Neoptera

Neoptera (Ancient Greek néos (“new”) + pterón (“wing”)) is a classification group that includes most orders of the winged insects, specifically those that can flex their wings over their abdomens. This is in contrast with the more basal orders of winged insects (the "Palaeoptera" assemblage), which are unable to flex their wings in this way.

Neopterans
Temporal range: Late Carboniferous–Present
Hymenoptere2.jpg
Honeybee (order Hymenoptera)
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Branch: Metapterygota
Infraclass: Neoptera

ClassificationEdit

The taxon Neoptera was proposed by А.М. Martynov in 1923 and 1924, in the following classification:[1][2]

Pterygota

The order Thysanoptera originally had uncertain systematic position, and later was attributed to Paraneoptera.

Later, a number of other classifications had been proposed.[citation needed] According to various points of view, Neoptera is subordinated either directly to Pterygota (as in Martynov's classification), or to Metapterygota:

PhylogenyEdit

The phylogeny of Neoptera is shown in the cladogram, not fully resolved, according to Kluge 2004, 2010, 2012, 2013, 2019, 2020 using morphological characteristics according to the principles of cladoendesis:[3][4][5]

Neoptera
Idioprothoraca

Embioptera (webspinners)  

Notoptera (ice crawlers)  

Rhipineoptera

Plecoptera (stoneflies)  

Tegminoptera
Pandictyoptera

Blattodea (cockroaches, termites)  

Mantodea (mantises)  

Orthoptera (grasshoppers, crickets)  

Phasmatodea (stick insects, including Mantophasmatidae)  

Dermaptera (earwigs)  

Eumetabola
Parametabola

Zoraptera (angel insects)  

Acercaria
Condylognatha

Thysanoptera (thrips)  

Arthroidignatha (= "Hemiptera" auct.) (bugs)  

Panpsocoptera

Psocoptera (bark lice)  

Phthiraptera (lice)  

Endopterygota
Elytrophora

Coleoptera (beetles)  

Strepsiptera (twisted-wing parasites)  

Coleopteroidea
Neuropteroidea

Neuroptera (net-winged insects)  

Raphidioptera (snakeflies)  

Megaloptera (alderflies, dobsonflies, fishflies)  

Mecopteriformia

Diptera (true flies)  

Enteracantha

Mecoptera except Boreidae (scorpionflies)  

Calyptroptera

Boreidae (snow scorpionflies)  

Siphonaptera (fleas)  

Amphiesmenoptera

Trichoptera (caddisflies)  

Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths)  

Hymenoptera (sawflies, wasps, ants, bees)  

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Martynov, A. V. (1923). "О двух основных типах крыльев насекомых и их значении для общей классификаци насекомых" [On the two main types of insect wings and their significance for the general classification of insects]. Proceedings of the I All-Russian Congress of Zoologists, Anatomists and Histologists in Petrograd on 15-21 December 1922: 88–89.
  2. ^ Martynov, A. V. (1924). "О двух типах крыльев насекомых и их эволюции" [There are two types of drug addicts and evolutionists]. Russian Zoological Journal. 4 (1, 2): 155–185.
  3. ^ Kluge, Nikita J. (2004). "Larval/pupal leg transformation and a new diagnosis for the taxon Metabola Burmeister, 1832 = Oligoneoptera Martynov, 1923" (PDF). Russian Entomological Journal. 13 (4): 189–229.
  4. ^ Kluge, Nikita J. (2010). "Circumscriptional names of higher taxa in Hexapoda" (PDF). Bionomina. 1: 15–55.
  5. ^ Kluge, Nikita J. (2012). "General System of Neoptera with Description of a New Species of Embioptera" (PDF). Russian Entomological Journal. 21 (4): 371–384. Further material from Kluge is available at Tegminoptera & Calyptroptera 2013 Tetrastigmoptera 2019 Insect systematics and principles of cladoendesis.

External linksEdit