Ethel Waters (October 31, 1896 – September 1, 1977) was an American singer and actress. Waters frequently performed jazz, swing, and pop music on the Broadway stage and in concerts, but she began her career in the 1920s singing blues. Waters notable recordings include "Dinah", "Stormy Weather", "Taking a Chance on Love", "Heat Wave", "Supper Time", "Am I Blue?", "Cabin in the Sky", "I'm Coming Virginia", and her version of "His Eye Is on the Sparrow". Waters was the second African American to be nominated for an Academy Award. She was the first African-American to star on her own television show and the first African-American woman to be nominated for a Primetime Emmy Award.
A photograph of Waters from her appearance in Cabin in the Sky, 1943.
|Born||October 31, 1896|
Chester, Pennsylvania, U.S.
|Died||September 1, 1977 (aged 80)|
|Resting place||Forest Lawn Memorial Park (Glendale, California)|
(m. 1909; div. 1913)
Clyde E. Matthews
(m. 1929; div. 1933)
(m. 1938; div. 1945)
|Relatives||Crystal Waters (great-niece)|
Waters was born in Chester, Pennsylvania, on October 31, 1896 (although some sources state her birth year as 1900), as a result of the rape of her teenaged African-American mother, Louise Anderson (1881–1962) (believed to have been 13 years old at the time, although some sources indicate she may have been slightly older), by John Waters (1878–1901), a pianist and family acquaintance from a mixed-race middle-class background. He played no role in raising Ethel. Soon after she was born, her mother married Norman Howard, a railroad worker. Ethel used the surname Howard as a child before reverting to her father's name. She was raised in poverty by her grandmother, Sally Anderson, who worked as a housemaid, and with two of her aunts and an uncle. Waters never lived in the same place for more than 15 months. She said of her difficult childhood, "I never was a child. I never was cuddled, or liked, or understood by my family."
Waters grew tall, standing 5 feet 9.5 inches (1.765 m) in her teens. According to jazz historian and archivist Rosetta Reitz, Waters's birth in the North and her peripatetic life exposed her to many cultures. Waters married at the age of 13, but her husband was abusive, and she soon left the marriage and became a maid in a Philadelphia hotel, working for $4.75 per week. On her 17th birthday, she attended a costume party at a nightclub on Juniper Street. She was persuaded to sing two songs and impressed the audience so much that she was offered professional work at the Lincoln Theatre in Baltimore. She recalled that she earned the rich sum of ten dollars a week, but her managers cheated her out of the tips her admirers threw on the stage.
After her start in Baltimore, Waters toured on the black vaudeville circuit, in her words "from nine until unconscious." Despite her early success, she fell on hard times and joined a carnival, traveling in freight cars, and eventually reaching Chicago. She enjoyed her time with the carnival and recalled, "the roustabouts and the concessionaires were the kind of people I'd grown up with, rough, tough, full of larceny towards strangers, but sentimental and loyal to their friends and co-workers." But she did not last long with them and soon headed south to Atlanta, where she worked in the same club as Bessie Smith. Smith demanded that Waters not compete in singing blues opposite her. Waters conceded and sang ballads and popular songs. Around 1919, Waters moved to Harlem and became a performer in the Harlem Renaissance of the 1920s.
Her first Harlem job was at Edmond's Cellar, a club with a black patronage, and specialized in popular ballads. She acted in a blackface comedy, Hello 1919. Jazz historian Rosetta Reitz pointed out that by the time Waters returned to Harlem in 1921, women blues singers were among the most powerful entertainers in the country. In 1921, Waters became the fifth black woman to make a record, for tiny Cardinal Records. She later joined Black Swan, where Fletcher Henderson was her accompanist. Waters later commented that Henderson tended to perform in a more classical style than she preferred, often lacking "the damn-it-to-hell bass."
She recorded for Black Swan from 1921 through 1923. Her contract with Harry Pace made her the highest paid black recording artist at the time. In early 1924, Paramount bought Black Swan, and she stayed with Paramount through the year.
She first recorded for Columbia in 1925, achieving a hit with "Dinah". She started working with Pearl Wright, and they toured in the South. In 1924, Waters played at the Plantation Club on Broadway. She also toured with the Black Swan Dance Masters. With Earl Dancer, she joined what was called the "white time" Keith Vaudeville Circuit, a vaudeville circuit performing for white audiences and combined with screenings of silent movies. They received rave reviews in Chicago and earned the unheard-of salary of US$1,250 in 1928. In September 1926, Waters recorded "I'm Coming Virginia", composed by Donald Heywood with lyrics by Will Marion Cook. She is often wrongly attributed as the author. The following year, Waters sang it in a production of Africana at Broadway's Daly's Sixty-Third Street Theatre. In 1929, Waters and Wright arranged the unreleased Harry Akst song "Am I Blue?", which was used in the movie On with the Show and became a hit and her signature song.
Although she was considered a blues singer during the pre-1925 period, Waters sang in the vaudeville style of Mamie Smith, Viola McCoy, and Lucille Hegamin. While with Columbia, she introduced many popular standards, including "Heebie Jeebies", "Sweet Georgia Brown", "Someday, Sweetheart", "Am I Blue?" and "(What Did I Do to Be So) Black and Blue", while she continued to sing blues ("West End Blues," "Organ Grinder Blues"). During the 1920s, she recorded with the ensembles of Will Marion Cook and Lovie Austin. As her career continued, she became a blues and Broadway singer, performing with Duke Ellington. She remained with Columbia through 1931. She signed with Brunswick in 1932 and remained until 1933, when she went back to Columbia. She signed with Decca in late 1934 for two sessions and later a single session in early 1938. She recorded for the specialty label Liberty Music Shop in 1935 and again in 1940.
Film, theater, and televisionEdit
In 1933, Waters appeared a satirical all-black film, Rufus Jones for President, which featured the child performer Sammy Davis Jr. as Rufus Jones. She went on to star at the Cotton Club, where, according to her autobiography, she "sang 'Stormy Weather' from the depths of the private hell in which I was being crushed and suffocated." In 1933, she had a featured role in the successful Irving Berlin Broadway musical revue As Thousands Cheer with Clifton Webb, Marilyn Miller, and Helen Broderick.
She became the first black woman to integrate Broadway's theater district, often referred to at the time as the Great White Way, more than a decade after actor Charles Gilpin's critically acclaimed performances in the plays of Eugene O'Neill beginning with The Emperor Jones in 1920.
Waters held three jobs: in As Thousands Cheer, as a singer for Jack Denny & His Orchestra on a national radio program, and in nightclubs. She became the highest-paid performer on Broadway. Despite this status, she had difficulty finding work. She moved to Los Angeles to appear in the 1942 film Cairo. During the same year, she reprised her starring stage role as Petunia in the all-black film musical Cabin in the Sky directed by Vincente Minnelli, and starring Lena Horne as the ingenue. Conflicts arose when Minnelli swapped songs from the original script between Waters and Horne: Waters wanted to perform "Honey in the Honeycomb" as a ballad, but Horne wanted to dance to it. Horne broke her ankle and the songs were reversed. She got the ballad and Waters the dance. Waters did sing the Academy Award nominated "Happiness is Just a Thing Called Joe."
In 1939 Waters became the first African American to star in her own television show before Nat King Cole appeared in 1956. The Ethel Waters Show, a 15-minute variety special, appeared on NBC on June 14, 1939; it included a dramatic performance of the Broadway play Mamba's Daughters based in the Gullah community of South Carolina and produced with her in mind. The play was based on a book of the same name by DuBose Heyward.
She was nominated for an Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress for the film Pinky (1949) under the direction of Elia Kazan after the first director, John Ford, quit over disagreements with Waters. According to producer Darryl F. Zanuck, Ford "hated that old...woman (Waters)." Ford, Kazan stated, "didn't know how to reach Ethel Waters." Kazan later referred to Waters's "truly odd combination of old-time religiosity and free-flowing hatred."
In 1950, she won the New York Drama Critics Circle Award for her performance opposite Julie Harris in the play The Member of the Wedding. Waters and Harris repeated their roles in the 1952 film version, Member of the Wedding. In 1950, Waters was the first African American actress to star in the television series Beulah. It was first nationally broadcast weekly television series starring an African-American in the leading role appearing on ABC television from 1950 to 1953. She quit, after complaining that the portrayal of blacks was "degrading", and was replaced by Louise Beavers in its third season. She guest-starred in 1957 and 1959 on NBC's The Ford Show, Starring Tennessee Ernie Ford. In a 1957 episode, she sang "Cabin in the Sky". Her appearance in a 1961 episode of Route 66 received a 1962 Primetime Emmy Award nomination, the first dramatic performance by a black performer so recognized (male or female), as well as the first black woman nominated for an Emmy.
She lost tens of thousands in jewelry and cash in a robbery, and she had difficulties with the Internal Revenue Service. Her health suffered, and she worked sporadically in the following years. In 1950–51 she wrote her autobiography, His Eye Is on the Sparrow, with Charles Samuels in which she wrote candidly about her life. She explained why her age had often been misstated: her friends had to sign a paper claiming Waters was four years younger than she was to get a group insurance deal; she stated that she was born in 1900. His Eye Is on the Sparrow was adapted for a stage production in which she was portrayed by Ernestine Jackson. In her second autobiography, To Me, It's Wonderful, Waters stated that she was born in 1896.
Personal life and deathEdit
Waters married three times, had no children, and was bisexual. When she was thirteen, she married Merritt "Buddy" Purnsley in 1909, and they divorced in 1913. She married Clyde Edwards Matthews in 1929, and they divorced in 1933. She married Edward Mallory. in 1938, and they divorced in 1945. During the 1920s, she was in a relationship with dancer Ethel Williams (b. December 21, 1891 – d. after 1961), the two women gaining the nickname of "Two Ethels". Waters was the great-aunt of the singer-songwriter Crystal Waters.
In 1938, Waters met artist Luigi Lucioni through their mutual friend, Carl Van Vechten. Lucioni asked Waters if he could paint her portrait, and a sitting was arranged at his studio on Washington Square. Waters bought the finished portrait from Lucioni in 1939 for $500. She was at the height of her career in 1939. She was the first African American to have a starring role on Broadway. In her portrait, she wore a tailored red dress with a mink coat draped over the back of her chair. Lucioni positioned Waters with her arms tightly wrapped around her waist, a gesture that conveys a sense of vulnerability as if she were trying to protect herself. In 2017, the Huntsville Museum of Art (HMA) acquired the Portrait of Ethel Waters. HMA Executive Director Christopher J. Madkour and historian Stuart Embury tracked down the painting, which was considered lost because it had not been viewed by the public since 1942. But they traced it to a private residence in 2016. The owner allowed the Huntsville Museum of Art to display Portrait of Ethel Waters in the exhibition American Romantic: The Art of Luigi Lucioni, where it was viewed by the public for the first time in over 70 years. The museum negotiated the purchase of the painting and, thanks in part to the generosity of the Huntsville community, Lucioni's Portrait of Ethel Waters is on public display at the Huntsville Museum of Art in Huntsville, Alabama.
In her later years, Waters often toured with the preacher Billy Graham on his "crusades". Waters died on September 1, 1977, aged 80, from uterine cancer, kidney failure, and other ailments, in Chatsworth, California. Waters is buried at Forest Lawn Memorial Park (Glendale).
Awards and honorsEdit
- Her recording of "Stormy Weather" (1933) was listed in the National Recording Registry by the National Recording Preservation Board of the Library of Congress in 2003.
- Gospel Music Hall of Fame, 1983
- Christian Music Hall of Fame, 2007
- Waters was approved for a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame in 2004.
- In 2015, a historical marker memorializing Waters was unveiled along Route 291 in Chester, Pennsylvania to recognize her life and talents in the city of her birth.
- Commemorative stamp, U.S. Post Office, 1994
- Nomination, Best Supporting Actress, Academy Awards, Pinky 1949
- Nomination, Outstanding Single Performance by an Actress in a Series, Primetime Emmy Awards, for Route 66 "Goodnight Sweet Blues", 1962
- Three recordings by Waters were inducted into the Grammy Hall of Fame, a special Grammy Award established in 1973 to honor recordings that are at least twenty-five years old and have "qualitative or historical significance."
|Ethel Waters: Grammy Hall of Fame Awards|
|1929||"Am I Blue?"||Traditional Pop (Single)||Columbia||2007|
(Keeps Rainin' All The Time)
|1925||"Dinah"||Traditional Pop (Single)||Columbia||1998|
|1921||"Down Home Blues"||5|
|"There'll Be Some Changes Made"||5|
|1922||"Spread Yo' Stuff"||7|
|1925||"Sweet Georgia Brown"||6|
|"I've Found a New Baby"||11|
|1927||"I'm Coming, Virginia"||10|
|1929||"Am I Blue?"||1|
|"True Blue Lou"||15|
|1931||"Three Little Words"||8|
|"I Got Rhythm"||17|
|"You Can't Stop Me from Loving You"||13|
|"Shine On, Harvest Moon"||9|
|"River, Stay 'Way from My Door"||18|
|"Don't Blame Me"||6|
|"A Hundred Years from Today"||7|
|1934||"Come Up and See Me Sometime"||9|
|"Miss Otis Regrets (She's Unable to Lunch Today)"||19|
|1938||"You're a Sweetheart"||16|
- On with the Show (1929)
- Rufus Jones for President (1933)
- Gift of Gab (1934)
- Tales of Manhattan (1942)
- Cairo (1942)
- Cabin in the Sky (1943)
- Stage Door Canteen (1943)
- Pinky (1949)
- The Member of the Wedding (1952)
- Carib Gold (1957)
- The Heart Is a Rebel (1958)
- The Sound and the Fury (1959)
- First African American, male or female, to star in own TV show, The Ethel Waters Show, which was broadcast on NBC on June 14, 1939
- TV guest appearances from 1950 to 1952 on The Jackie Gleason Show, Texaco Star Theater, This Is Show Business, What's My Line?, and The Chesterfield Supper Club
- Person to Person (1954)
- Route 66, episode "Good Night, Sweet Blues" (1961)
- The Hollywood Palace, hosted by Diana Ross and the Supremes (1969)
- Daniel Boone, episode "Mamma Cooper" (1970)
- Hello 1919! (1919)
- Jump Steady (1922)
- Plantation Revue (1925)
- Black Bottom (1926)
- Miss Calico (1926–27)
- Paris Bound (1927)
- Africana (1927)
- The Ethel Waters Broadway Revue (1928)
- Lew Leslie's Blackbirds (1930)
- Rhapsody in Black (1931)
- Broadway to Harlem (1932)
- As Thousands Cheer (1933–34)
- At Home Abroad (1935–36)
- Mamba's Daughters (1939; 1940)
- Cabin in the Sky (1940–41)
- Laugh Time (1943)
- Blue Holiday (1945)
- The Member of the Wedding (1950–51)
- At Home with Ethel Waters (1953)
- The Voice of Strangers (1956)
- Bourne, Stephen (10 July 2018). "Ethel Waters: Stormy Weather". Scarecrow Press. Retrieved 10 July 2018 – via Google Books.
- Dobrin, Arnold (10 July 1972). "Voices of joy, Voices of Freedom: Ethel Waters, Sammy Davis, Jr., Marian Anderson, Paul Robeson, Lena Horne". Coward, McCann & Geoghegan. Retrieved 10 July 2018 – via Google Books.
- Manning, Frankie; Millman, Cynthia R. (10 July 2018). "Frankie Manning: Ambassador of Lindy Hop". Temple University Press. Retrieved 10 July 2018 – via Google Books.
- "The Story of Crystal Waters' "Gypsy Woman (She's Homeless)"". Thump.vice.com. 8 April 2016. Retrieved 10 July 2018.
- "Ethel Waters". Britannica.com. Retrieved 10 July 2018.
- McElrath, Jessica. "Remembering the Career of Ethel Waters". Archived from the original on February 18, 2009. Retrieved July 23, 2009.
- Ethel Waters. Encyclopedia.com. Retrieved 25 September 2016.
- Robinson, Alice M.; Roberts, Vera Mowry; Barranger, Milly, eds. (1989). Notable Women in the American Theatre: A Biographical Dictionary. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press. p. 903.
- Waters, Ethel; Samuels, Charles T. (1951). His Eye on the Sparrow: An Autobiography. New York: Doubleday.
- "50th Year for Lincoln Theater". Baltimore Afro American. September 12, 1959. Retrieved March 17, 2011.
- "Waters, Ethel". Current Biography. H. W. Wilson: 899–900. 1941. Retrieved 2008-02-06.
- Waters, Ethel; Samuels, Charles T. (1992). His Eye on the Sparrow: An Autobiography. New York: Da Capo Press. p. 147.
- Russell, Tony (1997). The Blues: From Robert Johnson to Robert Cray. Dubai: Carlton Books. p. 12. ISBN 1-85868-255-X.
- "The Rise and Fall of Black Swan Records". Redhotjazz.com. Retrieved 2018-03-20.
- "I'm Coming Virginia (1927)". Jazzstandards.com. Retrieved 14 March 2017.
- Bogle, Donald (2011). Heat Wave: The Life and Career of Ethel Waters. HarperCollins. p. 656. ISBN 9780062041722.
- Simpson, Janice (22 February 2015). "Pivotal Moments in Broadway's Black History". Playbill. Retrieved 2018-03-07.
- "Ethel Waters". Encyclopedia.com. Retrieved 2018-03-07 – via Contemporary Black Biography, Thomson Gale, 2005.
- Looney, Deborah. "Cabin in the Sky". Turner Classic Movies. Retrieved 2018-03-07.
- "First Black Seen on Television". Retrieved 2018-02-15.
- "Waters, Ethel: Africana. The Encyclopedia of the African and African American Experience" (2 ed.). doi:10.1093/aasc/9780195170559.013.4039.
- "Mamba's Daughters Broadway". Playbill. Retrieved 2017-03-01.
- Eyman, Scott (1999). Print the Legend: The Life and Times of John Ford. Johns Hopkins University. p. 361.
- "Beulah". Archive of American Television. Retrieved 2017-03-01.
- Bourne, Stephen (2007). Ethel Waters: Stormy Weather. Lanham, Maryland: Scarecrow Press. ISBN 0-8108-5902-5. Retrieved November 25, 2010.
- Waters, Ethel (1972). To Me, It's Wonderful. New York: Harper & Row. OCLC 329566.
- Bourne, Stephen (2007). Ethel Waters: Stormy Weather. Scarecrow Press. p. 25. Retrieved 26 December 2017.
- Embury, Dr. Stuart (2018). Art and Soul - Luigi Lucioni and Ethel Waters: A Friendship. Huntsville, Alabama: Huntsville Museum of Art. pp. 3, 22.
- White, Alvin E. (November 19, 1977). "Ethel Waters Remembered". The Afro American. Retrieved November 16, 2010.
- Bogle, Donald (2011). Heat Wave: The Life and Career of Ethel Waters. New York: HarperCollins.
- Wilson, Scott. Resting Places: The Burial Sites of More Than 14,000 Famous Persons (3d ed.). McFarland & Company. Kindle edition. Kindle location 49813.
- "Christian Music Hall of Fame". Christian Music Hall of Fame and Museum. 2008-01-20. Archived from the original on 2008-02-05. Retrieved 2008-02-06.
- "A Star for Ethel Waters: Home". www.ethelwatersstar.com. Retrieved 15 November 2018.
- Quinn, Rose. "Chester great Ethel Waters memorialized in marker on Route 291". Delcotimes.com. Retrieved 25 September 2017.
- Tucker, Richard (2003-07-03). "Ethel Waters: Commemorative Stamp". Ebony Society of Philatelic Events and Reflections. Archived from the original on 2008-09-08. Retrieved 2008-02-06.
- "Awards Database: Ethel Waters". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2008-02-06.
- "Grammy Hall of Fame". The Recording Academy. 2007. Archived from the original on 2010-12-24. Retrieved 2008-02-06.
- Whitburn, Joel (1986). Pop Memories: 1890-1954. Record Research. ISBN 0-89820-083-0.
- Bogle, Donald (2011). Heat Wave: The Life and Career of Ethel Waters. HarperCollins. p. 466. ISBN 9780062041722.
- Bogle, pp. 476-77.
- "Episode #6.22". IMDb.com. 8 March 1969. Retrieved 10 July 2018.
- Barnet, Andrea (2004). All-Night Party: The Women of Bohemian Greenwich Village and Harlem, 1913–1930. Chapel Hill, North Carolina: Algonquin Books. ISBN 1-56512-381-6.
- Johnson, Mayme Hatcher; Miller, Karen E. Quinones (2008). Harlem Godfather: The Rap on My Husband, Ellsworth "Bumpy" Johnson. New York: Oshun Publishing Company. ISBN 978-0-9676028-3-7.
- Southern, Eileen (1997). The Music of Black Americans: A History. New York: W. W. Norton. ISBN 0-393-97141-4.