List of equipment of the Iranian Army

  (Redirected from Equipment of the Iranian Army)

From 1925 to the Iranian Revolution in 1979, Iran was mostly equipped with Western hardware and equipment. Cases exist where Iran was supplied with equipment even before it was made standard in the countries that developed it (for example the US F-14 Tomcat, or the British Chieftain). Primary suppliers included the United States, Britain, France, West Germany, Italy, Israel, and the Soviet Union.

The Iran–Iraq War, and post revolutionary sanctions at the time had a dramatic effect on Iran's inventory of western equipment. Under the pressures of war all supplies were quickly exhausted and replacements became increasingly difficult to come by. The war eventually forced Iran to turn towards Syria, Pakistan, North Korea, Brazil, and China to meet its short term military requirements. Initial developments in every field of military technology were carried out with the technical support of Russia, China, and North Korea to lay the foundations for future industries.

Iranian reliance on these countries has rapidly decreased over the last decade in most sectors where Iran has gained almost total independence; however, in some sectors such as the Aerospace sector Iran is still greatly reliant on external help. Iran has developed the capacity to reverse engineer existing foreign hardware, adapt it to its own requirements and then manufacture the finished product. Examples of this are the Boragh IFV. In an attempt to make its military industries more sustainable Iran has also sought to export its military products.

This page includes weapons used by both the Islamic Republic of Iran Army Ground Forces and the Revolutionary Guards ground forces.

Infantry weaponsEdit

Model Type Origin Image Notes
Pistols
PC-9 ZOAF Semi-automatic pistol   Iran 9 mm pistol, unlicensed local production variant of the Swiss SIG Sauer P226.[1]
Browning HP Semi-automatic pistol   Belgium Used by IRGC[2]
M1911A1 Semi-automatic pistol   United States .45 ACP pistol.[3][4]
Submachine guns
MPT-9 Submachine gun   West Germany
  Iran
Heckler & Koch MP5 manufactured under licence as the Tondar SMG [5]
Uzi Submachine gun   Israel [6]
Star Model Z84 Submachine gun   Spain Amphibious Submachine-Gun is used by IRGCN frogmen.
Assault rifles
M4 carbine Assault rifle   United States Few number used by the Saberin unit. Got from terrorists and smugglers in Iraq and Afghanistan
M16 rifle Assault rifle   United States Few number used by Iranian Special Forces. Got from terrorists and smugglers in Iraq and Afghanistan
KH-2002 Assault rifle   Iran Iranian designed bullpup configuration of the Chinese Norinco CQ 5.56×45mm rifle.[7]
AKM Assault rifle   Soviet Union [8]
Type 56 Assault rifle   China Chinese AKM clone
KL-7.62 Assault rifle   Iran Iranian copy of the Chinese Type 56 and AKM. Possibly produced under license. IRGC main service rifle.
HK 53 Assault rifle   West Germany
  Iran
  Licensed production of HK33 Assault Rifle, used by Iranian Special Forces
HK G3A6 Battle rifle   West Germany
  Iran
Licensed production of G3A3 Battle Rifle,[9] Army main service rifle[8]
Norinco CQ Assault rifle   China   Used by Iranian Special Forces
Sayad 5.56 Assault rifle   Iran Carbine version of the Norinco CQ produced by Iran. Used by Basij, and it is used in large numbers by the IRGC.
AK-103 Assault rifle   Russia  Iran The sale of an undisclosed number of AK-103s for use by sections of the Iranian special forces was negotiated.[14] The weapons were reported to be shipped to Iran on August 2016.[15] The IRGC is reported to be using the AK-103,[16] Iran began producing local AK103s licensed by Kalashnikov concern
Fajr 224 Carbine   Iran Unlicensed copy of the M4 Carbine. Believed to be heavily upgraded. Special forces use mostly, but has been used by other military and police forces.
Masaf Assault rifle   Iran   Unlicensed copy of the HK416,used by IRGC
Fateh Assault rifle   Iran   Chambered in 5.56, seen in use in Iraq.
Sniper rifles
Nakhjir Sniper rifle   Soviet Union
  Iran
SVD manufactured under license;[10] A new upgraded version was unveiled during the Muhammad Rasulullah 4 exercises held on 12 December 2016.[11]
Siyavash sniper rifle Sniper rifle   Iran Domestically produced lightweight sniper weighing 6.5 kg (14 lb) loaded[12]
Taher Sniper rifle   Iran Domestically developed sniper rifle with maximum range of 1200 m[11]
Steyr HS .50/Sayyad Anti-materiel rifle   Austria
  Iran
[13]
Arash Anti-materiel rifle   Iran semi-automatic anti-material sniper rifle, also used by Hezbollah
Shaher Anti-materiel rifle   Iran Iranian 14.5 mm anti material rifle.
Taktab Anti-materiel rifle   Iran Iranian 20 mm anti material sniper rifle[14]
Machine guns
MGA3 General-purpose machine gun   West Germany
  Iran
Licensed production[9]
PKM-T80 General-purpose machine gun   Soviet Union
  Iran
Local production[8]
MGD Heavy machine gun   Soviet Union
  Iran
Local production[15]
W85 heavy machine gun Heavy machine gun   People's Republic of China
  Iran
Local production[16]
RPK Light machine gun   Soviet Union  Iran Local production
Akhgar machine gun Heavy machine gun   Iran Locally produced 7.62 mm 6-barrelled rotary machine gun.
Moharram Heavy machine gun   Iran Locally produced 12.7 mm 6-barrelled rotary machine gun.[17]
Grenade-based weapons
GP-25 Grenade launcher   Soviet Union 40mm under-barrel grenade launcher. Used by IRGC
M79 Grenade launcher   United States 40mm shoulder-fired grenade launcher.
AGS-17 Automatic grenade launcher   Soviet Union 40mm automatic grenade launcher.
Nasir Automatic grenade launcher   Iran 40mm automatic grenade launcher.
Unguided anti-tank weapons
SPG-9 Recoilless rifle   Soviet Union
  Iran
[18][19]
M40 Recoilless rifle   United States
  Iran
[19]
RPG-7 Rocket-propelled grenade launcher   Soviet Union
  Iran
[20]
Type 69 RPG Rocket-propelled grenade launcher   China Chinese copy of Russian RPG-7.
Saegheh Rocket- propelled grenade launcher   Iran Improved version of the RPG-7.[21]
RPG-29 Rocket-propelled grenade launcher   Soviet Union [22]
Model Type Years of production Origin Image Notes
Guided anti-tank weapons
Saeghe 1/2 Anti-tank guided missile   Iran Reverse engineered and upgraded M47 Dragon.[23][24]
Toophan
Toophan 2
Toophan 2B
Toophan 2M
Toophan 3
Toophan 4
Toophan 5
Toophan 6
Toophan 7
Anti-tank guided missile Entered production 1987/1988.
Revealed 2000.
N/A
N/A
Introduced 2016
First shown to the public in 2017 but in use since at least 2015.
Began development in 2002 and entered production in 2010.
Shown to the Public in 2017
Planned Variant, currently in development.
  Iran Considered to be the BGM-71A TOW clone,[25] the Toophan-1's payload is a 3.6 kg HEAT warhead. the top speed 310 m/s. Toophan-1 marketing material claims a hit probability of 96%.[26]
The Toophan 2 is a derivative of BGM-71C TOW missile with a tandem HEAT warhead; possibly incorporates elements of BGM-71E TOW 2A missile.[27]
The Toophan 2B is an upgraded model of the Toophan 2 with a heavier warhead.[citation needed]
The Toophan 2M is an upgraded model of the Toophan 2B equipped with a tandem-warhead.[28]
The Toophan 3 is a reverse-engineered American BGM-71F TOW 2B top-attack missile.[29]
The Toophan 4 is a variant of the Toophan family which is equipped with a thermobaric fuel-air warhead.[30]
Considered the premier Toophan variant,[29] the Toophan-5 has laser guidance, tandem-warhead[31] and canards.[citation needed] As a laser-riding missile, it uses a different launcher. Not a copy of any TOW variant.
The Toophan 6 is a variant of the Toophan family which is equipped with an anti-bunker thermobaric warhead[32] and is said to be laser-riding.
The Toophan 7 is a planned variant of the Toophan family, it's equipped warhead is unclear some sources claim it is perhaps fragmentation thermobaric.
Qaem
Qaem-M
Anti-aircraft missile Entered mass production in 2009   Iran The Qaem is an Iranian SACLOS beam-riding SHORAD surface-to-air missile. With a range of six kilometers and a maximum altitude of two kilometers, the Qaem is intended for use against UAVs and low flying or stationary helicopters. The Qaem is a development of the Toophan missile, hence why they are identical in appearance.
The missiles can be used by Ghods Mohajer UAVs.[33]
The Qaem anti-aircraft missile uses a laser guidance system.[34] Iran also produces a variant, the Qaem-M, which adds a proximity fuse.[35]
9K11 Malyutka/Raad Anti-tank guided missile   Soviet Union
  Iran
Manufactured in Iran under the name Raad.
9K111 Fagot Anti-tank guided missile   Soviet Union
9M113 Konkurs Anti-tank guided missile   Soviet Union
  Iran
Built as Towsan-1 or M-113 in Iran.
9K115-2 Metis-M Anti-tank guided missile   Russia
MILAN Anti-tank guided missile   France Captured during the Iran-Iraq War. Probably no longer in service.
Dehlavie Anti-tank guided missile   Iran Iranian copy of Kornet.[36][37] Available as Pirooz vehicle-mounted weapon station.[38]
Almas Anti-tank guided missile   Iran Ground-launched version the air-launched Almas, top attack weapon with a range of 8 km.[39]

Combat vehiclesEdit

Model Type In service Acquired Origin Image Notes
Main battle tanks
Zulfiqar MBT 3
Zulfiqar MBT 2
Zulfiqar MBT 1
Main battle tank 100 (more scheduled for production)[40]
1 (prototype)[40]
150+ [40]
1996–present   Iran Based on M60 and T-72. Featuring EFCS-3 fire control system and autoloader. The Zulfiqar 3 is the latest model in the family which has been heavily modernized with advanced technologies and armaments. It features considerable upgrades to the fire control system, chassis, engine and main gun. The new variant is equipped with the 2A46 125 mm smoothbore cannon, a laser rangefinder, RAM camouflage and a new fire control system. It is also fitted with a reinforced turret and the wheels are covered by an armoured skirt.[41][42]
Karrar Main battle tank 800 planned, production begun (as of early 2021) 2016 (production started in late 2019)   Iran production begun, 800 planned by end of 2021[43]
Chieftain
Mobarez
Main battle tank 100 (Chieftain) -Mobarez ~50 1971-1979   United Kingdom
  Iran
707 Mk-3P and Mk-5P, 125–189 FV-4030-1, 41 ARV and 14 AVLB obtained before the 1979 revolution. Further planned deliveries of the more capable 4030 series were cancelled at that point. 100 in service as of 2005. Many others upgraded to Mobarez.[44][45]
M60A1 Main battle tank 200 1969-1970   United States
  Iran
Some sources claim ~150 M60.[46] Locally modernized as the Samsam.[47][45]
T-72S
T-72 Rakhsh
Main battle tank
Main battle tank
1,500 T-72S and 141 T-72M1
-150
1994–1999
1990s
  Iran
  Soviet Union
  Iran
Iran produced and received T-72S tanks under licence from Russia from 1993-2012, received 104 T-72M1 tanks from Poland from 1994-1995 and 37 T-72M1 tanks from Belarus starting in 2000.[48] Possible unlicensed production.[citation needed] As of 2021 around 1,800 in inventory including 1,500 T-72S, 150 T-72 Khorramshahr/Rakhsh, and 140 less capable T-72M/M1.[citation needed] T-72 Rakhsh fitted with T-80 turret and using Kontakt-5 ERA[45]
T-72Z Safir-74
T-55
Main battle tank Approximately 400.[49][41]
About 10-50[50]
1996–present
1945–1958
  Iran
  Soviet Union

  China

The T-72Z Safir-74 is a modernized model of the T-55 tank[51]
Light tanks
FV101 Scorpion Combat vehicle reconnaissance 280 1997   United Kingdom
Tosan Light tank 60+ 1997   Iran Tosan is a domestically produced light tank, based on the FV101 Scorpion[45]
Armoured vehicles (tracked)
Boragh/BMP-1 Armoured personnel carrier 450 1997   Iran 210 BMP-1 and 240 Boragh, according to Global Security[41]
OT-62 TOPAS Armored personal carrier 150   Poland
  Czechoslovakia
Sayyad Armored fast attack vehicle 150+ (more in production)   Iran Can be armed with 77mm rockets, ATGM's, and various chainguns.[52]
M113A1 Armoured personnel carrier 300 1966-1978   United States
BTR-50 Amphibious 480   Soviet Union Most BTR-50's will be upgraded or are being upgraded to Makran IFV (BTR-50 with new electronics, new armor, and an unmannrd turret with a 30mm auto-cannon).[45]
BMP-2 Infantry fighting vehicle 400 1991–2001   Soviet Union 1,500 ordered in 1991 from Russia and 413 were delivered between 1993 and 2001 of which 82 were delivered directly by Russia and 331 were assembled in Iran.[53] 100 were in service in 1995, 140 in 2000 and 400 in 2002, 2005 and 2008.[54] 400 are currently in service.[55] Some sources claim that production is ongoing.
Armoured vehicles (wheeled)
WZ-551[56] Infantry fighting vehicle 150[57]   China Equipped with either a Nasir AGL and DSHKs or the standard ZPT-99 30mm auto-cannon.[45][56] 150 in service[57]
Sarir APC Armored personnel carrier Unknown   Iran Domestically made 4x4 APC also known as Tala'iye.[45]
EE-9 Cascavel Armored car 35   Brazil According to Global Security, 35 are in service.[41]
BTR-60 Armoured personnel carrier
Armoured personnel carrier
1,260 1966–2017 (BTR-80)   Soviet Union
 
Iranian Heidar-7
KPVT 14.5 mm machine gun replaced with DShKM 12.7 mm machine gun or ZSU-23 gun on some vehicles. ATGM launchers added to some vehicles. Sedad BTR-82 variant of BTR-60 with ZU-23-2.[45] Heidar 6 variant with BMP-1 turret installed onto BTR-60, Heidar 7 variant with ERA bricks, modified interior, and new turret installed with a single 23mm gun.[45] Heidar-5 mine layer variant and Shahram NRBC detection vehicle variants of BTR-60.[45]
Pegaso BMR armored personnel Carrier 55   Spain [45]
Rakhsh APC Armoured Personnel Carrier 300+   Iran Multiple Variants with upgraded armor[45]
EE-11 Urutu Armored Personnel Carrier Unknown   Brazil [58][59][60]
MRAP
Toofan MRAP 600+   Iran [45]
Humvee Light armored vehicle 20+   United States Got from Iraq, and later from Afghanistan in August 2021
Ra'ad Fakke MRAP ~10   Iran In development/production[23]

Non-combat vehiclesEdit

Model Type Quantity Acquired Origin Image Notes
Utility vehicles
Safir Jeep Multipurpose military vehicle 36,000+[61][62] 2008   Iran Yearly production capacity of 5000 vehicles[61][63]
Samandar Light attack vehicle 1000+   Iran [64][65][45]
Kaviran Multipurpose military vehicle 1800+   Iran [45]
Sepehr Utility vehicle 900+   Iran [66][67][45]
Aras Multipurpose military vehicle 2000+   Iran [68][69][45]
Ranger Light Attack Vehicle +   Iran [70][71][45]
M548 Cargo carrier Unknown   USA [45]
Trucks
Neynava Lightweight truck 15,000+   Iran [52]
Mercedes-Benz L-series truck Truck +   West Germany
  Iran
[72][52]
Mercedes-Benz Actros Heavy truck 1000+   Germany [45]
KrAZ trucks Heavy truck +   Ukraine [73][45]
Hyundai Mighty Light truck 2000+   South Korea [45]
Engineering vehicles
Husky VMMD VMMD Dozens   South Africa
  Egypt
Shahram NRBC detection vehicle CBRN defense Unknown   Iran

ArtilleryEdit

Model Type Quantity Acquired Origin Picture Notes
Mortars
37mm Marsh Mortar 37mm mortar +   Iran
HM 12 60mm mortar +   Iran
HM 13 60mm mortar +   Iran
HM 14 60mm mortar +   Iran
HM 15 81mm mortar +   Iran
HM 16 120mm mortar +   Iran
Razm Mortar 120mm mortar +   Iran [citation needed]
Vafa Mortar 160mm mortar +   Iran [68][69]
Multiple rocket launcher system (MLRS)
Type 63 MRL/Fajr 1 107mm MRL 1300 1986   Iran
  China
Global Security[41]
Fajr-3 240mm multiple launch rocket system 110 1994   Iran
Fajr-5 330mm multiple launch rocket system 190 1990   Iran
Shahin-1 Multiple launch rocket system + 1990   Iran
Shahin-2 Multiple launch rocket system + 1995   Iran
BM-21 Grad 122mm multiple launch rocket system 800 1978   Soviet Union
122mm Hadid/Azrash/Nur 122mm multiple launch rocket system 55 1994   Iran Domestic BM-21 developments?
BM-27 Uragan 200mm multiple rocket launch system Unknown   Russia [74]
Self-propelled howitzer (SPH)
2S1 Gvozdika 122mm self-propelled howitzer 60   Soviet Union
Raad 1 122mm self-propelled howitzer 200[45] 1996   Iran Based on 2S1 Gvozdika
Raad 2 155mm self-propelled howitzer 250[45] 1997   Iran Based on M109
M109A1 155mm self-propelled howitzer 440   United States
  Iran
Remanufactured locally as the Hoveyzeh.500 bought from US in the 1970s[75]
M-1978 170mm self-propelled howitzer 20   North Korea
M-107 175mm self-propelled howitzer 30   United States
M-110 203mm self-propelled howitzer 30   United States
Towed Howitzer
M101A1 105mm howitzer 130   United States
2A18M 122mm howitzer 550   Soviet Union
Type-54 122mm howitzer 100   China
M1954/Type 59-1 130mm howitzer 985   Soviet Union
  China
In 2002, Iran had 1,100 M-46 in conditional use. By 2012 this number has dropped to 985.
M1955 152mm howitzer 30   Soviet Union
  China
WAC-21 155mm howitzer 15   China
GHN-45 155mm howitzer 120   Canada
M-114 155mm howitzer 70   United States
122mm HM 40 122mm howitzer +   Iran
155mm HM 41 155mm howitzer +   Iran
FH-77B 155mm howitzer 18   Sweden [3]
G-5 155mm howitzer 50   South Africa In 1990, Iran had 50 G-5. However, there is no current information on the condition of these howitzer.
M-115 203mm howitzer 20   United States

Surface-to-surface missilesEdit

This refers to ballistic missiles and not battlefield systems. Iran's missile forces are under the command of the Revolutionary Guards, under the army's authority. Additional information is available at the article Air Force of the Army of the Guardians of the Islamic Revolution, which force operates Iran's long-range missiles. Iran was reported to have purchased 18 mobile Musudan missiles (the extended range version of Soviet R-27 Zyb) with a 3,200-to-4,000 km range in 2005.[76]

Model Type Quantity Acquired Origin Image Notes
Anti-ship missiles
Kowsar 1/2/3 Anti-ship missile +   Iran Light ASCM based on Chinese C-701 and TL-10[77]
Nasr-1 Anti ship missile +   Iran Light ASCM based on Chinese C-705 and TL-6[77]
Noor Anti-ship missile +   Iran ASCM based on Chinese C-801 and C-802
Ra'ad Anti-ship missile +   Iran Iranian origin Heavy ASCM similar to Chinese C-401[78]
Qader Anti ship missile +   Iran [79]
Khalij Fars Anti-ship ballistic missile +   Iran Based on Fateh-110[80][81]
Zafar Anti-ship missile +   Iran Light ASCM for IRGC navy[82]
Ballistic missiles
Tondar-69 Rocket artillery +   Iran
Oghab Rocket artillery + 1985–present   Iran
Naze'at Rocket artillery +   Iran
Zelzal Tactical ballistic missile 3000+   Iran [83]
Fateh-110 Tactical ballistic missile 4500+ 2002–present   Iran [84]

Air defence missile systemsEdit

HelicoptersEdit

Aircraft Origin Type Variant Quantity Years image Notes
Attack helicopters
IAIO Toufan Iran Attack Toufan I/Toufan II 67 2010 The IAIO Toufan or Toophan (Persian: توفان, "typhoon") is series of combat helicopters by the Iran Aviation Industries Organization. Based on the US-built AH-1J SeaCobra with New laser system Rocket-launching digital control system Multi-display monitor, and Central smart arms management system
Bell AH-1 SuperCobra United States Attack AH-1J International/AH-1W SuperCobra 50 1971 In 1971, Iran purchased 202 examples of an improved AH-1J, named "AH-1J International", from the United States.This improved Cobra featured an uprated P&WC T400-WV-402 engine and stronger drivetrain. Recoil damping gear was fitted to the 20 mm M-197 gun turret, and the gunner was given a stabilized sight and even a stabilized seat. Of the AH-1Js delivered to the Shah's Imperial Iranian Army Aviation, 62 were TOW-capable.
HESA Shahed 285 Iran light attack/reconnaissance 43 2009 Can carry ATGM's, anti ship missiles, and air to air missiles.
Utility helicopters
HESA Shahed 274 Iran light utility helicopter. ~30 2000
Boeing CH-47 Chinook United States Heavy-lift transport CH-47C At least 40
Mil Mi-17 Russia Medium-lift transport Mi-8/17 87 Used by Iran Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps navy and Ground Forces of the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps
Bell 214 United States Utility/SAR Bell 214C/214A 70[54]
Agusta-Bell 212 Italy Utility AB-212 50+ Licence-built in Italy
Bell UH-1N Twin Huey United States Canada Utility 10+ 1970 In addition to the Air Force, the helicopter is used by the Iranian Revolutionary Guards and the Iranian police
Agusta Bell 206 Italy Light utility/trainer AB 206 24 Licence-built in Italy.
HESA Shahed 278 Iran Light utility 13 2005 Iran's Shahed Aviation Industries Research Center plans to produce several variants of Shahed, according to sources. The first platform was the Shahed-278 (Oh-78), described as a light reconnaissance helicopter, armed with weapons and sensors. Test flights of the Shahed-278 (Oh-78) began in 2005

AircraftEdit

The IRIA Ground Forces operates an army aviation component comprising the following:

Aircraft Type Versions In service Origin Photo
Dassault Falcon 20 VIP transport Falcon 20E 3 France
Aero Commander Utility transport 690 4 USA
Fokker F27 Friendship Tactical transport F27-400M
F27-600
2 Netherlands
Cessna 185 Transport Cessna 185F 10 USA

Unmanned aerial vehiclesEdit

Model Type Quantity Acquired Origin Image Notes
Sofreh Mahi Stealth unmanned combat aerial vehicle -   Iran Under development
Karrar Unmanned combat aerial vehicle + 2010   Iran [85][86]
Ababil Unmanned aerial vehicle + 1986   Iran A wide number built in several different variants including the tactical Ababil-5 for medium-range reconnaissance and surveillance, the Ababil-T for short/medium-range attack, and also the Ababil-B and -S[87]
Mohajer 1/2/3/4/5/6 Unmanned aerial vehicle 300+ 1980's   Iran [19][88]
Raad 85 Unmanned aerial vehicle +   Iran Suicide drone[88]
Ra'ad Unmanned aerial vehicle +   Iran With offensive capabilities[89][90]
Nazir Unmanned aerial vehicle +   Iran [89][90]
Hod Hod Unmanned aerial vehicle +   Iran [91]
Saegheh 1 Target drone 90   Iran [92]
Saegheh 2 Unmanned combat aerial vehicle 50+   Iran Based on, but smaller than and substantially different from, the Lockheed Martin RQ-170 Sentinel
MQM-107 Target drone 180   United States [86]
Yasir Unmanned aerial vehicle Hundreds 2013   Iran In November 2013 a Yasir UAV was shown flying over Damascus, Syria in support of Syrian Arab Army forces fighting against rebels.[88][93]
Shahed 129 Unmanned combat aerial vehicle 21   Iran On April 10, 2014, rebels in Syria recorded a UAV resembling a Shahed 129 flying over Eastern Ghouta, Damascus[94]
Hamaseh Unmanned aerial vehicle 30   Iran A medium-range drone, capable of carrying air to ground missiles
H-110 Sarir Unmanned combat aerial vehicle 10+   Iran Capable of carrying air-to-air missiles
Fotros Unmanned combat aerial vehicle ?   Iran Unmanned combat aerial vehicle with range of 2000 km, flight ceiling of 25000 ft and 16–30 hours flight endurance, armed with missiles.[95]
Simorgh Unmanned combat aerial vehicle ?   Iran Full-size copy of the American RQ-170 UAV

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

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External linksEdit