Ernest William "Mac" McFarland (October 9, 1894 – June 8, 1984) was an American politician, jurist and, with Warren Atherton, one of the "Fathers of the G.I. Bill." He is the only Arizonan to serve in the highest office in all three branches of Arizona government, two at the state level, one at the federal level. He was a Democratic Senator from Arizona from 1941 to 1953 (Majority Leader from 1951 to 1953) before he was the tenth governor of Arizona from 1955 to 1959. Finally, McFarland sat as Chief Justice on the Arizona Supreme Court in 1968.
|Chief Justice of the Arizona Supreme Court|
January 1, 1968 – December 31, 1968
|Preceded by||Charles C. Bernstein|
|Succeeded by||Jesse Addison Udall|
|Associate Justice of the Arizona Supreme Court|
January 4, 1965 – January 4, 1971
|Preceded by||Edward W. Scruggs|
|Succeeded by||James Duke Cameron|
|10th Governor of Arizona|
January 3, 1955 – January 5, 1959
|Preceded by||John Howard Pyle|
|Succeeded by||Paul Fannin|
|Senate Majority Leader|
January 3, 1951 – January 3, 1953
|Preceded by||Scott W. Lucas|
|Succeeded by||Robert A. Taft|
|Chairman of the Senate Democratic Caucus|
January 3, 1951 – January 3, 1953
|Preceded by||Scott W. Lucas|
|Succeeded by||Lyndon B. Johnson|
|United States Senator|
January 3, 1941 – January 3, 1953
|Preceded by||Henry F. Ashurst|
|Succeeded by||Barry Goldwater|
Ernest William McFarland
October 9, 1894
Earlsboro, Oklahoma, U.S.
|Died||June 8, 1984 (aged 89)|
Phoenix, Arizona, U.S.
|Resting place||Greenwood/Memory Lawn Mortuary & Cemetery |
(m. 1926; died 1930)
Eveland Smith (m. 1939)
|Education||East Central University|
University of Oklahoma (BA)
Stanford University (JD, MA)
|Branch/service||United States Navy|
|Years of service||1917–1919|
|Battles/wars||World War I|
McFarland was born to William Thomas and Keziah (Smith) McFarland on October 9, 1894 in a log cabin on his family's farm near Earlsboro, Oklahoma. When he was eight, his family moved to Okemah for a year before returning to Earlsboro. This had the effect of delaying McFarland's education for a year as Okemah had no schools at the time. As a result, he graduated from Earlsburg High School in 1914.
After high school. McFarland enrolled at East Central State Normal School in Ada, Oklahoma. He completed the required work for a temporary teaching certificate after one quarter. In late 1914 and early 1915, McFarland taught in a one-room school in Schoolton, Oklahoma to raise funds for his education. He then returned to East Central and taught mathematics at Ada High School to pay for his education. During the same time he was active in his school's debating societies. It was at this time he began a friendship with Robert S. Kerr, who was a member of the same debate club. In mid-1915, McFarland completed his studies at East Central and left the school with a lifetime teaching certificate.
Following East Central, McFarland enrolled at the University of Oklahoma. Working various part-time jobs, he initially studied mathematics with the intention of having a career in education. After a year he changed majors to pre-law. Studying at an accelerated rate, McFarland graduated with a bachelor's degree on June 5, 1917.
Following his graduation, with the United States having recently entered World War I, McFarland enlisted in the U.S. Navy. He entered the military on December 11, 1917 as a seaman second class and was assigned to the Great Lakes Naval Training Station. The climate on the shore of Lake Michigan did not agree with him and he was admitted to a naval hospital on March 3, 1918 suffering from pneumonia. McFarland spent the next several months in the hospital dealing with a variety of problems, including pericarditis, emphysema, and pleurisy. It was not until early 1919 that McFarland recovered enough for a navy medical board to recommend he receive an honorable discharge. His discharge from the U.S. Navy became effective on January 31, 1919.
After leaving the Navy, McFarland returned to Oklahoma for a short time before deciding to move to Arizona. He arrived in Phoenix on May 10, 1919 and after several days had found employment at a local bank. Seeing little opportunity for advancement at the bank, he applied to the Stanford University Law School. Before leaving to begin classes he filed for a 160 acres (65 ha) homestead near Casa Grande. McFarland would later refer to the land as his "jackrabbit farm".
McFarland attended law school for four quarters before taking a break. During this time, his parents and younger brother had moved to Arizona. At the time, Stanford recommended all law students spend a quarter interning at a legal office. Feeling homesick after a year in California, McFarland worked at the Phoenix office of Phillips, Cox, and Phillips. During this time he was legal clerk for future Arizona Governor John Calhoun Phillips. McFarland was also introduced to a variety of figures within the Arizona political establishment. At the completion of his internship, he returned to Stanford. McFarland completed work on his Juris Doctor in the summer quarter in 1922. In addition to his law degree, he had completed the class work for a Masters of Arts degree in political science. McFarland was admitted to the Arizona Bar later the same year.
Upon graduation from law school, McFarland moved to Casa Grande to "prove up" his homestead claim and open his first legal practice. The Arizona economy, at the time, was doing poorly and he found little legal work. He dealt with the lack of work by becoming involved in politics. McFarland worked for George W. P. Hunt's campaign during the 1922 governor's race. After Hunt won the election, McFarland received an appointment as assistant attorney general. In mid-1924, he returned to Stanford to complete work on his master's degree. Later that year he was elected county attorney for Pinal County. As state law required the county attorney to reside in the county seat, McFarland moved to Florence. He served three two-year terms in the position.
McFarland married Clair Collins on January 1, 1926. The couple had initially met at a Christmas party at Stanford in 1919. They had corresponded after their initial meeting and by the time McFarland was elected, Collins was working at a teacher at Florence's high school. The couple had a son, William Ernest, in 1927 and a daughter, Jean Clair, in February 1929. William became ill and died several days before his sister's birth while Jean died two days after her birth. McFarland's wife suffered from depression following the loss of their two children. She showed signs of improvement in 1930 as the couple expected a third child. The third child, Juliette, was stillborn and Clare McFarland developed postpartum complications that led to her death on December 12, 1930.
By February 1930, McFarland represented the state during Eva Dugan's final appeal before her execution, a task that he found very unpleasant. Shortly afterwards he decided he was tired of being a prosecutor. Instead, McFarland ran for a seat on the Superior Court in Pinal County, losing the race to the incumbent, Judge E. L. Green, 1464 to 1358. Upon leaving office as county attorney, McFarland joined with his chief assistant, Tom Fulbright, to found the law office of McFarland and Fulbright. While, the practice gained public recognition when McFarland won an appeal determining Winnie Ruth Judd was insane, their primary area of effort was water law.
Despite the success of his legal practice, McFarland still wished to become a judge. He ran a second time in 1934, defeating E. L. Green 2543 to 1542 in the primary and was unopposed in general election. McFarland was sworn in in 1935 and sat on the bench for the next six years. As his workload in Pinal county was light, he accepted cases from other parts of the state. This allowed McFarland to sit on the bench in every county in the state and gain experience in issues in all parts of the state. As a judge, his rulings were well respected and he was only overturned on appeal three times.
While on the bench, McFarland became romantically involved with a widow, Edna Eveland Smith, who had a young daughter, Jewell. She taught history and mathematics at Florence High School prior to their marriage. The couple married in Tucson on June 1, 1939. McFarland also adopted his wife's daughter.
United States SenatorEdit
McFarland considered a run for a seat in the United States House of Representatives following the resignation of Isabella Greenway and was repeatedly encouraged to run for Arizona Attorney General. Realizing he lacked the resources for a statewide campaign, he did not run for these offices.
During the Senate election of 1940, McFarland counted on voters in Phoenix and Tucson opposing any candidate from the other city. He toured the state, reacquainting himself to various political leaders he had met during his time on the bench but waiting to announce his intentions to run. McFarland's late entry did not hurt him as he won the primary by nearly 2 to 1. He defeated Henry F. Ashurst in Democratic primary in 1940, went on to win general election and became a U.S. Senator in January 1941. His initial committee assignments were to Indian Affairs, Interstate Commerce, Irrigation and Reclamation, Judiciary, and Pensions. Shortly after arriving in the Senate, Senator Gerald Nye convinced the Senate to create a committee looking into use of propaganda by the radio and motion picture industries. Senator Burton K. Wheeler recommended McFarland be placed on Nye's committee under the assumption the freshman senator "would keep his mouth shut". Instead of remaining silent, McFarland became an outspoken critic of the committee, pointing out many accusations against films were being made by individuals who had not seen any of the films in question. McFarland gained national attention for his actions on the committee with most of the nation viewing him favorably.
As a member of the Communications subcommittee, McFarland was involved in hearings dealing with the impact of developments in airmail, radio, telephones, and teletypes to the nation's telegraph services. At the time the U.S. telegraph market was dominated by Postal Telegraph and Western Union. Postal had been borrowing money from the Reconstruction Finance Corporation to maintain its infrastructure even though it was becoming obvious that Postal would be unable to pay back the loans. These dealings with the FCC led McFarland to develop an interest in communications.
McFarland's experience in World War I led McFarland to take an interest in the welfare of the troops during World War II. Arguing that many members of the military had left jobs, families, and schools to fight during the war, McFarland sponsored the GI Bill as a means to assisting soldiers and sailors as they transitioned back into civilian life.
In 1950, the Democratic membership of the Senate formed a 12-person team to insure that at least one member of their party was on the floor of the Senate any time the Senate was in session. This was done to ensure the Democratic membership could be called to the floor anytime a vote was to be taken. McFarland was selected leader of this team and found it easier to remain on the floor himself instead of finding others to take the duty. During the 1950, the two leading candidates for Democratic majority leader lost their reelection bids. With other members of his party appreciative of his efforts, McFarland was encouraged to run for a leadership position in January 1951.
McFarland was selected to be Senate Majority Leader for the 82nd U.S. Congress. As majority leader, McFarland hosted a monthly lunch meeting to which he invited all committee chairmen and all freshmen senators. He used the informal setting as a forum to conduct a variety of Senate business.
For two years, McFarland had sat next to Harry Truman while they were both in the U.S. Senate. The two men had become friends during this time, a situation that made it easy for the Senate Majority Leader to work with President Truman. McFarland believed it was part of his duty as Majority Leader to inform the President with an accurate view of what his fellow senators felt. "I never hesitated to present views contrary to those of the President in our conferences. As I've said before, I think that too frequently, the President is only told things people think he wants to hear. I would like to emphasize that it is not pleasant to present a view contrary to that of the President in such conferences." He felt that his duties as majority leader were separate from those of representing the interests of his constituents. He spoke before appropriations committee, asking for funds to bring water from the Colorado River to central Arizona. He became an expert on water law due to his efforts on Irrigation and Reclamation Committee.
McFarland was elected governor of Arizona in 1954 and re-elected in 1956. He worked with members of the Bureau of Reclamation to pick a location for the Glen Canyon Dam and emphasized education during his two terms in office.
Shortly after he returned from the Senate, he and several friends formed the Arizona Television Company to start a television station in Phoenix. McFarland had long been intrigued by the still-new medium. In 1955, shortly after he became governor, he opened KTVK, Phoenix's third television station. He chose the call letters "because TV would be our middle name." KTVK was the ABC affiliate for much of Arizona until 1995 and then became one of the nation's most successful independent stations. It remained in the hands of McFarland's family until 1999.
Return to lawEdit
McFarland tried unsuccessfully to unseat Goldwater in 1958. After serving as governor, he returned to his law practice and was elected associate justice of the Arizona Supreme Court in 1964. He took part in Miranda v. Arizona and served as Chief Justice in 1968, thus completing a political "grand slam."
In his mid-seventies, McFarland served as the director of the Federal Home Loan Bank of San Francisco and president of the Arizona Television Company before dying in Phoenix. McFarland is buried in Greenwood/Memory Lawn Mortuary & Cemetery in Phoenix.
There is now a monument at the Arizona State Capitol honoring him as the "Father of the G.I. Bill." Also, the McFarland State Historic Park in Florence, Arizona, contains a preserved courthouse and other buildings from when Arizona was just a territory in 1878. McFarland purchased and donated them to the Arizona State Parks Board.
- McMillan 2006, pp. 3,6.
- McMillan 2006, p. 11.
- Kroman 1989, p. 99.
- Goff 1983, p. 66.
- McMillan 2006, p. 13.
- McMillan 2006, p. 14.
- McMillan 2006, p. 15.
- Kroman 1989, p. 101.
- McMillan 2006, p. 16.
- McMillan 2006, pp. 16–7.
- McMillan 2006, p. 17.
- McFarland 1979, p. 18.
- McMillan 2006, p. 20.
- McMillan 2006, p. 22.
- McFarland 1979, p. 27.
- McMillan 2006, p. 23.
- McMillan 2006, p. 24.
- McMillan 2006, p. 25.
- McFarland 1979, p. 28.
- McMillan 2006, p. 26.
- McMillan 2006, p. 27.
- McMillan 2006, p. 28.
- McMillan 2006, p. 33.
- McMillan 2006, p. 37.
- McFarland 1979, p. 33.
- McMillan 2006, p. 46.
- McFarland 1979, p. 37.
- McMillan 2006, p. 49.
- McMillan 2006, pp. 50–1.
- Kroman 1989, p. 102.
- McMillan 2006, p. 51.
- McMillan 2006, p. 52.
- McFarland 1979, p. 42.
- Kroman 1989, pp. 102,4.
- McFarland 1979, pp. 23–4.
- Kroman 1989, p. 104.
- "McFarland Gets Top Senate Post In New Congress". The Spartanburg Herald. Spartanburg, South Carolina. January 3, 1951. p. 1.
- Goff, John S. (1983). Arizona Biographical Dictionary. Cave Creek, AZ: Black Mountain Press. OCLC 10740532.
- Kroman, Karen K. (1989). "Ernest W. McFarland". In Myers, John L. (ed.). The Arizona governors, 1912-1990. Phoenix: Heritage Publishers. pp. 99–108. ISBN 0-929690-05-2.
- McFarland, Ernest W. (1979). Mac: The Autobiography of Ernest W. McFarland. OCLC 6195020.
- McMillan, James E. (2006). Ernest W McFarland: Majority Leader of the United States Senate and Governor and Chief Justice of the State of Arizona. Prescott, Arizona: Sharlot Hall Museum Press. ISBN 0-927579-23-5.
- "Ernest W. McFarland". Stanford Law Review. 29 (5): 891–2. May 1977. JSTOR 1228138.
- McMillan, James E. (Winter 1994). "FATHER OF THE GI BILL: Ernest W. McFarland and Veterans' Legislation". The Journal of Arizona History. Arizona Historical Society. 35 (4): 357–76. JSTOR 41696204.
- McFarland State Historic Park
- McFarland Collection of historic documents
- Arizona State Capitol Monument
- Congress Biography
- Biography from the Senate
- Also see McFarland biography by historian James Elton McMillian, Jr., published by Sharlot Hall Museum Press, Prescott, Arizona.