate veteran. His family had been in Fairview since 1825 when his great, great grandfather, David Yost, settled there and took up a grant of over 2,000 acres.
He next enrolled at the Ohio Normal School (now known as Ohio Northern University). Yost played for the Ohio Normal baseball team. After three years at Ohio Normal, he returned to West Virginia to work in the oil fields.
In 1895, Yost enrolled at West Virginia University where he studied law, earning an LL.B. He also played football for the West Virginia University football team.[deprecated source] A 6-foot, 200 pounder, Yost was a standout at tackle at West Virginia into the 1896 season.
"If you can't beat 'em, join 'em."Edit
In October 1896, after his team lost three home games to Lafayette, played on three different fields over the course of three days, Yost became a remarkable personification of "If you can't beat 'em, join 'em." He transferred in mid-season to join Coach Parke H. Davis's national championship team at Lafayette. Just a week after playing against Davis in West Virginia, Yost was playing for Davis in Lafayette's historic 6-4 win over the Penn Quakers.
The fortuitous timing of his appearance on the Lafayette roster did not go unnoticed by Penn officials. They called it "the Yost affair." The Philadelphia Ledger quoted Yost as saying that he came to Lafayette only to play football. The fact that he appeared in a Lafayette uniform only once, in the Penn game, and that he returned to West Virginia within two weeks of the contest did not help appearances. He assured all concerned that he would return to Lafayette for at least three years of study.
Yost began his coaching career at age 26 as head coach of the 1897 Ohio Wesleyan football team. Yost's team compiled a 7–1–1 record, shut out six of its nine opponents (including a 6–0 victory over Ohio State and a scoreless tie with Michigan), and outscored all opponents by a total of 144 to 32. Yost played at left tackle against Michigan, leading to a protest that Ohio Wesleyan had assured Michigan that Yost, a paid coach and non-student, would not play and had engaged in trickery by introducing another individual as Yost. One week later, Michigan announced that it would no longer schedule games against Ohio Wesleyan.
In 1898, Yost was hired to coach the Nebraska football team with compensation of $1,000 for 10 weeks of service. The 1898 Nebraska team compiled an 8–3 record, including victories over Iowa State (23–10), Missouri (47–6), Kansas (18–6), and Colorado (23–10), and losses to Drake (6–5) and Iowa (6–5).
In June 1899, the University of Kansas Athletic Association offered Yost $350, and an additional $150 conditionally, to coach the school's football team. After spending the summer in Colorado, Yost arrived in Lawrence, Kansas, on September 4, 1899. During the 1899 season, the Kansas football team "lived separate from the rest of the students and ate specially selected and prepared food . . . with Coach Yost as their only mentor". The team compiled an undefeated 10–0 record, outscoring opponents 280 to 37. The season included victories over the Haskell Indians (12–0 and 18–0), Nebraska (36–20), and Missouri (34–6). During the 1899–1900 academic year, Kansas had Yost as its football coach and James Naismith as its basketball coach. Naismith also served as an assistant football coach during the 1899 season.
In May 1900, Yost was hired as the football coach at Stanford University, and, after traveling home to West Virginia, he arrived in Palo Alto, California, on August 21, 1900. Yost led the 1900 Stanford team to a 7–2–1, outscoring opponents 154 to 20.
Yost coached at Michigan from 1901 through 1923, and again in 1925 and 1926. He was highly successful at Michigan, winning 165 games, losing only 29, and tying 10 for a winning percentage of .833. Under Yost, Michigan won four straight national championships from 1901 to 1904 and two more in 1918 and 1923.
Yost's first Michigan team in 1901 outscored its opposition by a margin of 550 to 0 en route to a perfect season and victory in the inaugural Rose Bowl on January 1, 1902, over Stanford, the team Yost had coached the year before. From 1901 to 1904, Michigan did not lose a game, and was tied only once in a legendary game with the Minnesota Golden Gophers that led to the establishment of the Little Brown Jug trophy. Yost's teams used the short punt formation. He also developed a play called "Old 83" resembling an option.
Before Michigan finally lost a game to Amos Alonzo Stagg's Chicago Maroons squad at the end of the 1905 season, they had gone 56 straight games without a defeat, the second longest such streak in college football history. During their first five seasons under Yost, Michigan outscored its opponents 2,821 to 42, earning the Michigan team the nickname "Point-a-Minute." The team featured running back Willie Heston, who Yost called the greatest player he ever saw.[n 1]
In 1908, Michigan lost to Penn 29–0, the worst defeat suffered by a Michigan team during the Yost era. Yost said of Schulz's performance: "He gave the greatest one-man exhibition of courage I ever saw on a football field."
In 1909, Michigan suffered its first loss to Notre Dame. In 1910, Michigan was led by All-Americans Albert Benbrook and Stanfield Wells and played its only undefeated season of the independent years, compiling a 3–0–3 record.
In 1916, John Maulbetsch led Michigan to one of its finest records. The Wolverines won seven straight games.
Return to Western ConferenceEdit
Led by fullback Frank Steketee, the 1918 team went undefeated in the war-shortened season. The 1922 and 1923 teams went undefeated, led by punter Harry Kipke. The only blemish was a tie with Yost protege and brother-in-law Dan McGugin's Vanderbilt.[n 2]
At the end of the season, Yost called the 1925 Michigan team "the greatest football team I ever coached" and "the greatest football team I ever saw in action". The team featured quarterback Benny Friedman and left end Bennie Oosterbaan, sometimes referred to as "The Benny-to-Bennie Show".
In tribute to the school where Yost began his coaching career, he arranged for Michigan to play its first game at Ferry Field (September 30, 1905) and its first game at Michigan Stadium (October 1, 1927) against Ohio Wesleyan.
After retiring from coaching, Yost remained at Michigan as the school's athletic director, a position he held until 1940, then held the title of athletic director emeritus. Under his leadership, Michigan Stadium, Yost Fieldhouse (now Yost Ice Arena), and the university's golf course were constructed.
Later years and deathEdit
Yost was in poor health for several years before his death and was hospitalized at the Battle Creek Sanitarium in May 1946. He reportedly suffered from a stroke, but was released after two weeks and returned to his home in Ann Arbor, Michigan. In August 1946, Yost died of a gall bladder attack at his home. He was survived by his wife, whom he had married in 1906, a son, Fielding H. Yost, Jr., two brothers, Ellis and Nichola, and a sister, Mrs. Charles Barry. Yost was buried at Ann Arbor's Forest Hill Cemetery near the University of Michigan campus.
A native of West Virginia, Yost's unusual pronunciation of the school's name, "MEE-she-gan," copied by long-time Michigan football broadcaster Bob Ufer, is affectionately carried on by many Michigan football fans and often referenced by ESPN sportscaster Chris Fowler.
A devout Christian, he was nevertheless among the first coaches to allow Jewish players on his teams, including Joe Magidsohn and Benny Friedman. However, Murray Sperber's book Shake Down the Thunder places principal responsibility for the Big Ten blackballing and boycotting of Notre Dame on Yost. It also claims this was motivated by anti-Catholic and anti-immigrant prejudice common in the early 20th century, though John Kyrk's book Natural Enemies points out that there was a bitter feud between Yost and Knute Rockne, head coach of the Notre Dame football team.
Arguably, no one has left a larger mark on University of Michigan athletics and varsity football than Fielding Yost. "No other man has ever given as much heart, soul, brains, and tongue to the game he loved—football" said Grantland Rice. A longtime football coach and athletic director, his career was marked with achievement. Yost was among the inaugural class of inductees to the College Football Hall of Fame in 1951.
Yost invented the position of linebacker with center Germany Schulz; co-created the first ever bowl game, the 1902 Rose Bowl, with then legendary UM athletic director Charles Baird; invented the fieldhouse concept that bears his name; and supervised the building of the first on-campus building dedicated to intramural sports.
Yost was also known for a series of admonitions to his players beginning with the words, "Hurry up," for example, "Hurry up and be the first man down the field on a punt or kick-off." This inclination earned him the nickname, "Hurry up" Yost. He was also an innovator of the hurry up offense.
Yost initiated the concept of coaching as an actual profession near the turn of the century when he was paid as much as a UM professor. The professionalization of coaches that started with Yost and earlier, Walter Camp at Yale University, symbolized how serious college football was becoming, and Yost symbolized this more so than any of his peers. It was he who first articulated the now accepted premise about student-athletes in the sport that: "Football builds character."
No fewer than 77 men who either played for Yost, or coached under him as an assistant, went on to become head coaches in college football. Two, Benny Friedman and Tommy Hughitt, helmed teams in the National Football League (NFL). Yost's coaching tree includes:
- Dave Allerdice: played for Michigan (1907–1909), assistant for Michigan (1910), head coach for Butler (1911), Texas (1911–1915)
- Ernest Allmendinger: played for Michigan (1911–1913), head coach for South Dakota School of Mines (1914)
- George Babcock: played for Michigan (1923–1925), head coach for Akron (1926) and Cincinnati (1927–1930).
- Ted Bank: played for Michigan (1919–1921), head coach for Idaho (1935–1940).
- Roy Beechler: played for Michigan (1904), head coach for Mount Union (1905).
- Jack Blott: played for Michigan (1922–1923), assistant for Michigan (1924–1933), head coach for Wesleyan Cardinals (1934–1940).
- Thomas A. Bogle, Jr.: played for Michigan (1910–1911), head coach for DePauw (1913–1914).
- Stanley Borleske: played for Michigan (1908–1910), head coach for North Dakota Agricultural (1919–1921, 1923–1924, 1928), Fresno State (1929–1932).
- Alan Bovard: played for Michigan (1926–1929), head coach for Michigan Tech (1947–1956).
- Franklin Cappon: played for Michigan (1920–1922), assistant for Michigan (1925, 1928–1937), head coach for Luther (IA) (1923–1924) and Kansas (1926–1927).
- Otto Carpell: played for Michigan (1909–1912), head coach for Albion (1913)
- Abe Cohn: played for Michigan (1917–1918, 1920); head coach for Whitworth (1922–1923).
- William C. "King" Cole: played for Michigan (1902), assistant for Michigan (1904), head coach for Marietta (1903), Virginia (1905–1906), Nebraska (1907–1910).
- James B. Craig: played for Michigan (1911–1913), head coach for Arkansas (1919).
- Wilbur M. Cunningham: played for Michigan (1907–1910), head coach for Transylvania (1912).
- Joe Curtis: played for Michigan (1903–1906), head coach for Tulane (1907–1908), Colorado Mines (1909).
- James DePree: played for Michigan (1903–1904), head coach for Tennessee (1905–1906)
- Prentiss Douglass: played for Michigan (1907–1908), assistant for Michigan (1909–1910), head coach for Kentucky (1911).
- David L. Dunlap: played for Michigan (1901–1903, 1905), head coach for Kenyon (1906), North Dakota (1908–1911), Allegheny (1912).
- William P. Edmunds: played for Michigan (1908–1910), head coach for West Virginia (1912), Washington University (1913–1916), Vermont (1919).
- Benny Friedman: played for Michigan (1925–1926), head coach for New York Giants (1930) and Brooklyn Dodgers (1932) of the NFL, head coach for CCNY and Brandeis (1951–1959).
- Joe Gembis: played for Michigan (1926–1929), head coach for Wayne State (MI) (1932–1945).
- Herb Graver: played for Michigan (1901–1903), head coach for Marietta (1904).
- George W. Gregory: played for Michigan (1901–1903), head coach for Kenyon (1905).
- Thomas S. Hammond: played for Michigan (1903–1905), head coach for Ole Miss (1906).
- Albert Hansen: played for Yost at Nebraska (1898), head coach for Kansas State (1899).
- Albert E. Herrnstein: played for Michigan (1899–1902), head coach for Haskell Institute (1903–1904), Purdue (1905), Ohio State (1906–1909).
- Willie Heston: played for San Jose State Normal under Yost in 1900 and for Michigan (1901–1904), head coach for Drake (1905), North Carolina A&M (1906)
- Herbert Huebel: played for Yost (1911-1912), head coach for Rose Polytechnic (1913-1914).
- Tommy Hughitt: played for Michigan (1912–1914), head coach for Maine (1915–1916) and Buffalo All-Americans/Bison of the NFL (1920–1924).
- Emory J. Hyde: played for Michigan in 1901, head coach for TCU (1905–1907).
- Roy W. Johnson: played for Michigan (1919), head coach for New Mexico (1920–1930).
- Paul Jones: played for Michigan (1901–1903), head coach for Western Reserve (1904–1905).
- Harry Kipke: played for Michigan (1920–1923), assistant for Michigan (1924–1927), head coach for Michigan State (1928), Michigan (1929–1937).
- James C. Knight: played for Michigan (1901), head coach for Washington (1902–1904)
- Jesse R. Langley: played for Michigan (1904–1907), head coach for TCU (1908–1909)
- Belford Lawson Jr.: played for Michigan (1921–1923) head coach for Jackson College (1925–1926, 1928)
- George M. Lawton: played for Michigan (1908–1910) head coach for Detroit (1913–1914).
- George Little, assistant for Michigan (1922–1923), head coach for Michigan (1924), Wisconsin (1925–1926).
- Frank Longman: played for Michigan (1903–1905), head coach for Arkansas (1906–1907), Wooster (1908), Notre Dame (1909–1910)
- Jay Mack Love: played for Michigan (1904–1905), head coach for Southwestern (KS) (1906–1907)
- Joe Maddock, played for Michigan (1902–1903), head coach for Utah (1904–1909), Oregon (1924).
- Paul Magoffin: played for Michigan (1904–1907), assistant for Michigan (1909), head coach for North Dakota Agricultural (1908), George Washington (1910).
- John Maulbetsch: played for Michigan (1914–1916), head coach for Phillips (1917–1920), Oklahoma A&M (1921–1928), Marshall (1929–1930).
- Thomas L. McFadden: played for Yost at Stanford (1900), head coach for Pacific (1901–1902), Oregon Agricultural (1903), DePauw (1904).
- Dan McGugin: played for Michigan (1901–1902), assistant for Michigan (1903), head coach for Vanderbilt (1904–1917, 1919–1934).
- William Melford: played for Nebraska (1898), head coach for Washburn (1899)
- Bo Molenda: played for Michigan (1925–1926), head coach for Menlo College (1950–1969); also an assistant coach in professional football for the New York Giants 1936–1941 (interim head coach for the 1939 NFL Championship Game); Green Bay Packers (1947–1948); Chicago Hornets (1949)
- Wade Moore: played for Yost at Kansas (1899), head coach for Kansas State (1901).
- Fay Moulton: played for Yost at Kansas (1899), head coach for Kansas State (1900)
- Fred Norcross: played for Michigan (1903–1905), head coach at Oregon Agricultural (1906–1908).
- Bennie Oosterbaan: played for Michigan (1925–1927), assistant for Michigan (1928–1947), head coach for Michigan (1948–1958).
- Bennie Owen: played for Yost at Kansas (1899), assistant for Michigan (1901), head coach for Bethany (KS) (1902–1904), Oklahoma (1905–1926).
- Andrew G. Reid: played for Michigan (1901), head coach for Monmouth (IL) (1907–1909)
- Curtis Redden: played for Michigan, head coach for Transylvania.
- Walter Rheinschild: played for Michigan (1904–1907), head coach for Washington State (1908), St. Vincent (CA) (1909), Throop (1913), Occidental (1916–1917).
- George Rich: played for Michigan (1926–1928), head coach Denison (1931–1934)
- Thomas J. Riley: played for Michigan (1908), head coach for Maine (1911–1913), Amherst (1914–1916)
- Tod Rockwell: played for Michigan (1923–1924), head coach for North Dakota (1926–1927), Louisiana Tech (1928–1929)
- Frederick Schule: played for Michigan (1903), head coach for Montana (1905–1906).
- Henry Schulte: played for Michigan (1903–1905), head coach for Eastern Michigan (1906–1908), Cape Girardeau (1909–1913), Missouri (1914–1917), Nebraska (1919–1920)
- Germany Schulz: played for Michigan (1904–1905, 1907–1908), assistant for Michigan (1913–1915), head coach for Detroit (1922–1923).
- Bruce Shorts: played for Michigan (1900–1901), head coach for Nevada (1904), Oregon (1905).
- Andrew W. Smith: played for Michigan (1909), assistant coach under Yost (1911–1912), head coach at Throop College of Technology, now California Institute of Technology (1914–c. 1917)
- Theodore M. Stuart: played for Michigan (1904–1905), head coach for Colorado School of Mines (1910–1911).
- Everett Sweeley: played for Michigan (1899–1902), head coach for Morningside (1903), Washington State (1904–1905)
- William I. Traeger: played for Yost at Stanford (1900), head coach for Pomona (1902) and Occidental (1903)
- Joseph Truskowski: played for Michigan (1926–1929), head coach for Olivet (1931)
- Leigh C. Turner: assistant for Michigan (1905), head coach for Purdue (1907)
- Irwin Uteritz: played for Michigan (1921–1923), head coach for Washington University (1949–1952).
- George F. Veenker: assistant for Michigan (1926–1929), head coach for Iowa State (1931–1936).
- Billy Wasmund: played for Michigan (1907–1909), head coach for Texas (1910–1911)
- Boss Weeks: played for Michigan (1900–1902), head coach for Kansas (1903), Beloit (1904)
- Hugh White: played for Michigan (1898–1901), head coach for Washington University (1902)
- Elton Wieman: played for Michigan (1915–1917, 1920), assistant for Michigan (1921–1926), head coach for Michigan (1927–1928), Princeton (1938–1942).
- Eben Wilson: played for Michigan (1899–1901), head coach for Wabash (1902–1903), Alma (1904–1905).
- Hugh E. Wilson: played for Michigan (1918–1921), head coach for Louisiana Tech (1926–1927)
Head coaching recordEdit
|Ohio Wesleyan (Independent) (1897)|
|Nebraska Bugeaters (Independent) (1898)|
|Kansas Jayhawks (Independent) (1899)|
|Stanford (Independent) (1900)|
|(San Jose) State Normal (Independent) (1900)|
|1900||State Normal||1–0[n 3]|
|San Jose State:||1–0|
|Michigan Wolverines (Western Conference) (1901–1906)|
|Michigan Wolverines (Independent) (1907–1916)|
|Michigan Wolverines (Big Ten Conference) (1917–1923)|
|Michigan Wolverines (Big Ten Conference) (1925–1926)|
|National championship Conference title Conference division title or championship game berth|
- Yost's all-time All-America backfield was Heston, Walter Eckersall, Jim Thorpe, and Elmer Oliphant.
- Yost was best man at McGugin's wedding.
- The NCAA football record book credits Yost with a 7–4 record coaching Nebraska in the 1898 season, incorrectly noting a 24–0 loss to William Jewell. Nebraska's records show a 38–0 victory over William Jewell on October 22, 1898, in Kansas City, Missouri, and credit Yost with an 8–3 record for the season; see 1898 Nebraska Bugeaters football team. Additionally, the NCAA does not officially credit Yost for serving as interim head coach in 1900 at State Normal School (now San Jose State University), whereas San Jose State records and numerous other sources credit Yost with a 12–0 victory over Chico State and a 1–0 record at the school. The NCAA, thus, lists Yost with a record of 196–36–12, two fewer wins and one more loss than indicated in the table above.
- "Hall of Fame Inductees". Atlanta Hall Management, Inc. Archived from the original on August 17, 2016. Retrieved July 27, 2016.
- Falls 1996, p. 19
- Behee 1971, p. 17
- Onofrio 1999, pp. 289–290
- Pope 1955, p. 312
- "Fielding Yost Will Write On Football For The Gazette Sports Page Readers". Charleston Gazette. September 27, 1931.
- Maramba, Kris Wise, "Fielding Yost, another son of Marion County, excelled with Wolverines", Charleston Daily Mail, December 18, 2007 Archived December 20, 2007, at Archive.today
- "Lafayette vs. University of West Virginia". The Lafayette. October 23, 1896. p. 36. Archived from the original on February 16, 2012.
- "Site Suspended - This site has stepped out for a bit". Archived from the original on 2009-11-14. Retrieved 2009-06-28.
- "Lafayette College Foot-Ball". The Lafayette. January 15, 1897 (misprinted as 1896). p. 100. Archived from the original on 2012-02-16. Check date values in:
- "Editorial Department and Yost a Bona-fide Student". The Lafayette. November 20, 1896. pp. 66–68. Archived from the original on February 16, 2012.
- "Michigan Blacklists Ohio Wesleyan". The Saint Paul Globe. October 17, 1897. p. 14 – via Newspapers.com.
- "Michigan Plays a Poor Game: Fails to Score Against Ohio Wesleyan's Eleven". The Daily Inter Ocean. October 10, 1897. p. 8 – via Newspapers.com.
- "Football". Wheeling (WV) Daily Intelligencer. September 5, 1898. p. 3. Archived from the original on February 2, 2017.
- "Probable Football Coach: Yost of Nebraska Likely To Be Employed in That Capacity". Lawrence Daily Journal. June 7, 1899. p. 4.
- "Coach Yost On Hand". Lawrence Daily World. September 5, 1899. p. 4.
- "Will Yost Coach Tigers?". Larence Daily World. December 4, 1899. p. 2. Archived from the original on February 2, 2017.
- "Likes Yost's Manner: President Jordan of Leland Stanford University Gives His Opinion of the Coach". Lawrence Daily Journal. May 8, 1900. p. 4. Archived from the original on November 19, 2015.
- "Stanford's Football Coach Has Arrived". San Francisco Chronicle. August 22, 1900. p. 4.
- Pope 1955, p. 313
- "Yost Takes Charge at Michigan". Detroit Free Press. April 6, 1901. p. 6.
- Retyl, Richard, U-M's Shotgun Offense is Older than the Winged Helmets Themselves Archived 2010-11-13 at the Wayback Machine. Nov. 9, 2010. MGoBlue.com. Retrieved June 26, 2013.
- Pope 1955, p. 315
- "All-Time University of Michigan Football Record". University of Michigan, Bentley Historical Library. Retrieved March 27, 2011.
- Gruver 2002, p. 21
- Grantland Rice (repeating comments made by Fielding Yost) (1925-01-10). "In the Sportlight". Ogden Standard-Examiner.
- Wheeler 2012, p. 198
- Malcolm Bingay, "A Little About This and That: How Schulz Entered Michigan Still A Mystery," The Morning Herald, May 1, 1951; ; "Frankly Speaking: Schulz' Great Grid Exploits Reviewed," The Long Beach Press-Telegram, April 17, 1951.
- Joe Jackson (November 15, 1908). "Michigan's Worst Defeat of the Yost Regime: Figures in Pennsylvania Game Are 29 to 0, Men of the East Proving Best Eleven School Has Had Against Michigan--Injuries To Schulz and Allerdice Prove Costly". Detroit Free Press. p. 17.
- "University of Michigan Football All-American, 1907, Team Captain, 1908; Adolph "Germany" Schulz". The Regents of the University of Michigan. February 10, 2007. Archived from the original on December 18, 2007. Retrieved December 31, 2007.
- "1909 Football Team". University of Michigan, Bentley Historical Library. Archived from the original on 2010-04-08.
- "1910 Football Team". University of Michigan, Bentley Historical Library. Archived from the original on 2009-06-11.
- "Coach McGugin to Wed". The Atlanta Constitution. December 3, 1905. p. 3. Archived from the original on October 9, 2016. Retrieved October 8, 2016 – via Newspapers.com.
- "Yost Calls 1925 Eleven Greatest: Does Not Even Except Wonderful Teams of 1901 and 1902; Rolled Up Grand 227 Point Total; Wolverine Mentor Says He's Proud to Have Coached Boys". The Hartford Courant. November 29, 1925. p. B2.
- "The Michigan Stadium Story: Opening Day, Oct. 1, 1927, UM vs. Ohio". University of Michigan, Bentley Historical Library. Archived from the original on August 16, 2015. Retrieved August 10, 2015.
- "Fielding Yost Sick". The Morning Herald. Hagerstown, Maryland. Associated Press. May 31, 1946.
- "Fielding Yost Said To Be Seriously Ill". Ironwood Daily Globe. Ironwood, Michigan. Associated Press. May 31, 1946.
- "'Hurry Up' Yost Dean Of Michigan Football Coaches, Dies At His Home: Michigan's Grand Old Man of Football Dies of Gall Bladder Attack". The Morning Herald. Hagerstown, Maryland. Associated Press. August 21, 1946.
- "Fielding Yost Laid To Rest Near Campus". Abilene Reporter-News. Abilene, Texas. August 23, 1946.
- Chengelis 2012, p. 41
- Chengelis 2012, p. 40
- "Mossman: Hurry-Up Not New at OU".
- "Three More Michigan Men Land Coaching Jobs". Detroit Free Press. September 4, 1914. p. 12. Archived from the original on November 20, 2015.
- "Babcock Appointed". Youngstown Vindicator. March 12, 1927.
- "Ted Bank Named Idaho Grid Coach". The Pittsburgh Press (UP story). February 24, 1935.
- "New Coach for Mt. Union". Pittsburgh Daily Post. August 6, 1905. p. 15. Archived from the original on February 3, 2017.
- "Need Yost's Approval to Clinch Line Coach Position for Bernard: Local Athlete Expected to Replace Jack Blott". The News Palladium (Benton Harbor, Michigan). February 27, 1934.
- "Methodists Read to Face Michigan: Student of Wolverine Coach is In Charge of DePauw Team". The Crawfordsville Review. September 29, 1914.
- "Fresno County Athletic Hall of Fame - Home". Archived from the original on 2017-03-04.
- "Name Bovard Engineers' Grid Coach". Detroit Free Press. January 26, 1947. p. 37. Archived from the original on August 18, 2016.
- C.E. M'Bride (January 17, 1926). "Yost Pupil Takes Reins As Grid Coach at Kansas: Frank Cappon, Assistant Mentor at Michigan, Steps In to Fill Vacancy Made by Recent Resignation Of 'Potsy' Clark; His First Aide, Steele, Also Hails From Ann Arbor Institution". The Lincoln Sunday Star.
- "Cohn to Coach at Whitworth: Spokane Man, Former Michigan Star, Selected for Football, Basketball". The Spokesman-Review. September 27, 1921.
- "COLE TO COACH VIRGINIA: Michigan Man to Have Charge of Old". The Washington Post. August 27, 1906.
- "University Director of Athletics Announced". Fayetteville Democrat. August 15, 1919.
- "Football Practice: Tulane Begins Tomorrow — Conch Curtis Arrived and Took Charge — Schedule of Games". Galveston Daily News. September 20, 1908.
- "Ex-Wolverine Dies". The Holland Evening Sentinel. November 10, 1949.
- "Dr. Dunlap Chosen: Allegheny College Trustees Elect Physical Director". The Gazette Times. August 22, 1912.
- "Edmunds To Coach Vermont" (PDF). The New York Times. September 14, 1919. Archived from the original (PDF) on November 3, 2018.
- "Ben Friedman Signs To Coach City College". Plainfield, N.J., Courier News. February 5, 1934. p. 16.
- "Wayne State University - Hall of Fame".
- "News-Classes". Michigan Alumnus. Dec 1904. p. 151.
- The Rainbow of the Delta Tau Delta, Volume 29. Delta Tau Delta fraternity. 1905. p. 68.
- "Another Michigan Coach". The Washington Post. June 10, 1906.
- Willard, Julius (1940). History of Kansas State College of Agriculture and Applied Science. pp. 503–04. Archived from the original on 2014-07-20.
- Charles Baird (October 11, 1908). "Ann Arbor Giants Ready for the Football Season". Fort Wayne Journal-Gazette.
- ""Hub" Huebel Was An Escanaba Visitor". Escanaba Daily Press. August 16, 1913.
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