The Epistle of Jude[a] is the penultimate book of the New Testament as well as the Christian Bible. It is traditionally attributed to Jude, brother of James the Just, and thus possibly a brother of Jesus as well.

Jude is a short epistle written in Koine Greek. It condemns in fierce terms certain people the author sees as a threat to the early Christian community, but describes these opponents only vaguely. According to Jude, these opponents are within the Christian community, but are not true Christians: they are scoffers, false teachers, malcontents, given to their lusts, and so on. The epistle reassures its readers that these people will soon be judged by God. It is possible that the group being referred to would have been obvious to the original recipients of the letter, but if a specific group was being referred to, knowledge of the details has since been lost. The one bit of their potential ideology discussed in the letter is that these opponents denigrate angels and their role. If this was indeed a part of the ideology of this group the author opposed, then the epistle is possibly a counterpoint to the Epistle to the Colossians. Colossians condemns those who give angels undue prominence and worship them; this implies the two letters might be part of an early Christian debate on Christian angelology.

Authorship edit

The epistle introduces itself with a simple claim of authorship: "Jude, a servant of Jesus Christ and brother of James" (NRSV). "James" is generally taken to mean James, brother of Jesus, a prominent leader in the early church. Introductions would typically refer to a father in the era, so the use of a brother suggests that this would only be done if the brother was famous within the community. Little is known about Jude himself. As the brother of James, it has traditionally meant Jude was also a brother of Jesus, since James is described as being the brother of Jesus. This is why Clement of Alexandria (c. 150–215 AD) wrote in his work "Comments on the Epistle of Jude" that Jude, the author, was a son of Joseph and a brother of Jesus.[3] However, there is a dispute as to whether "brother" means someone who has the same father and mother, or a half-brother, cousin, or more distant familial relationship. This dispute over the true meaning of "brother" grew as the doctrine of the Virgin Birth evolved.[4][5][6] For example, Saint Jerome believed that not only Mary but also Joseph were virgins their entire lives, and thus James and by extension Jude were cousins.[7]

Outside the book of Jude, a "Jude" is mentioned five times in the New Testament: three times as Jude the Apostle,[8] and twice as Jude the brother of Jesus[9] (aside from references to Judas Iscariot and Judah (son of Jacob)). Debate continues as to whether the author of the epistle is the apostle, the brother of Jesus, both, or neither. Scholars have argued that since the author of the letter has not identified himself as an apostle and also refers to the apostles as a third party, he cannot be identified with Jude the Apostle. Other scholars have drawn the opposite conclusion, which is that, as an apostle, he would not have made a claim of apostleship on his own behalf.[6] Scholars who have defended the authorship of the brother of James as plausible include Richard Bauckham.[10]

A reason to doubt that a relative of Jesus wrote the book is that they are unlikely to have been literate.[11] Jesus's family were common laborers from Aramaic-speaking Galilee, and literary composition skills were overwhelmingly concentrated in the elite in antiquity. Few knew how to read, fewer how to write, and fewer still how to write complicated literary treatises. Jesus himself may have been able to read, presumably in Hebrew, but he was also exceptional and the star of the family. Even if somehow Jude had learned a little of how to read Hebrew, the epistle is written in excellent, complicated Koine Greek, with knowledge of common forms of rhetoric and argument of the era, as well as seeming knowledge of the scriptures in Hebrew. All this would be exceptional for a countryside Galilean. Scholars who support the authorship of Jude generally assume that he must have embarked upon extensive travel and missionary work among Hellenized Jews to master Greek as the author did. Ultimately, it is impossible to know more details of Jude's life for sure. One early Christian tradition states that Jude's grandchildren were brought before Emperor Domitian and interrogated; in the story, they defended themselves as not rebels and mere poor laborers eking out what they could from a single patch of land. While the story is clearly apocryphal – Roman emperors did not generally interrogate Galilean peasants – it does suggest that early Christians remembered Jude's family as lower-class laborers, not literate elites.[12]

If the Jude writing the letter was not Jude the Apostle mentioned in the gospels, then he was possibly an unknown Christian who happened to share the name and coincidentally also had a brother named James. A final possibility is that the epistle is pseudepigrapha – that the author intentionally hinted to readers that it was from the more famous Jude, but only as a false attribution to give the letter more authority.[12][11]

Date edit

The date of composition is not known, but is loosely speculated to be between the years 50 and 110. Among those who favor the authorship of the Jude mentioned in the gospels, the letter is generally placed before the destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem in 70 AD. Among those who favor the authorship of an unknown Christian, it is assumed to be a work of the last decade of the first century or the early second century.[13][14] Scholars who consider the letter a pseudonymous work generally favor the later dates due to the letter's references to the apostles (as if they lived in the past)[15] and to an authoritative tradition,[16] and because of its competent Greek style.[17][18][6] Bo Reicke suggests around 90 AD; Heikki Räisänen concurs and believes that it may have been written at the end of the first century.[11][19] Bart Ehrman also agrees that toward the end of the first century is the most likely, due to use of certain terminology in ways similar to the pastoral epistles that match a late first century date.[12]

Content edit

Jude urges his readers to "contend for the faith" against "certain intruders [who] have stolen in among you."[20] He warns about false teachers who twist the grace of Christ as a pretext for wantonness. Jude asks the reader to recall how even after the Lord saved his own people out of the land of Egypt, he did not hesitate to destroy those who fell into unbelief, much as he punished the angels who fell from their original exalted status and the inhabitants of Sodom and Gomorrah.[21] He also paraphrases (verse 9) an incident apparently from the Assumption of Moses that has since been lost about Satan and Michael the Archangel quarreling over the body of Moses.

Continuing the analogy from Israel's history, he says that the false teachers have followed in the way of Cain, have rushed after reward into the error of Balaam, and have perished in the rebellion of Korach. He describes in vivid terms the opponents he warns of, calling them "clouds without rain", "trees without fruit", "foaming waves of the sea", and "wandering stars".[22] He exhorts believers to remember the words spoken by the Apostles, using language similar to the second epistle of Peter to answer concerns that the Lord seemed to tarry: "In the last time there will be scoffers, indulging their own ungodly lusts,"[23] and to keep themselves in God's love,[24] before delivering a doxology to God.[25]

Jude quotes directly from the Book of Enoch, a widely distributed work among the Old Testament pseudepigrapha, citing a section of 1 Enoch 1:8 that is based on Deuteronomy 33:2.[26][27]

Style and audience edit

Consisting of just 1 chapter with 25 verses, the Epistle of Jude is among the shortest books of the Bible. (The Epistle to Philemon also contains 25 verses, while the 21-verse Book of Obadiah, the 14-verse 3 John, and the 13-verse 2 John are shorter.)

The wording and syntax of this epistle in its original Greek demonstrates that the author was capable and fluent. The epistle's style is combative, impassioned, and rushed. Many examples of evildoers and warnings about their fates are given in rapid succession.

The epistle concludes with a doxology, which is considered by Peter H. Davids to be one of the highest in quality contained in the Bible.[28]

It may have been composed as an encyclical letter—that is, one not directed to the members of one church in particular, but intended rather to be circulated and read in all churches. While addressed to the Christian Church as a whole, the references to Old Testament figures such as Michael, Cain, and Korah's sons, the Book of Enoch, and the invocation of James as head of the church of Jerusalem suggests a Jewish Christian main audience that would be familiar with Enochian literature and revere James.[11]

Canonical status edit

The letter of Jude was one of the disputed books of the biblical canon of the New Testament. Despite some opposition, it seems to have been accepted by most churches around the end of the second century.[29] Clement of Alexandria, Tertullian, and the Muratorian canon considered the letter canonical. The letter was eventually accepted as part of the canon by later Church Fathers such as Athanasius of Alexandria.[30] The canon list at the Council of Carthage (c. 397) included the epistle of Jude.[31]

The first historical record of doubts as to authorship are found in the writings of Origen of Alexandria, who spoke of the doubts held by some in the early third century. Eusebius classified it with the "disputed writings, the antilegomena" in the early fourth century. Eusebius doubted its authenticity partially because it was rarely quoted among ancient sources, although he acknowledges it was read in many churches.[32] The links between the Epistle and 2 Peter and its use of the biblical apocrypha raised concern: Saint Jerome wrote in 392 AD that the book was "rejected by many" since it quotes the Book of Enoch.[33]

Surviving early manuscripts edit

Papyrus 78, containing the Epistle of Jude verses 4, 5, 7 and 8; it is dated to the 3rd or 4th century
Colophon of the Epistle of Jude in the Codex Alexandrinus

Early manuscripts containing the text of the epistle of Jude include:[34]

Identity of the opponents edit

The epistle fiercely condemns the opponents it warns of and declares that God will judge and punish them, despite them being a part of the Christian community. However, the exact nature of these opponents has been a continuing question, as the epistle does not describe them in any more detail than calling them corrupt and ungodly. Several theories have been proposed. The most specific verse describing the opponents is verse 8:

In the very same way, on the strength of their dreams these ungodly people pollute their own bodies, reject authority and heap abuse on celestial beings.

— Jude 1:8 (NIV)[37]

Reject "authority" (κυριότητα, kyriotēta; alternate translations include "dominion" or "lordship") could mean several things. The most direct would be rejection of civil or ecclesiastical authority: the opponents were ignoring guidance from leaders. Martin Luther and Jean Calvin agreed with this interpretation, and it is the most common one.[38] Another possibility is that this specifically referred to rejecting the authority of Jesus or God, which would agree with verse 4 and be reinforcing the claim that these opponents are not true Christians.[38] A third possibility is that this is the singular of kyriotētes (Dominions), a class of angels.[38] This would fit with the final part of the sentence of "heap abuse on celestial beings", but it is unusual that the singular is used. Versions of Jude vary, and some manuscripts such as the Codex Sinaiticus indeed use the plural form. [39]

"Heap abuse on celestial beings" is also a relevant statement, as it stands in some tension with the works of Paul the Apostle as well as the Epistle to the Hebrews.[38][40] Paul's undisputed works indicate that believers are already on the same level as angels, that all existing powers are subject to Christ, and believers are the future judges of angels.[12] Later writings attributed to Paul such as Colossians and Ephesians go even further, with Colossians decrying the alleged worship of angels.[12] A hypothesis is thus that the author may have been attacking forms of Pauline Christianity that were not suitably deferential to angels in their opinion. "Rejecting authority" may be a reference to Paul's preaching that gentiles did not need to comply with Jewish Law. As James was known to be a major figure among Jewish Christians, this might indicate tension between the more Jewish strands of early Christianity represented by James and Jude set against Paul's message to the gentiles.[12] However, the line about "heap abuse on celestial beings" might have essentially been just another insult, in which case this entire line of thought is rendered moot.

Another hypothesis is that the opponents may have been proto-Gnostics, argued for by scholars such as Hermann Werdermann [de]. Proposed evidence in support of this includes that in verse 19, the opponents are called "worldly" (psychikoi), a term also used in relation to Gnosticism in other literature.[18][41] While it does seem Jude may have been used to attack Gnostics in later centuries, other scholars think this was unlikely to be the original intent, as the opponents aren't described as having the signature doctrines of Gnosticism, and Gnosticism does not seem to have been a major force in first century Christianity. Richard Bauckham, arguing against such a connection, writes that "If [Jude]'s polemic is really aimed against Gnosticism it is singularly inept."[42]

The inherent vagueness of the epistle means that the identities of these opponents may never be known.

Similarity to 2 Peter edit

Shared passages[43]
2 Peter Jude
1:5 3
1:12 5
2:1 4
2:4 6
2:6 7
2:10–11 8–9
2:12 10
2:13–17 11–13
3:2-3 17-18
3:14 24
3:18 25

Part of Jude is very similar to 2 Peter (mainly 2 Peter chapter 2); so much so that most scholars agree that either one letter used the other directly, or they both drew on a common source.[44] Comparing the Greek text portions of 2 Peter 2:1–3:3 (426 words) to Jude 4–18 (311 words) results in 80 words in common and 7 words of substituted synonyms.[45]

Because this epistle is much shorter than 2 Peter, and due to various stylistic details, most scholars consider Jude the source for the similar passages of 2 Peter.[46][47] 2 Peter omits the reference to the non-canonical book of Enoch, or apocalyptic Jewish works in general; perhaps an indication of shifting attitudes of the early 2nd century, in the view where 2 Peter came later.[18][48]

Advocates of the reverse are generally traditionalists who assign an early date to 2 Peter, such that it was published during Peter's lifetime. They argue that Jude 18 quotes 2 Peter 3:3 as past tense, and consider Jude to have come after 2 Peter.[49]

References to other books edit

Jude 9 on Codex Sinaiticus (c. 330–360)

The Epistle of Jude references at least three other books, with two (Book of Zechariah & 2 Peter) being canonical in all churches and the other (Book of Enoch) non-canonical in most churches.

Verse 9 refers to a dispute between Michael the Archangel and the devil about the body of Moses. Some interpreters understand this reference to be an allusion to the events described in Zechariah 3:1–2.[50][51] The classical theologian Origen, as well as Clement of Alexandria, Didymus the Blind, and others, attributes this reference to the non-canonical Assumption of Moses.[52] However, no extant copies of the Assumption of Moses contain this story, leading most scholars to conclude the section covering this dispute has been lost – perhaps a lost ending, since a story involving Moses's body would logically occur at the end.[53][54] Some scholars disagree; James Charlesworth argues that the Assumption of Moses never contained any such content, and other ancient Church writers supported a different origin.[55]

Verses 14–15 contain a direct quotation of a prophecy from 1 Enoch 1:9. The title "Enoch, the seventh from Adam" is also sourced from 1 En. 60:1.[56] Most commentators assume that this indicates that Jude accepts the antediluvian patriarch Enoch as the author of the Book of Enoch which contains the same quotation. An alternative explanation is that Jude quotes the Book of Enoch aware that verses 14–15 are an expansion of the words of Moses from Deuteronomy 33:2.[57][58]

The Book of Enoch is not considered canonical by most churches, although it is by the Ethiopian Orthodox church. According to Western scholars, the older sections of the Book of Enoch (mainly in the Book of the Watchers) date from about 300 BC and the latest part (Book of Parables) probably was composed at the end of the 1st century BC.[59] 1 Enoch 1:9, mentioned above, is part of the pseudepigrapha and is among the Dead Sea Scrolls [4Q Enoch (4Q204[4QENAR]) COL I 16–18].[60] It is largely accepted by scholars that the author of the Epistle of Jude was familiar with the Book of Enoch and was influenced by it in thought and diction.[61] The reference to fallen angels suggests the possibility the author was familiar with related literature to Enoch such as the Book of Jubilees and 2 Baruch as well.[18]

The epistle also closely mirrors the Epistle of James, with many similar sentences and borrowed phrases.[12]

Influence edit

In general, Jude did not have much influence in later Christianity, not appearing often in sermons preached to laypeople nor in treatises by Christian theologians. One author wrote "Only its benediction may be familiar to an average churchgoer" and that "New Testament theologians have ignored the book".[41]

See also edit

Notes edit

  1. ^ Ancient Greek: Ἰούδας, romanizedIoúdas (Judas). The name of the work is usually called the shorter "Jude" variant to distinguish the author from Judas Iscariot. The work is also called the Letter of Jude, or simply Jude,[1] which is also its most common form of abbreviation.[2]

References edit

  1. ^ ESV Pew Bible. Wheaton, IL: Crossway. 2018. p. 1027. ISBN 978-1-4335-6343-0. Archived from the original on June 3, 2021.
  2. ^ "Bible Book Abbreviations". Logos Bible Software. Archived from the original on April 21, 2022. Retrieved April 21, 2022.
  3. ^ "Jude wrote the Catholic Epistle, the brother of the sons of Joseph, and very religious, while knowing the near relationship of the Lord, yet did not say that he himself was His brother. But what said he? "Jude, a servant of Jesus Christ,"—of Him as Lord; but "the brother of James." For this is true; he was His brother, (the son) of Joseph."of Alexandria, Clement. Comments on the Epistle of Jude. Retrieved 24 September 2015.
  4. ^ Jocelyn Rhys, Shaken Creeds: The Virgin Birth Doctrine: A Study of Its Origin, Kessinger Publishing (reprint), 2003 [1922] ISBN 0-7661-7988-5, pp 3–53
  5. ^ Chester, A and Martin, RP (1994), 'The Theology of the Letters of James, Peter and Jude', CUP, p.65
  6. ^ a b c Bauckham 1983, pp. 13–16.
  7. ^ Ehrman, Bart (January 3, 2015). "The Virgin Birth and Jesus' Brothers". The Bart Ehrman Blog: The History & Literature of Early Christianity. Retrieved 18 February 2024.
  8. ^ Luke 6:16, Acts 1:13, John 14:22
  9. ^ Matthew 13:55, Mark 6:3
  10. ^ Bauckham, Richard (2015). Jude and the Relatives of Jesus in the Early Church. Bloomsbury Academic. ISBN 978-1474230469.
  11. ^ a b c d Reicke, Bo (1964). The Epistles of James, Peter, And Jude (1 ed.). Garden City, New York: Doubleday & Company, Inc. p. 189-192. LCCN 63-8221.
  12. ^ a b c d e f g Ehrman, Bart (2012). Forgery and Counterforgery: The Use of Literary Deceit in Early Christian Polemics. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 297–305. ISBN 9780199928033.
  13. ^ Historia Ecclesiastica, translated by Arthur Cushman McGiffert. See footnote on p. 203 by McGiffert.
  14. ^ Perry, Peter S. (2011). "Jude". The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Books of the Bible. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 513–516. ISBN 9780195377378.
  15. ^ Jude 17–18
  16. ^ Jude 3
  17. ^ "Jude". United States Conference of Catholic Bishops. Archived from the original on 2011-04-28.
  18. ^ a b c d Perrin, Norman; Duling, Dennis C. (1982) [1974]. The New Testament: An Introduction (Second ed.). Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. pp. 379–381.
  19. ^ Heikki Räisänen, The Rise of Christian Beliefs: The Thought World of Early Christians, p. 66. "The Epistle of Jude is another letter written in the name of a brother of Jesus, perhaps toward the end of the first century. It consists of a vicious attack against some other Christians."
  20. ^ Jude 3–4
  21. ^ Jude 5–7
  22. ^ Jude 8–16
  23. ^ Jude 18
  24. ^ Jude 21
  25. ^ Jude 24–25
  26. ^
  27. ^ Maxwell Davidson Angels at Qumran: A Comparative Study of 1 Enoch 1-36 1992 p32 " ten thousands of holy ones" "this section is modelled in part on Deuteronomy 33 [as noted by J. VanderKam, The Theophany of Enoch 1973 and PD Miller The Divine Warrior in Early Israel 1973] "
  28. ^ Davids, Peter H. (2006). The Pillar New Testament Commentary: The Letters of 2 Peter and Jude. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co. p. 106.
  29. ^ Bauckham 1983, p. 17 "More remarkable is the evidence that by the end of the second century Jude was widely accepted as canonical."
  30. ^ Lindberg, Carter (2006). A Brief History of Christianity. Blackwell Publishing. p. 15. ISBN 1-4051-1078-3
  31. ^ B. F. Westcott, A General Survey of the History of the Canon of the New Testament (5th ed. Edinburgh, 1881), pp. 440, 541–2.
  32. ^ Eusebius of Caesarea (2019) [c. 320s]. "Book 2, Chapter 23". The History of the Church. Oakland, California: University of California Press. p. 113. ISBN 9780520964969. must be noted its authenticity is doubted, and that not many of the ancients mention it... Nevertheless, we know that these two, along with the rest, are used publicly in most churches.
  33. ^ Jerome (1999) [392]. On Illustrious Men. The Fathers of the Church: A New Translation. Translated by Halton, Thomas P. Catholic University of America Press. p. 11. doi:10.2307/j.ctt2853x3. ISBN 0-8132-0100-4.
  34. ^ Robinson 2017, p. 12.
  35. ^ Aland, Kurt; Aland, Barbara (1995). The Text of the New Testament: An Introduction to the Critical Editions and to the Theory and Practice of Modern Textual Criticism. Erroll F. Rhodes (trans.). Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company. p. 101. ISBN 978-0-8028-4098-1.
  36. ^ Eberhard Nestle, Erwin Nestle, Barbara Aland and Kurt Aland (eds), Novum Testamentum Graece, 26th edition, (Stuttgart: Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft, 1991), p. 689.
  37. ^ Jude 1:8
  38. ^ a b c d Hillyer, Norman (1992). New International Biblical Commentary: 1 and 2 Peter, Jude. Peabody, Massachusetts: Hendrickson Publishers. p. 247–250. ISBN 0-943575-87-7.
  39. ^ Lewis R. Donelson. I & II Peter and Jude: A Commentary
  40. ^ Hebrews 1
  41. ^ a b Rowston, Douglas J. (1975). "The Most Neglected Book in the New Testament". New Testament Studies (NTS). 21 (4): 554–563. doi:10.1017/S0028688500010031.
  42. ^ Bauckham 1983, pp. 10–13.
  43. ^ Robinson 2017, p. 10.
  44. ^ Introduction to 2 Peter in Expositor's Bible Commentary, Ed. F. E. Gaebelein, Zondervan 1976–1992
  45. ^ Callan 2004, p. 43.
  46. ^ Saarinen, Risto (2008). The Pastoral Epistles with Philemon & Jude. Brazos Press. pp. 215–218.
  47. ^ Example supporters:
    Callan, Terrance (2004). "Use of the Letter of Jude by the Second Letter of Peter". Biblica. 85: 42–64.
    Bauckham 1983, p. 8
  48. ^ Dale Martin 2009 (lecture). "24. Apocalyptic and Accommodation". Yale University. Accessed July 22, 2013.
  49. ^ MacArthur, John (2007). 1, 2, 3 John and Jude: Established in Truth, Marked by Love. MacArthur Bible. HarperChristian Resources. p. 101. is believed that Peter's writing predated Jude for several reasons: (1) Second Peter anticipates the coming of false teachers (2 Peter 2:1–2; 3:3), whereas Jude deals with their arrival (verses 4, 11–12, 17–18); and (2) Jude quotes directly from 2 Peter 3:3 and acknowledges that it is from an apostle (verses 17–18).
  50. ^ Peter H. Davids; Douglas J. Moo; Robert Yarbrough (2016). 1 and 2 Peter, Jude, 1, 2, and 3 John. Zondervan. p. 240. ISBN 978-0-310-53025-1.
  51. ^ R. C. Lucas; Christopher Green (2 May 2014). The Message of 2 Peter & Jude. InterVarsity Press. pp. 168–. ISBN 978-0-8308-9784-1.
  52. ^ "Philip Schaff: ANF04. Fathers of the Third Century: Tertullian, Part Fourth; Minucius Felix; Commodian; Origen, Parts First and Second - Christian Classics Ethereal Library".
  53. ^ Reicke 1964, p. 202–203
  54. ^ Johannes Tromp. The Assumption of Moses: a critical edition. p. 270
  55. ^ James Charlesworth Old Testament Pseudepigrapha, p. 76, Google books link
  56. ^
  57. ^ Charles R. Enoch OUP, p. 119
  58. ^ Nickelsburg G. 1 Enoch Fortress
  59. ^ Fahlbusch E., Bromiley G. W. The Encyclopedia of Christianity: P-Sh page 411, ISBN 0-8028-2416-1 (2004)
  60. ^ Clontz, T. E. and J., The Comprehensive New Testament with complete textual variant mapping and references for the Dead Sea Scrolls, Philo, Josephus, Nag Hammadi Library, Pseudepigrapha, Apocrypha, Plato, Egyptian Book of the Dead, Talmud, Old Testament, Patristic Writings, Dhammapada, Tacitus, Epic of Gilgamesh, Cornerstone Publications, 2008, p.711, ISBN 978-0-9778737-1-5
  61. ^ "Apocalyptic Literature" (column 220), Encyclopedia Biblica

Bibliography edit

External links edit

Epistle of Jude
Preceded by New Testament
Books of the Bible
Succeeded by