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Pakistan military exercises are military exercises conducted by the Pakistan Armed Forces to increase combat readiness, and to identify problems in logistics, training, and current military doctrine.[1] They also test the ability of units to work together.[1] Lastly they act as a visible expression of military might, which acts as a deterrent to potential enemy action.[2][3] Most exercises are established recurring ones conducted independently by the Pakistan Army, Pakistan Navy, Pakistan Air Force and Pakistan Marines. Although since 1989 the four branches services have increasingly begun coordinated exercises.[4][5][6] An important component of each exercise is the after-action assessment.[5]

Joint military exercises with the armed forces of other countries are also carried out on an ad hoc basis by the armed forces of Pakistan.

ArmyEdit

Azm-e-NauEdit

The first Exercise Azm-e-Nau was conducted in 2009, while an army exercise, it was fully coordinated with the navy and air force.[5][7]

In June 2013, the Pakistan Armed Forces started Azm-i-Nau IV to update the military's "readiness strategy for dealing with the complex security threat environment." The objective of the exercise was to assess military tactics, procedures and techniques in the event of the emerging threat environment, and explore joint operations strategies in response to combating the threat through all three branches of the military.[8]

Zarb-e-MominEdit

Exercise Zarb–e–Momin is a joint-command field exercise conducted by the Pakistan Army since 1989. The exercises are conducted to test out the new weapon systems, and include such units as the Pakistan Army Aviation Corps and the Pakistan Army Artillery Corps.[9] The exercise involves the deployment of three field corps, two armored brigades, two artillery divisions, one air-defence division.[9]

Since 1989, Zarb–e–Momin has usually been held in conjunction with exercise High Mark of the Pakistan Air Force.[4]

NavyEdit

Sea SparkEdit

Exercise Sea Spark is largest of the naval exercises periodically conducted by the Pakistan Navy to simulate naval warfare and the protection of the country's maritime border.[10][11]

In 2012 the exercise took place in the North Arabian Sea and started on 17 September 2012.[10] The navy officials stressed that exercises were aimed at assessing "operational readiness" and providing an opportunity to the officers and sailors to operate in a multi-threat environment and to exercise their responses accordingly.[12] The navy deployed all active-duty combatant ships, submarines, fighter jets and the special operations forces, including the entire division of Marines and the naval establishments to cover the entire gamut of naval operations.[13] The exercise also included the joint involvement of the army and air force for special joint operations.[14] The navy put special emphasis on conventional and non-conventional war games, including the features of army and air force pitching against navy to determine the naval capabilities in joint operations in specific threat environment.[15]

In 2015 part of Exercise Sea Spark was witnessed by the prime minister. The Navy demonstrated a range of naval warfare operations against both traditional and non-traditional targets. Included were countering threats from terrorists and pirates. There were live weapon firings and naval aviation fly-bys.[16]

Shamsheer-e-BehrEdit

Exercise Shamsheer-e-Behr is a biannual naval war game conducted in Karachi. It focuses on testing the Navy's field exercises, and incorporating them into naval strategies.[17][18]

Tahaffuz-e-SahilEdit

Exercise Tahaffuz-e-Sahil is a periodic naval exercise demonstrating and testing techniques for protection of the coast. In 2015 the exercise focused on protecting the port at Gwadar.[19]

Air forceEdit

The Pakistan Air Force has several major recurring military exercises:

High MarkEdit

Exercise High Mark is the PAF's largest and most comprehensive exercise and is held about every five years.[20] In 2010, it lasted for forty days and covered air defenses across the entire country.[20] Recently it has included army and naval units.

Flat OutEdit

Exercise Flat Out is an aerial military exercise conducted by the Pakistan Air Force with an objectives of providing training of its personnel for surge operations in war. Because of the induction of new aircraft and in the light of past experience, the rules governing this exercise were modified in 1996 to conform with the wartime role of the various squadrons.[21]

Saffron BanditEdit

Exercise Saffron Bandit is a major "command level" combat training exercise, usually held either bi-annually or tri-annually, by the Pakistan Air Force.[22][23][24][25] The initial targets, mainstream goals and purpose of the exercise are focused specifically on the threat from India, particularly that emanating from the Indian Air Force.

Wide AwakeEdit

Exercise Wide Awake is an aerial exercise tests the ability of bases and fighter squadrons to react to operational requirements at short notice in peacetime.[26] Since 1997, it has been regularly conducted by the PAF.[26]

Joint exercisesEdit

Pakistan has carried out a number of joint military exercises with China,[27][28][29] Russia,[30] Saudi Arabia,[31] Iran,[32][33] and Turkey.[34]

In 2010, the Pakistan Air Force participated in the multinational air exercise called Exercise Red Flag at Nellis Air Force Base, Nevada.[35][36] They sent several F-16s across the Atlantic with aerial refueling.[37]

Notes and referencesEdit

  1. ^ a b The objective of the war games is to assess military tactics, techniques and procedures and to explore strategies for joint operations with other services. "Army opens war games 'Azm-i-Nau IV'". Dawn. Karachi, Pakistan. 4 June 2013. Archived from the original on 10 August 2013. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  2. ^ Khan, Zafar (2014). Pakistan's Nuclear Policy: A Minimum Credible Deterrence. London: Routledge. p. 78. ISBN 978-1-317-67601-0.
  3. ^ "Pakistan's Military Exercise AZM-E-NAU: Need To Monitor Scale and Scope". Vivekananda International Foundation. Archived from the original on 3 January 2016. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  4. ^ a b Usman, Shabbir. "High Mark and Zarb-e-Momin". PakDef Military Consortium (PMC) (an NGO). Archived from the original on 2 January 2016.
  5. ^ a b c Khan, Raja M. (18 April 2010). "Message through Exercise Azm-e-Nau-III". Pakistan Observer. Archived from the original on 2 January 2016. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  6. ^ "Army capable of responding to threats: COAS". Daily Times. Lahore, Pakistan. 14 May 2014. Archived from the original on 14 July 2014. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  7. ^ "Pakistan Army to preempt India's 'Cold Start Doctrine'". The Express Tribune. Karachi, Pakistan. 16 June 2013. Archived from the original on 20 June 2013. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  8. ^ "Army opens war games 'Azm-i-Nau IV'". Dawn. Karachi, Pakistan. 4 June 2013. Archived from the original on 10 August 2013. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  9. ^ a b ISPR. "Exercise Zarb-e-Momin". Inter Services Public Relations (ISPR). Archived from the original on 28 June 2002. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help) (not an official site)
  10. ^ a b PPI (18 September 2012). "SEASPARK -12: Navy starts exercises for operational readiness". The Express Tribune. Karachi, Pakistan. Archived from the original on 19 September 2012. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  11. ^ Haider, Salahuddin (5 November 2015). "Pakistan Navy's Sea Spark exercises, focusses attention on Many an Important Aspect". Pakistan Observer. Archived from the original on 2 January 2016. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  12. ^ Correspondent (18 September 2012). "Navy's Seaspark-12 exercise commences". The News International. Archived from the original on 18 September 2012. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  13. ^ "Navy exercise Seaspark-12 goes off". Pakistan Today. 1 September 2012. Archived from the original on 3 January 2016. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  14. ^ "Seaspark-12 gets under way". Dawn. Karachi, Pakistan. 17 September 2012. Archived from the original on 11 November 2013. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  15. ^ "'Pak Navy fully capable of meeting any emergency'". Pakistan Today. 19 September 2012. Archived from the original on 3 January 2016.
  16. ^ "PM witnesses Seaspark exercise in North Arabian Sea". Daily Times. Lahore, Pakistan. 12 November 2015. Archived from the original on 16 November 2015. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  17. ^ "Development projects to help boost trade in the region: PM". Radio Pakistan. 19 August 2016. Retrieved 19 August 2016.
  18. ^ "Shamsheer-e-Bahr-VI gets under way". AAJ TV. 26 July 2016. Retrieved 19 August 2016.
  19. ^ "Submarines, ships, aircrafts [sic] participate in 'Tahaffuz-e-Sahil' exercises". Dunya News (TV). Lahore, Pakistan. 16 August 2015. Archived from the original on 3 January 2016. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  20. ^ a b Malik, Sajjad (13 March 2010). "PAF to launch 'Exercise High Mark' next week". Daily Times. Lahore, Pakistan. Archived from the original on 2 January 2016. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  21. ^ "Exercise "Flat Out"". Pakistan Defence Consortium. Archived from the original on 3 January 2016. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  22. ^ "'PAF can respond effectively to any threat'". Daily Times. Lahore, Pakistan. 22 February 2010. Archived from the original on 2 January 2016. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  23. ^ "PAF 'Saffron Bandit' annual war games have begun". The Nation. Lahore, Pakistan. 5 September 2009. Archived from the original on 14 October 2013. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  24. ^ "CJCSC witnesses Saffron Bandit exercise". The Nation. Lahore, Pakistan. 25 January 2013. Archived from the original on 13 December 2013. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  25. ^ "PAF ready to meet challenges: Air Chief - Exercise Saffron Bandit 2012-13 launched". Pakistan Observer. 26 October 2012. Archived from the original on 25 September 2015. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  26. ^ a b "Exercise "Wide Awake"". Pakistan Defence Consortium. Archived from the original on 2 January 2016. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  27. ^ Makhdoom, Ahmad Waqas; Khan, Abdul Basit & Khan, Mazhar Abbas (2014). "A Study of Pakistan-China Defense Relations (2000-2012)". Research on Humanities and Social Sciences. 4 (22): 184–192. Archived from the original on 3 January 2016. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  28. ^ "Joint air exercise of PAF, PLAA 'Shaheen-II' concludes". Pakistan Observer. 24 September 2013. Archived from the original on 2 January 2016. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  29. ^ "Pak-China joint air exercise concludes". Pakistan Observer. 4 October 2015. Archived from the original on 12 October 2015. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  30. ^ "Russia and Pakistan to Strengthen Military Cooperation". Sputnik News. 8 December 2015. Archived from the original on 3 January 2016. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  31. ^ "Army chief witnesses Saudi-Pak joint training exercise near Jhelum". Dawn. Karachi, Pakistan. 30 October 2015. Archived from the original on 16 November 2015. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  32. ^ In February–March 1994 it [Iran] held joint naval maneuvers with Pakistan, its first military exercise with a foreign country since the 1979 revolution. Eisenstadt, Michael (8 March 1995). "Iran's Naval Buildup in the Gulf: An Assessment". Policywatch #140. The Washington Institute. Archived from the original on 8 January 2013. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  33. ^ "Iran, Pakistan begin joint military drill in Hormuz Strait". Islamic Republic News Agency (IRNA). 8 April 2014. Archived from the original on 3 January 2016. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  34. ^ Haider, Mateen (18 October 2015). "Pak-Turkey joint air exercise comes to end". Dawn. Karachi, Pakistan. Archived from the original on 18 October 2015. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  35. ^ "PAF F-16s Depart for "Red Flag" Exercise in USA". Directorate of Media Affairs, Pakistan Air Force. 10 July 2010. Archived from the original on 27 November 2010. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  36. ^ Hali, S. M. (4 August 2010). "PAF at Red Flag Exercise". The Nation. Karachi, Pakistan. Archived from the original on 29 November 2014. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  37. ^ Phelps, Daniel (11 August 2010). "20th FW and Pakistani airmen reunite at Red Flag". 20th Fighter Wing Public Affairs, United States Air Force. Archived from the original on 3 January 2016. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)

Further readingEdit

  • Acuilar, Francisco; Bell, Randy; Black, Natalie; Falk, Sayce; Rogers, Sasha & Peritz, Aki (July 2011). "An Introduction to Pakistan's Military" (PDF). Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University. Archived (PDF) from the original on 17 December 2014. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)

External linksEdit