Antilegomena (from Greek ἀντιλεγόμενα) are written texts whose authenticity or value is disputed.[1] Eusebius in his Church History (c. 325) used the term for those Christian scriptures that were "disputed", literally "spoken against", in Early Christianity before the closure of the New Testament canon.

The antilegomena were widely read in the Early Church and included the Epistle of James, the Epistle of Jude, 2 Peter, 2 and 3 John, the Book of Revelation, the Gospel of the Hebrews, the Epistle to the Hebrews, the Apocalypse of Peter, the Acts of Paul, the Shepherd of Hermas, the Epistle of Barnabas and the Didache.[2][3] There was disagreement in the Early Church on whether or not the respective texts deserved canonical status.

Eusebius edit

The first major church historian, Eusebius,[4] who wrote his Church History c. AD 325, applied the Greek term "antilegomena" to the disputed writings of the Early Church[broken anchor]:

Among the disputed writings [των αντιλεγομένων], which are nevertheless recognized by many, are extant the so-called epistle of James and that of Jude, also the second epistle of Peter, and those that are called the second and third of John, whether they belong to the evangelist or to another person of the same name. Among the rejected writings must be reckoned also the Acts of Paul, and the so-called Shepherd, and the Apocalypse of Peter, and in addition to these the extant epistle of Barnabas, and the so-called Teachings of the Apostles; and besides, as I said, the Apocalypse of John, if it seem proper, which some, as I said, reject, but which others class with the accepted books. And among these some have placed also the Gospel according to the Hebrews, with which those of the Hebrews that have accepted Christ are especially delighted. And all these may be reckoned among the disputed books [των αντιλεγομένων].

It is a matter of categorical discussion whether Eusebius divides his books into three groups—homologoumena (from Greek ὁμολεγούμενα, "accepted"), antilegomena, and 'heretical'—or into four by adding a notha ("spurious") group.[citation needed]

The Epistle to the Hebrews had earlier been listed:[5]

It is not indeed right to overlook the fact that some have rejected the Epistle to the Hebrews, saying that it is disputed [αντιλέγεσθαι] by the Church of Rome, on the ground that it was not written by Paul.

Codex Sinaiticus, a 4th-century text and possibly one of the Fifty Bibles of Constantine, includes the Shepherd of Hermas and the Epistle of Barnabas. The original Peshitta (NT portion is c. 5th century) excluded 2 and 3 John, 2 Peter, Jude, and Revelation. Some modern editions, such as the Lee Peshitta of 1823, include them.

Reformation edit

During the Reformation, Luther brought up the issue of the antilegomena. Though he included the Letter to the Hebrews, the letters of James and Jude, and Revelation in his Bible translation, he put them into a separate grouping and questioned their legitimacy. Hence, these books are sometimes termed "Luther's Antilegomena"[6] Current Lutheran usage expands this questioning to also include 2 Peter, 2 John, and 3 John.[7] - a terminology remains in use today.[a]

F. C. Baur used the term in his classification of the Pauline Epistles, classing Romans, 1–2 Corinthians and Galatians as homologoumena; Ephesians, Philippians, Colossians, 1–2 Thessalonians and Philemon as antilegomena; and the Pastoral Epistles as "notha" (spurious writings).[8]

Hebrew Bible edit

The term is sometimes applied also to certain books in the Hebrew Bible.[b][c]

See also edit

Notes edit

  1. ^ "Canon", Lutheran Cyclopedia, LCMS, archived from the original on 2009-10-20, 6. Throughout the Middle Ages there was no doubt as to the divine character of any book of the NT. Luther again pointed to the distinction between homologoumena and antilegomena* (followed by M. Chemnitz* and M. Flacius*). The later dogmaticians let this distinction recede into the background. Instead of antilegomena they use the term deuterocanonical. Rationalists use the word canon in the sense of list. Lutherans in America followed Luther and held that the distinction between homologoumena and antilegomena must not be suppressed. But caution must be exercised not to exaggerate the distinction.
  2. ^ John's Revelation project, Knox Theological Seminary, archived from the original on 2007-12-09, Solomon's allegory was relegated to the antilegomena because even the allegorical anthropomorphism of God espousing to Himself a people, once again reflecting the comedic imagination, was regarded as too bold and too bodily.
  3. ^ "Canon of the Old Testament", Catholic Encyclopedia, All the books of the Hebrew Old Testament are cited in the New except those which have been aptly called the Antilegomena of the Old Testament, viz., Esther, Ecclesiastes, and Canticles.

References edit

  1. ^ Liddell; Scott, A Greek–English Lexicon.
  2. ^ Kalin 2002.
  3. ^ Davis, Glenn (2010), The Development of the Canon of the New Testament, p. 1.
  4. ^ Eusebius 1904, 3.25.3-5.
  5. ^ Eusebius 1904, 3.3.5.
  6. ^ Luther's Antilegomena, Bible researcher.
  7. ^ "Antilegomena", Lutheran Cyclopedia, LCMS.
  8. ^ McDonald & Sanders 2002, p. 458.

Bibliography edit

  • Eusebius of Cæsarea (1904) [325], Philip Schaff; Henry Wace (eds.), Church History, The Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, Second Series, vol. 1, translated by Arthur Cushman McGiffert.
  • Kalin, Everett R (2002), "23: The New Testament Canon of Eusebius", in McDonald; Sanders (eds.), The Canon Debate, pp. 386–404.
  • McDonald; Sanders, eds. (2002), The Canon Debate, Peabody, Mass.: Hendrickson.

External links edit