This article needs attention from an expert in Military history. The specific problem is: Muddled terminology.(September 2015)
Chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear defence (CBRN defence or CBRNE defence) are protective measures taken in situations in which chemical, biological, radiological or nuclear warfare (including terrorism) hazards may be present. CBRN defence consists of CBRN passive protection, contamination avoidance and CBRN mitigation.
A CBRN incident differs from a hazardous material incident in both scope (i.e., CBRN can be a mass casualty situation) and intent. CBRN incidents are responded to under the assumption that they are intentional and malicious; evidence preservation and perpetrator apprehension are of greater concern than with HAZMAT incidents.
In English the term CBRN is a replacement for the cold war term NBC (nuclear, biological, and chemical), which had replaced the term ABC (atomic, biological, and chemical) that was used in the fifties. The addition of the R (for radiological) is a consequence of the "new" threat of a radiological weapon (also known as "dirty bombs"). In the new millennium, the term CBRNe was introduced as an extension of CBRN - the e in this term representing the enhanced (improvised) explosives threat.
In Spanish the term NRBQ (Nuclear, Radiológico, Bacteriológico y Químico) has replaced NBQ.
By country or regionEdit
The Argentine Armed Forces has the Batallón de Ingenieros QBN 601 of the Argentine Army, was the first CRBN response team created, in the 1990s, as a part of the country's Rapid Deployment Force. The Policía Federal Argentina have the Brigada de Riesgos Especiales, this unit is the only national response for CBRN/HAZMAT incidents. Also, has three units called Riesgo Quimico y Biológico, Riesgo Radiológico y Nuclear, and the tactical response unit called Protección QBNR.
Brazilian firefighters are trained for NBC situations. Due to the 2016 Summer Olympics, police forces, like the GATE from Minas Gerais, the Federal Police and the National Public Security Force, are being prepared too.
In the military area, there is CBRN equipment and personnel by all the Armed Forces. The Brazilian Army has two specific teams: the 1st Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear Defense Battalion, which is based at Rio de Janeiro and is responsible by decontaminating military equipment, weapon and personnel, and the Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear Defense Company, based at Goiânia and part of the Brazilian Special Operations Command, that makes the decontamination and defense in CBRN situations. The Brazilian Presidential Guard and Army Police also have CBRN units.
The Brazilian Marine Corps has the CDefNBQR (Nuclear, Biological, Chemical and Radiological Defense Center) that controls the ARAMAR Nuclear, Biological, Chemical and Radiological Defense Battalion, at Iperó, São Paulo, conceived to provide the physical security and to perform CBRN emergencies control actions at the Centro Experimental Aramar, responsible for developing Brazilian Navy nuclear researches; the Itaguaí Nuclear, Biological, Chemical and Radiological Defense Battalion, at Itaguaí, Rio de Janeiro, where it's going to be hosted the first Brazilian Navy nuclear-powered submarine; and the Nuclear, Biological, Chemical and Radiological Defense Company, at Duque de Caxias, Rio de Janeiro. The Air Force is making special teams for transporting victims from CBRN attacks/accidents.
The term CBRN is in common use in disaster and emergency services organizations across the country. Since July 2005, the Canadian Armed Forces also started using the term CBRN Defence, instead of NBC Defence, due to the increased threat of dirty bomb use (which is radiological in nature). CBRNE is a new term that is being used in both civilian and military organisations. The Canadian Joint Incident Response Unit is a Canadian Forces unit, under the direction of the Canadian Special Operations Forces Command, charged with supporting "the Government of Canada in order to prevent, control and mitigate CBRN threats to Canada, Canadians and Canadian interests."
All members of the Canadian Armed Forces are trained in CBRNE defense, and maintain minimum standards, tested at least every three years.
At the provincial level, cities are provided opportunities for their emergency services with CBRN training. In Ontario, emergency services in Windsor, Peterborough, Toronto, and Ottawa have obtained CBRN standing at NFPA Standard 472 Awareness Level 3.
In mid-July 2016, the European Parliament negotiated a new draft counterterrorism directive aimed at protecting Europe's people from biological, chemical and other attacks. The timeline of the directive is illustrated in the following table:
|Date or target date||Action|
|4 July 2016||The European Parliament's Civil Liberties, Justice and Home Affairs Committee approved amendments to its directive counter-terrorism.|
|14 July 2016||Negotiations began. Monika Hohlmeier, the chief negotiator for the European Parliament, is charged with negotiating the final text of the directive with the European Council (heads of state for all 28 European Union countries). The European Commission will serve as a facilitator in the negotiations.|
|Autumn 2016||Negotiations expected to be concluded.|
The directive would criminalize:
- Certain acts related to preparing for a terrorist attack, such as traveling abroad to meet with a terrorist group
- Training to make explosives, firearms, and other dangerous substances
- Public incitement or praise for terrorism and financing of terrorism
The directive also includes text to help victims of terror attacks.
Hong Kong has had CBRN response capabilities since the early 1990s and advanced training from 1998. The Standing CBRN Planning Group (known as the SRPG) plans for all CBRN incidents in Hong Kong. The SRPG was set up with the support of the Secretary for Security by the Senior Bomb Disposal Officer in Hong Kong, Dominic Brittain. It consists of representatives from 9 government departments who plan the response to CBRN threats. These departments include Police EOD, Fire Services, the Hospital Authority and the Department of Health, amongst others. The operational arm of the SRPG is the CBRN Incident Advisory Group (RIAG) who form up in the initial stages of a CBRN incident using telephone conferencing. RIAG consists of five experts who assist with the technical response to the incident by providing real time advice and support to the departments involved. The Hong Kong capability is well rehearsed, with regular departmental exercises conducted and a full scale CBRN exercise conducted every year.
The Indian Army ordered 16 CBRN monitoring vehicles, of which the first 8 were inducted in December 2010. It was developed by the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) and manufactured by Ordnance Factories Board.
The Indonesian Army has a CBRN defense unit which is the Kompi Zeni Nuklir, Biologi dan Kimia (abbreviated "Kompi Zeni Nubika Pusat Zeni TNI AD") translated as: Army Engineers Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical company. The unit was founded on 22 April 1986 under the command of the Indonesian Army Corps of Engineers. The unit is also under cooperation with the Ministry of Health, Indonesian Nuclear power regulator agency, Veterinary Research Agency, and National Nuclear Power agency. This unit is the one and only unit that can handle CBRN Defense Capability within the Armed Forces.
The Indonesian National Police special unit known as the Mobile Brigade Corps aka Brimob has a CBR unit which is under the Gegana detachment. It was formed on December 2009. This unit acts as first responders to bomb and terrorist threats in the public.
Republic of IrelandEdit
The Irish Defence Forces have CBRNE training and equipment capabilities – in particular the Ordnance Corps (Explosive Ordnance Disposal/EOD teams), Engineer Corps and Army Ranger Wing (ARW) – and will aid the civil authority if requested. The Irish Army runs CBRNE defence courses, and has detection equipment, decontamination equipment and is reported to have purchased 10,000 protective CBRN/NBC suits, enough for all of its personnel. All Army Reserve personnel undergo CBRN warfare defence training.
The Irish national police force, the Garda Síochána, has a number of nationwide CBRN response teams. The teams are based regionally (in six regions; Dublin, Eastern, Northern, Southern, South-Eastern & Western) and began operating from 2004 with 100 trained officers (170 responders trained throughout the country as of 2009). There is a requirement for members to be re-certified within 18 months of training. CBRN response teams are trained by the Garda Tactical Training Unit, and supported nationally by the Emergency Response Unit (ERU). Other emergency services also have limited CBRN expertise, such as the Health Service Executive (HSE) and Dublin Fire Brigade (DFB), who have a Hazardous Materials (Haz-Mat) and Chemical Incident Unit.
The Royal Malaysia Police has CBRN providers. The Pasukan Gerakan Khas (PGK) has two special operations detachments with HAZMAT expertise - 69 Commandos and Special Actions Unit. The Federal Reserve Unit (FRU) also has a CBRN unit. Both PGK and FRU teams handle CBRN calls, before an army PNBK unit responds.
All members of the NZDF are trained in CBRN drills for a deployment.
RNZN personnel conduct training with the NZ Army and RNZAF for any deployment or training.
The RNZAF conducted regular yearly training for all its personnel given the higher probability of airfields being the target of an enemy CBRN attack. RNZAF Security Forces personnel conduct all CBRN training for the RNZAF and complete CBRN courses at the Defence CBRN Centre in the United Kingdom.
The NZ Army teaches all pre-deployment CBRN training for members of the NZDF.
The New Zealand Special Air Service is also trained for operations including disposal, and containment of chemical agents in a CBRN environment.
Pakistan based defence industry GIDS manufactures NBC suites which includes Indivual Protective equipment (IPE) like gloves, boots, air filters as well as decontamination kits and Chemical Weapon Agent (CWA) detectors.
The Spanish Army 1st CBRN Regiment 'Valencia' was formed in March 2005. Training in the defence against CBRN agents as part of combat support is the main aim of exercise 'Grifo' (Griffin) – the most important of this type that the Army undertakes. The National Police and the Spanish Civil Guard have their own CBRN units. The Military Emergencies Unit and emergency services have CBRN training.
CBRN defense units in Turkey are the mainly CBRN Defense Battalion (Kimyasal Biyolojik Radyolojik Nükleer (KBRN) Savunma Tabur)of Turkish Armed Forces including CBRN Defense Special Response Unit (KBRN Savunma Özel Müdahale Birliği) and CBRN School and Training Center Command (KBRN Okul ve Eğitim Merkezi) Gendarmerie General Command has also unit with in self Gendarmerie Search and Rescue Battalion Command has CBRN units. Ministry of the Interior's associated Disaster and Emergency Management Presidency AFAD Working in coordination with law enforcement units to intervene in the events of any CBRN accident. Apart from these, Turkey mostly makes its own CBRN protective clothing and equipment. Mechanical and Chemical Industry Corporation's Maksam factory mainly covers the needs of raspirators for the NATO and neighboring countries. Main products such as SR6 and SR6M NBC Respirator licensed United Kingdom production. MAKSAM Panaromic Mask MKE NEFES (breath) CBRN Gas Mask SR10 and SR10 ST Masks
CBRN is also used by the UK Home Office as a civil designation. Police, fire and ambulance services in the UK must all have some level of CBRN providers. Within the ambulance service this is performed by the Hazardous Area Response Team (HART) and Special Operations Response Team (SORT). Since the introduction of new equipment to UK fire services under the New Dimension programme, CBRN decontamination of personnel (including members of the public) has become a task carried out by fire services in the UK and they regularly train for such scenarios.
The United States Army uses CBRN as an abbreviation for their Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear Operations Specialists (MOS). The United States Army trains all US Army soldiers pursuing a career in CBRN at the United States Army CBRN School (USACBRNS) at Fort Leonard Wood.
The USAF uses Air Force Specialty Code (AFSC 3E9X1) U.S. Air Force Emergency Management, who are also CBRN Specialists. The USAF trains all US Airmen pursuing a career in counter-CBRN operations at the USAF CBRN School at Fort Leonard Wood.
The USMC uses CBRN as an abbreviation for two military occupational specialties. The Marine Corps runs a CBRN School to train Marine CBRN Defense Officers and Marine CBRN Defense Specialists at Fort Leonard Wood, Missouri. See also: Chemical Biological Incident Response Force (USMC CBIRF)
The USN requires all personnel to take a web-based CBRNE training annually to get a basic understanding of facts and procedures related to responding to a CBRNE incident.
The Russian FederationEdit
The Nuclear, Biological and Chemical Protection Troops (NBC Protection Troops) of the Russian Federation are special forces designed to conduct the most complex set of measures aimed at reducing the loss of associations and formations of the Ground Forces and ensuring their combat tasks assigned during operations in conditions of radioactive, chemical and biological contamination, as well as at enhancing their survivability and protection against high-precision and other weapons.
The Russian government vaccinated around half a million reindeer against anthrax in 2015. Around 1.5 million reindeer carcasses in Russian permafrost are at risk of melting due to global warming in the Arctic. There is a risk that global warming in the Arctic can thaw the permafrost, leading to new infections in reindeer. An anthrax outbreak in 2016 in reindeer caused the Russian Armed Forces to evacuate a nomadic reindeer herding tribe.
In May 2012, BioPrepWatch reported that the Russian security service ordered over 100 "capsule cradles", which are devices that people can use to protect infants or even small pets in the event of a nuclear, chemical, biological, or radiological threat. According to the article, Soviet military engineers invented the capsules in the 1960s. A company is currently producing the capsules in a factory in Russia.
Numbers vary, but news reports and market forecast reports place the market for CRBN products in 2013 and 2014 between US$8.7–8.8 billion. The market for CBRN products is expected to grow to over US$13 billion by the year 2023. Notable CBRN manufacturers include Bruker, FLIR Systems, SEC Technologies and Research International
- Bruker produces ion-mobility spectrometry for military and security personnel that separates, identifies and analyzes ionized molecules present in gas.
- FLIR Systems produces several handheld detection equipment devices, each for chemical, radiation, biological and explosives detection.
- Research International creates a sensor system, for subways and other public areas that uses multi-sensor surveillance technology that detects the presence of CBRN particles.
- Slovak company SEC Technologies develops and produces the only active stand-off detector that can detect chemicals in low concentrations from long distances (6 kilometers) in real weather conditions.
- "The CBRN Defence Market 2011-2021". visiongain. Archived from the original on 12 March 2012. Retrieved 30 May 2011.
- "CBRNe hosted buyer - IB Consultancy". ib-consultancy.eu. Archived from the original on 26 March 2012. Retrieved 11 April 2015.
- "Gate apresenta tecnologias e equipamentos para enfrentar ameaças terroristas em treinamento". Agência Minas Gerais. 6 March 2015. Archived from the original on 22 August 2016. Retrieved 20 July 2016.
- Comunello, Patrícia (30 January 2015). "Forças Armadas se preparam para combater ataques biológicos, químicos e nucleares durante os Jogos Olímpicos Rio 2016". Defesa Aérea & Naval. Revista Diálogo. Retrieved 20 July 2016.
- "Cia DQBRN". COPESP. Retrieved 20 July 2016.
- "Exército faz treino contra ataque químico no Itaquerão". BOL Fotos. 4 June 2014. Retrieved 20 July 2016.
- "Marinha do Brasil inaugura Centro de Defesa Nuclear Biológica Química e Radiológica". Ministério da Defesa. 27 April 2015. Archived from the original on 17 August 2016. Retrieved 20 July 2016.
- "Nossa missão é lidar com o inesperado, afirma tenente da Marinha". Portal Brasil. 25 March 2015. Retrieved 20 July 2015.
- "Brasil terá laboratório móvel para detectar ameaças químicas e biológicas". Portal Brasil. 27 March 2015. Retrieved 20 July 2016.
- Padilha, Luiz (19 May 2015). "Entrevista com o AE Leal Ferreira - "Forças Distritais"" [Interview with AE Leal Ferreira - "Districtal Forces"]. Defesa Aérea & Naval. Retrieved 29 July 2016.
- Lopes, Roberto (26 November 2015). "DOSSIÊ Impacto do Ajuste Fiscal no CFN: Fuzileiros levarão 15 anos (ou mais) para ativar batalhões nas fronteiras com o Paraguai e a Colômbia" [DOSSIER Impact of the Fiscal Adjustment at the BMC: Marines will take 15 years (or more) to active battalions at the border with Paraguay and Colombia]. Plano Brasil (in Portuguese). Archived from the original on 13 October 2016. Retrieved 11 September 2016.
- Vasconcellos, Iris (15 April 2016). "FAB realiza certificação de equipamentos e trajes utilizados em ameaças DQBRN". DefesaNet. Retrieved 20 July 2016.
- Calgary Health Region CBRN Training Archived 27 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 6 June 2011. Retrieved 3 April 2010.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- Rozens, Tracy (14 July 2016). "European counterterrorism legislation calls for protecting victims of CBRN attacks". Homeland Preparedness News. Retrieved 26 July 2016.
- Hong Kong's Response to a Chemical, Biological, Radiological or Nuclear Attack (PDF), retrieved 3 April 2010
- "CBRNe World "Fighting Dirty"". Spring 2008. Cite journal requires
- "SRPG fact sheet" (PDF).
- "India's first NBC recce vehicle launched in Pune". dna. Retrieved 11 April 2015.
- "KOMPI ZENI NUBIKA TNI AD". Zeniad's Blog (in Indonesian). 21 January 2009.
- "CBRNe World Convergence - All Hazards Response 2013, Dublin". 16 April 2013. Department of Defence (Ireland). Retrieved 4 May 2014.
- "Training and development in the Reserve Defence Forces". Defence Forces Ireland. Retrieved 22 July 2016.
- "Annual Report of An Garda Síochána 2009" (PDF). An Garda Síochána. Retrieved 13 July 2015.
- Boyle, Darren. "Gardai get 'dirty bomb' protection". 29 March 2007. The Mirror (UK). Retrieved 4 May 2014.
- Bernama (April 2011). "PNBK 3D capable handling terrorist threats". Penerangan. Archived from the original on 23 July 2011. Retrieved 11 May 2011.
- Thompson, Leroy (December 2008). "Malaysian Special Forces". Special Weapons. Retrieved 11 May 2011.
- ":: GIDS - NBC ::". GIDS. Archived from the original on 19 December 2019.
- 1st Regiment 'Valencia' Opens the ‘Tap’ to CBRN Defence. Spanish Army. Retrieved 1 December 2011
- (in Spanish) UMR, CBRN training. Spanish Defense[permanent dead link]. Retrieved 1 December 2011
- "TSK'nın çok özel 55 adamı". milliyet.com.tr. 22 April 2014. Retrieved 17 October 2020.
- "AFAD KBRN Uzmanları". www.afad.gov.tr. Retrieved 16 May 2021.
- "KBRN Müdahale Araçları". www.afad.gov.tr. Retrieved 16 May 2021.
- ANKARA (A.A). "Polisin gaz maskesi MKEK'dan". www.hurriyet.com.tr (in Turkish). Retrieved 28 May 2021.
- "TURKISH DEFENCE INDUSTRY PRODUCT CATALOGUE". www.ssb.gov.tr. Retrieved 30 March 2021.
- UK Resilience - Emergencies - CBRN Archived 6 February 2007 at the Wayback Machine
- "NBC Protection Troops". Ministry of Defence of the Russian Federation. Retrieved 28 November 2017.
- "40 now hospitalised after anthrax outbreak in Yamal, more than half are children". siberiantimes.com.
- Revich, Boris A.; Podolnaya, Marina A. (2011). "Thawing of permafrost may disturb historic cattle burial grounds in East Siberia". Global Health Action. 4: 8482. doi:10.3402/gha.v4i0.8482. ISSN 1654-9880. PMC 3222928. PMID 22114567.
- Purlain, Ted (29 May 2013). "Russian security service orders VIP CBRN-proof baby cradles". BioPrepWatch. Archived from the original on 21 June 2013. Retrieved 6 June 2013.
- Sievers, Lisa (3 March 2014). "SDI predicts CBRN market will surpass $13.69 billion by 2023". BioPrepWatch. Chicago, Illinois. Archived from the original on 25 March 2014. Retrieved 24 March 2014.
- "CBRN Defence Market Forecast 2014-2024". visiongain. London, U.K. 14 February 2014. Retrieved 24 March 2014.
- "Ion Mobility Spectrometry". Bruker Corporation. Billerica, Massachusetts. Retrieved 24 March 2014.
- "FLIR Detection & Protection". FLIR Systems. Wilsonville, Oregon. Archived from the original on 26 February 2014. Retrieved 24 March 2014.
- "CBRN Products". Research International, Inc. Monroe, Washington. Retrieved 24 March 2014.
- Eldridge, John, ed. (2006). Jane's Nuclear, Biological and Chemical Defense 2006–2007 (19th ed.). Coulsdon, Surrey, UK; Alexandria, Va.: Jane's Information Group. ISBN 0-7106-2763-7.
- Hart, Benjamin C.; Garrett, John (2007). Historical Dictionary of Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical Warfare. Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press. ISBN 978-0-8108-5484-0. Includes bibliographical essay. Review
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to CBRN defense.|
|Look up CBRN in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|