Neoptera is a classification group that includes most orders of the winged insects, specifically those that can flex their wings over their abdomens. This is in contrast with the more basal orders of winged insects (the "Palaeoptera" assemblage), which are unable to flex their wings in this way.

Neopterans
Temporal range: Late Carboniferous–Present
Hymenoptere2.jpg
Honeybee (order Hymenoptera)
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Branch: Metapterygota
Infraclass: Neoptera

ClassificationEdit

The taxon Neoptera was proposed by А.М. Martynov in 1923 and 1924, in the following classification:[1]

Pterygota

The order Thysanoptera originally had uncertain systematic position, and later was attributed to Paraneoptera.

Later, a number of other classifications had been proposed. According to various points of view, Neoptera is subordinated either directly to Pterygota (as in the Martynov's classification), or to Metapterygota:

1. Pterygota Gegenbaur 1878
1.1. Ephemeroptera Hyatt & Arms 1890
1.2. Metapterygota Börner 1909
1.2.1. Odonata Fabricius 1793
1.2.2. Neoptera Martynov 1923

PhylogenyEdit

The phylogeny of Neoptera is shown, not yet fully resolved, in the cladogram:[2]

Neoptera
Idioprothoraca

Embioptera (webspinners)

Notoptera (grylloblattids, mantophasmatids)

Rhipineoptera

Plecoptera (stoneflies)

Dictyoptera (cockroaches, termites, mantises)

Saltatoria (grasshoppers, crickets)

Phasmatodea (stick insects)

Dermaptera (earwigs)

Eumetabola
Parametabola

Zoraptera (angel insects)

Paraneoptera

Thysanoptera (thrips)

Hemiptera (bugs)

Psocoptera (bark lice)

Phthiraptera (lice)

Metabola (Oligoneoptera)
Elytrophora

Coleoptera (beetles)

Strepsiptera (twisted-wing parasites)

Neuropteroidea

Birostrata

Rhaphidioptera (snakeflies)

Meganeuroptera

Panzygothoraca

Hymenoptera (wasps and allies)

Enteracantha (scorpionflies, fleas)

Diptera (true flies)

Amphiesmenoptera

Trichoptera (caddisflies)

Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths)

ReferencesEdit

External linksEdit