Agosta-class submarine

The Agosta-class submarine is a class of diesel-electric fast-attack submarine developed and constructed by the French DCNS in 1970s to succeed the Daphné-class submarines. The submarines have served in the French Navy as well as exported to the navies of Spain and Pakistan. It also used by Royal Malaysian Navy for the training purpose. They were replaced in French service by the Rubis-class nuclear attack submarines but are still in active service with the navies of Spain and Pakistan. The French Navy grouped this model of submarine in their most capable class as an océanique, meaning "ocean-going."[1]

OuessantBrest2005.jpg
French Agosta-70 submarine Ouessant at Brest in 2005
Class overview
Operators:
Preceded by: Daphné class
Succeeded by:
Subclasses: Agosta 90B
In commission: 1977 – Active in service in Spain and Pakistan
General characteristics
Displacement:
  • 1,500 long tons (1,524 t) surfaced
  • 1,760 long tons (1,788 t) submerged (France, Spain)
  • 2,050 long tons (2,083 t) submerged (Pakistan)
Length:
  • 67 m (219 ft 10 in) (France, Spain)
  • 76 m (249 ft 4 in) (Pakistan)
Beam: 6 m (19 ft 8 in)
Speed:
  • 12 knots (22 km/h; 14 mph) surfaced
  • 20.5 knots (38.0 km/h; 23.6 mph) submerged
  • 10.5 knots (19.4 km/h; 12.1 mph) submerged (snort)
Range: 8,500 miles (13,679 km)
Test depth:
  • 300 m (980 ft) (France, Spain)
  • 350 m (1,150 ft) (Pakistan)
Complement:
  • 5 officers
  • 36 men
Sensors and
processing systems:
  • Thomson CSF DRUA 33 Radar
  • Thomson Sintra DSUV 22
  • DUUA 2D Sonar
  • DUUA 1D Sonar
  • DUUX 2 Sonar
  • DSUV 62A towed array
Armament:

ShipsEdit

French NavyEdit

built by Arsenal de Cherbourg

  • Agosta (S 620) – completed 1977 – decommissioned 1997
  • Bévéziers (S 621) – completed 1977 – decommissioned 1998
  • La Praya (S 622) – completed 1978 – decommissioned 2000
  • Ouessant (S 623) – completed 1978 – decommissioned 2001(transferred to Royal Malaysian Navy).

Royal Malaysian NavyEdit

Now the submarine was present at Submarine Museum at Klebang, Malacca since 2011.

Spanish NavyEdit

built by Cartagena dockyard

  • Galerna (S 71) – completed 1983 – in service
  • Siroco (S 72) – completed 1983 – decommissioned 2012
  • Mistral (S 73) – completed 1985 – decommissioned 2020
  • Tramontana (S 74) – completed 1985 – in service

Pakistan NavyEdit

On 10 September 1974, South Africa announced to expand its submarine arm by entering in defence talks with France to acquire the Agosta-70-class submarines.:113[2] South African Prime Minister P. W. Botha engaged in discussion with acquiring two Agosta-70-class submarines with French President Valéry d'Estaing, and had Capt. L. J. Woodburne as the project-manager of acquisition of Agosta-70 program in South African Navy.[3] Dubigeon-Normandie, the French contractor, built two Agosta-70 class submarine.[4] However, France denied to order of delivery to South African Navy following the implementation of Resolution 418 (an arms embargo) by the United Nations.[5][6][7][8][9]

In 1983–1985, the class of submarines were deployed in Arabian Sea during and prevented the Indian actions in seaborne theatre. As part of the Cold War operation, they were deployed in the Arabian Sea and later embarked on being deployed on long-range mission to test depth and submerged endurance in Indian Ocean.[10][11]

VariantsEdit

The Agosta-90B-class submarines is an improved version with modern systems, better battery with longer endurance, deeper diving capability, lower acoustic cavitation and better automatic control (reducing crew from 54 to 36). It can be equipped with the MESMA air-independent propulsion (AIP) system.[12] It is capable of carrying a combined load up to 16 torpedoes, SM39 Exocet, and seaborne nuclear cruise missiles.[13]

The submarines were built through the technology transfer by France to Pakistan that resulted in complicated and lengthy negotiations between the Benazir Bhutto government and the Mitterrand administration in 1992, and signed with the Chirac administration in 1992.[14] The Agosta–90Bs were chosen over the British Upholder/Victoria class and the project was initially aimed at $520 million[15] but the programme of technology transfer costed $950 million, for which France first provided loans that were paid in five to six years.[16][15] In 2000, France gave Pakistan the licence to offer commercial production of the submarines to potential customers.[17][18]

The SM39 was test-fired from a Khalid-class submarine in 2001.[19]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Shabbir, Usman. "Agosta 90B « PakDef Military Consortium". pakdef.org. « PakDef Military Consortium. Archived from the original on 16 February 2017. Retrieved 12 January 2017.
  2. ^ Toit, Allan Du (1992). South Africaʼs Fighting Ships: Past and Present. Ashanti Pub. Pty Limited. p. 359. ISBN 9781874800507. Retrieved 29 September 2018.
  3. ^ Alexander, E. G. McGill; Barron, Gary K. B.; Bateman, Anthony J. (1986). South African orders, decorations, and medals (snippet view). Human & Rousseau. p. 160. ISBN 9780798118958. Retrieved 29 September 2018.
  4. ^ Shabbir, Usman (June 2003). "AGOSTA 70A". pakdef.org. Islamabad: « PakDef Military Consortium. Archived from the original on 2017-02-16. Retrieved 29 September 2018.
  5. ^ Maguire, Keith (1991). Politics in South Africa: From Vorster to de Klerk (snippet view). Chambers. p. 151. ISBN 9780550207524. Retrieved 29 September 2018.
  6. ^ Moukambi, Victor (2008-10-13). Relations between South Africa and France with special reference to military matters, 1960-1990 (DPhil). University of Stellenbosch. hdl:10019.1/1228.
  7. ^ Wessels, Andre (20 April 2007). "The South African Navy During The Years of Conflict In Southern Africa, 1966-1989". Journal for Contemporary History. 31 (3): 283–303. hdl:10520/EJC28400.
  8. ^ NTI, Nuclear Threat Initiatives staffer. "Pakistan Submarine Capabilities". www.nti.org. Nuclear Threat Initiatives. Archived from the original on 31 May 2012. Retrieved 12 January 2017.
  9. ^ Goldrick, James (1995). No Easy Answers: The Development of the Navies of India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka, 1945-1996. Sydney, Australia: Lancer Publishers. ISBN 9781897829028. Retrieved 12 January 2017.
  10. ^ Rikhye, Ravi (1985). The Fourth Round: Indo-Pak War 1984. ABC Publishing House. p. 253. Retrieved 29 September 2018.
  11. ^ Waters, Conrad (2011). Seaforth World Naval Review 2012. Seaforth Publishing. ISBN 9781783830985. Retrieved 29 September 2018.
  12. ^ "SSK Agosta 90B Class Submarine - Naval Technology". Naval Technology. Archived from the original on 2011-06-05. Retrieved 2017-10-30.
  13. ^ "SSK Agosta 90B Class Submarine, France". naval-technology.com. Archived from the original on 5 June 2011. Retrieved 19 May 2015.
  14. ^ Anwar, Dr Muhammad (2006-11-27). Friends Near Home: Pakistan's Strategic Security Options. AuthorHouse. ISBN 9781467015417. Retrieved 12 January 2017.
  15. ^ a b "Agosta submarine deal - Benazir, Zardari not involved: ex-naval spy chief - The Express Tribune". The Express Tribune (4/5). Islamabad: The Express Tribune, Islamabad. The Express Tribune. 5 December 2010. Archived from the original on 18 January 2017. Retrieved 17 January 2017.
  16. ^ Siddiqa-Agha, A. (2001). "§Arms Procurement for the Navy" (google books). Pakistan's Arms Procurement and Military Buildup, 1979-99: In Search of a Policy. New York, [us]: Springer. p. 230. ISBN 9780230513525. Retrieved 17 January 2017.
  17. ^ Osman, Ali (19 October 2015). "Pakistan's tool of war: Agosta 90B, our submarine in the deep". DAWN.COM. Dawn newspapers, Osman. Dawn newspapers. Archived from the original on 13 January 2017. Retrieved 12 January 2017.
  18. ^ "Agosta launched; ship deal on cards". DAWN.COM. 25 August 2002. Archived from the original on 13 January 2017. Retrieved 12 January 2017.
  19. ^ "Pakistan Navy Test-fires Two Missiles". People's Daily. 11 March 2001. Archived from the original on 8 October 2012. Retrieved 19 May 2015.

External linksEdit