Eumetabola

Eumetabola is an unranked clade of Neoptera. Two large unities known as the Paurometabola and Eumetabola are probably from the adelphotaxa of the Neoptera after exclusion of the Plecoptera. The monophyly of these unities appears to be weakly justified.[1]

Eumetabola
Gaint Honey Bee (Apis dorsata) on Tribulus terrestris W IMG 1020.jpg
Apis dorsata on Tribulus terrestris
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Infraclass: Neoptera
(unranked): Eumetabola

Eumetabola has the highest number of species of any clade. According to recent molecular phylogenetic analyses Eumetabola could have first appeared in Middle Devonian (391 million years ago) to the era of late Pennsylvania (311 million years ago). In addition to this, it would have also appeared in Hemiptera (310 million years ago).

PhylogenyEdit

The phylogeny of Eumetabola is shown in the cladogram according to Kluge 2004, 2010, and 2012:[2][3][4]


Neoptera

Idioprothoraca  

Rhipineoptera  

Eumetabola
Parametabola

Zoraptera (angel insects)  

Acercaria
Condylognatha

Thysanoptera (thrips)  

Hemiptera (bugs)  

Panpsocoptera

Psocoptera (bark lice)  

Phthiraptera (lice)  

Endopterygota
Elytrophora

Coleoptera (beetles)  

Strepsiptera (twisted-wing parasites)  

Coleopteroidea
Neuropterida

Neuroptera (net-winged insects)  

Raphidioptera (snakeflies)  

Megaloptera (alderflies, dobsonflies, fishflies)  

Neuropteroidea
Antliophora

Diptera (true flies)  

Mecoptera (scorpionflies)  

Boreidae (snow scorpionflies)  

Siphonaptera (fleas)  

Amphiesmenoptera

Trichoptera (caddisflies)  

Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths)  

Hymenoptera (sawflies, wasps, ants, bees)  


ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Paurometabola — Eumetabola link.springer.com
  2. ^ Kluge, Nikita J. (2004). "Larval/pupal leg transformation and a new diagnosis for the taxon Metabola Burmeister, 1832 = Oligoneoptera Martynov, 1923" (PDF). Russian Entomological Journal. 13 (4): 189–229.
  3. ^ Kluge, Nikita J. (2010). "Circumscriptional names of higher taxa in Hexapoda" (PDF). Bionomina. 1: 15–55. doi:10.11646/bionomina.1.1.3.
  4. ^ Kluge, Nikita J. (2012). "General System of Neoptera with Description of a New Species of Embioptera" (PDF). Russian Entomological Journal. 21 (4): 371–384. doi:10.15298/rusentj.21.4.03.

External linksEdit