Ennis (Irish: Inis, meaning 'island') is the county town of County Clare, in the mid-west of Ireland. The town lies on the River Fergus, north of where the river widens and enters the Shannon Estuary. Ennis is the largest town in County Clare, with a population of 25,276,[1] making it the 6th largest town, and 12th largest urban settlement, as of 2016. Dating from the 12th century the town's Irish name is short for Inis Cluana Rámhfhada ("island of the long rowing meadow") deriving from its location between two courses of the River Fergus.

Ennis
Inis
Town
O'Connell Street, 2005
O'Connell Street, 2005
Coat of arms of Ennis
Ennis is located in Ireland
Ennis
Ennis
Location in Ireland
Ennis is located in Europe
Ennis
Ennis
Ennis (Europe)
Coordinates: 52°50′47″N 8°58′51″W / 52.8463°N 8.9807°W / 52.8463; -8.9807Coordinates: 52°50′47″N 8°58′51″W / 52.8463°N 8.9807°W / 52.8463; -8.9807
CountryIreland
ProvinceMunster
CountyCounty Clare
Government
 • Dáil constituencyClare
Elevation
3 m (10 ft)
Population
 (2016)[1]
 • Rank12th
 • Urban
25,276
DemonymEnnisite
Time zoneUTC±0 (WET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+1 (IST)
Eircode routing key
V95
Telephone area code+353(0)65
Irish Grid ReferenceR333780
Websitewww.visitennis.com

Ennis has had considerable success in the Irish Tidy Towns competition. In 2005 and 2021, the town was named Ireland's tidiest town, and was named Ireland's tidiest large urban centre on multiple occasions.

HistoryEdit

 
Abbey Street (circa 1910)
 
Map of Ennis

The name Ennis derives from the Irish word "Inis", meaning "island". This name relates to an island called Inis Laoi ("Calf Island") or Inis Cluana Rámhfhada ("island of the long rowing meadow") formed between two courses of the River Fergus. The history of Ennis is closely linked with the O'Brien dynasty, descendants of Brian Boru. In the 12th century, the O'Briens, the Kings of Thomond, left their seat of power in Limerick and built a Clonroad Fort in 1210, a royal residence on the banks of the Fergus. In 1240, following the arrival of Franciscan monks, King Donnchadh O'Brien ordered the construction of an extensive church which he later donated to the Friars.[2] The Friary quickly expanded becoming a centre for theological studies, and by 1375 had 600 students and 350 Friars in residence.[3] As the Friary expanded, so too did the surrounding area, with the town becoming a religious centre until the Dissolution of the Monasteries. Despite its official closure in 1540, the Friary continued to operate in a limited way until 1690, remaining the last school of Catholic Theology to survive the Reformation.

When Clare became a county under the rule of Elizabeth I in 1586, Ennis was chosen as its administrative centre and capital because of its central location and its association with the Earls of Thomond. Ennis received a grant to hold fairs and markets in 1610 and later a Charter for a Corporation with a Provost, Free Burgesses, Commonalty and a Town Clerk.[4]

In the colonial period, a number of landmark structures were constructed, including the Mill and Courthouse. The town contains a number of old military barracks, most notably the Old Military Barracks on the Kilrush road. Many locals served in the British Army in the First World War. The Clare Road and Clonroad areas contain terraced cottages built in the early 20th century to house soldiers. On Station Road, then called Jail Road, a gaol once stood.

As its formation was monastic and not defensive, Ennis never had town walls and instead grew as place of commerce and trade. Over the centuries the market town slowly expanded, and eventually developed as a small manufacturing and distribution centre with commodities moved by river to the port at Clarecastle for shipping abroad. Local industries included textile and clothing manufacturing, the milling of corn and flour, as well as brewing of beer and distillation of whiskey with evidence of these industries still present in the town. The 1845 Famine and its aftermath had a substantial effect on the town with the population declining by over 20% because of famine, disease and emigration.

Ennis was governed by a town council from around the 17th century onwards, before the Local Government Reform Act 2014 effectively dissolved this with the creation of the Ennis Municipal District under the authority of Clare County Council. Politically, Ennis has always been considered a Fianna Fáil stronghold. However, in the 2009 local elections, the party was reduced to just one member out of nine on Ennis Town Council. A monument to Éamon de Valera, founder of the party and former President of Ireland, stands outside Ennis Courthouse.[5]

The River Fergus runs through the middle of Ennis and is a well-known trout and salmon fishery. At one time, small sailing boats made their way up river from the Shannon and berthed in the centre of the town at Woodquay.[6] This area of the town along with Parnell Street and Mill Road was routinely susceptible to flooding, but the flood defence system put an end to the event in Parnell Street and the Mill Road areas,[7] although in November 2009 other parts of the town experienced severe flooding.[8] A new pedestrian bridge, Harmony Row Bridge, was built over the river Fergus in June 2009.[9]

Heritage and economyEdit

 
River Fergus in Ennis

Ennis continued to expand in the following centuries, mainly as a market town and later as a manufacturing and distributing centre. Many commodities were conveyed by river to Clarecastle for shipment abroad.[10]

Ennis is a historically important market town. The market square is still home to market stalls on each Saturday throughout the year, although with the rise in the town's commercial retail sector it has shifted from agricultural produce to mainly textiles and home hardware. The market also has an organic farming element.[11]

The town centre consists of medieval narrow streets and laneways, overshadowed by structures built over the last thousand years. Of the main thoroughfares, Parnell Street has been pedestrianised, while the others, O'Connell Street, Bindon Street and Abbey Street, are one way. The Cathedral of Saint Peter and Saint Paul is on the fringe of the old town centre.

Ennis serves as a major regional hub for County Clare. Among its emergency services, it contains the Ennis Hospital, the HQ of the Clare Divisional Garda, the Clare Fire Brigade and Civil Defence. Ennis also includes many relief organisations, such as The Samaritans, Clare Care and St. Vincent De Paul. Among its civil services, it contains Clare County Council, as well as Social and Family affairs.

Ennis has been a centre for Irish Traditional Music, and since 1974 has hosted the Fleadh Nua[12] in late May each year, the second-largest traditional music festival in Ireland. There are other traditional festivals held in the town as well such as the Ennis Trad Festival held annually in November.

TransportEdit

Situated 14  km from Shannon Airport, Ennis is served by both bus and rail links to all major cities and towns in Ireland. The main bus depot is adjacent to the town's train station and both are about one kilometre from the town centre. Ennis railway station is on the Clon Road toward the east of the town, which links to the main N18 in either direction.

Bus services are provided to Shannon Airport, Galway, Limerick, Cork, Dublin and all routes in between and run nearly every hour. Shannon Airport is 15 minutes from Ennis, providing daily flights to European and US destinations.

The M18 motorway was extended from Ennis to Limerick in 2007.[13] The section from Ennis to Gort was opened in 2010.[14] The section between Gort and Claregalway was opened in 2017, offering a direct connection with Galway, Tuam and Athenry.[citation needed]

Eighteen rail services per day are now provided to and from Limerick, from where connecting rail services are available to both Dublin Heuston and Cork. The Western Railway Corridor north of Ennis (to Athenry and Galway) reopened on 30 March 2010 with five return services daily.[citation needed]

Ennis was formerly the starting point of the West Clare Railway, a narrow-gauge railway which ran from Ennis to Ennistymon, Milltown Malbay and onwards to the towns and villages along the West Clare coastline. Trains ran from the same railway station which is still used by mainline Irish railway services. The line was CIÉ's last narrow-gauge railway and finally closed in 1961, despite investment in new diesel trains in the early/mid-1950s.

Ennis railway station connects with Galway and with Limerick where onward trains run to Dublin, Cork via Limerick Junction (for connections to Tipperary, Cahir, Clonmel, Carrick-on-Suir and Waterford) and Mallow (for connections to Killarney and Tralee). Ennis is also served by local charity Clare bus which provides a fully wheelchair-accessible bus service around the Clare area.

EducationEdit

 
St Flannan's College, one of the oldest school buildings in Ireland

Primary Schools in Ennis include Ennis National School, established in 1897 (formerly Boys National School), Cloughleigh National School, Gaelscoil Mhichíl Cíosóg, Holy Family School, Scoil Chroist Rí, CBS and the multi-denominational Ennis Educate Together National School which opened in 1998.[15] There are several secondary level schools in Ennis, including Rice College, Ennis Community College, Coláiste Muire, St. Flannan's College, and Gaelcholaiste an Chláir. Mid-West Management Training is a FETAC approved provider of further education and training up to Level 6 of the National Framework of Qualifications. The Ennis Business college is one of Ennis's third-level facilities. Limerick IT opened its Ennis campus in 2019.[16] The IT merged with Athlone IT to become Technological University of the Shannon: Midlands Midwest, in October 2021.[17][18][19]

CultureEdit

Ennis is a stronghold of traditional music with many musicians in residence and regularly playing locally. The Ennis Book Club Festival, in association with Clare County Library, runs annually on the first weekend in March. It attracts readers and authors from all over Ireland and beyond. Glór Theatre is a concert and events venue in the town centre.

In 2016 and 2017 Ennis hosted the Fleadh Cheoil na hÉireann music competition. It is the first time that the town has hosted the event since 1977.

Sports and leisureEdit

Cusack Park on Francis Street in the town centre is the main county Gaelic Athletic Association (GAA) playing grounds and the home of Clare GAA. Ennis has numerous football clubs (soccer, GAA and rugby) that play in various leagues from schoolboys to senior.

The Lees Road Sports and Amenity Park, 1  km from the town centre, is set in 134 acres (54 ha) of wood and parkland. There is ample car parking and the main building includes modern changing rooms, showers and toilets. Among the facilities available are four conventional playing pitches, full size all-weather floodlit playing pitch, a floodlit 400 m (1,300 ft) synthetic running track and a purpose-built cross country running track. There is a children's playground and skateboard park and marked walks and trails throughout the woodland area. Ennis Leisure Centre has a fully equipped gym with a 25m pool, saunas etc. There are a number of hotels around Ennis that have their own leisure facilities including gyms and 15m to 20m pools.

Within the town, there are six adult soccer clubs (Avenue United, Lifford FC, Ennis Town, Turnpike Rovers, Hermitage FC and Ennis Dons FC), two adult GAA clubs (Éire Óg and The Banner GAA), and one rugby club (Ennis RFC).

International relationsEdit

Ennis is twinned with Phoenix, Arizona.[21][22] Each summer an average of four 4th/5th year students partake in the Phoenix Youth Ambassador Program, which is facilitated by the city of Phoenix twinning committee and the Ennis Chamber of Commerce.

It is also twinned with the town of Saint-Paul-de-Fenouillet in southern France.[23] Ennis is also twinned with the town of Clare, South Australia and the city of Clare, Michigan, United States

Information Age TownEdit

In September 1997, Ennis became Ireland's first and only Information Age Town.[24] The town was greatly enhanced by the project's IR£15 million investment, which saw 4,200 computers provided to residents. A computer lab was provided for every school and every primary school classroom was provided with a computer. Elderly residents were given the chance to become computer users also as a result. The project also gave Ennis Ireland's first high-speed ISDN line infrastructure, which connected all the town's businesses together. Ennis was also used as a test site for VISA Cash, which allowed users to top up a Chip and PIN card with petty cash and purchase goods in local stores. Funding for the project ran out in 2000.

Tidy TownEdit

In 2012, 2013 and 2021, Ennis won the Irish Tidy Towns Competition in the Large Urban Centre category.[25]

GalleryEdit

Notable peopleEdit

In popular cultureEdit

  • Ennis is referred to in James Joyce's Ulysses[26]
  • Ennis is mentioned in the songs "Isobel" by British performer Dido, and "At The Ceili" by Celtic Woman

Townlands and civil parishesEdit

The town of Ennis is situated in parts of the civil parishes of Doora, Drumcliff, Kilraghtis and Templemaley. Townlands are:[27]

  • Doora: Ballaghboy, Bunnow, Gaurus, and Knockanean
  • Drumcliff: Cahircalla Beg, Cahircalla More, Claureen, Cloghleagh, Clonroad Beg, Clonroad More, Drumbiggil, Drumcliff, Lifford, Loughvella, and Shanvogh
  • Kilraghtis: Rosslevan
  • Templemaley: Ballycorey, Cappahard, Dulick, Knockaderry, and Knockanoura

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b "Sapmap Area - Settlements - Ennis". Census 2016. CSO. 2016. Archived from the original on 30 July 2017. Retrieved 12 January 2018.
  2. ^ "History of Ennis | VisitEnnis.ie".
  3. ^ "Ennis Friary | Heritage Ireland".
  4. ^ "Clare Places – Ennis: Historical Background". Clarelibrary.ie. Archived from the original on 10 May 2010. Retrieved 8 June 2010.
  5. ^ "Clare People: Eamon De Valera". Clarelibrary.ie. Archived from the original on 2 May 2010. Retrieved 8 June 2010.
  6. ^ "Walks in Clare , Ireland Page 1". Goireland.com. Archived from the original on 10 June 2011. Retrieved 8 June 2010.
  7. ^ "Ennis Flood Relief Scheme To Help Resolve Centuries-Old Problem Says Killeen". Prlog.org. 10 March 2008. Archived from the original on 12 October 2008. Retrieved 8 June 2010.
  8. ^ "Hottest day of year today | IOL". Breakingnews.iol.ie. 20 November 2009. Archived from the original on 24 November 2009. Retrieved 8 June 2010.
  9. ^ "Ennis developments and built environment – Page 2 – Irish Architecture Planning Forums". Archiseek.com. Retrieved 8 June 2010.[permanent dead link]
  10. ^ "About Ennis Town". Ennistowncouncil.ie. Archived from the original on 18 November 2007. Retrieved 8 June 2010.
  11. ^ "Ennis County Clare". Lookaroundireland.com. Archived from the original on 17 June 2015. Retrieved 8 June 2010.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  12. ^ "Ennis Under Siege for Fleadh Nua". Comhaltas Ceoltóirí Éireann. 18 February 2009. Archived from the original on 21 July 2011. Retrieved 21 March 2009.
  13. ^ "N18 Ennis Bypass". National Roads Authority. Archived from the original on 31 August 2009. Retrieved 24 July 2022.
  14. ^ "N18 – Gort to Crusheen" (PDF). National Roads Authority. 24 July 2022. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 February 2011.
  15. ^ "Ennis Educate Together National School". Eetns.ie. 26 March 2010. Archived from the original on 11 December 2009. Retrieved 8 June 2010.
  16. ^ "Limerick Institute of Technology officially opens Ennis campus". LimerickPost.ie. 16 December 2019. Archived from the original on 23 August 2020. Retrieved 5 May 2021.
  17. ^ "Home". AIT-LIT Consortium. Archived from the original on 5 May 2021. Retrieved 5 May 2021.
  18. ^ Kelly Palenque, Brendan (5 May 2021). "Limerick IT and Athlone IT to merge to form new technological university". Independent.ie. Archived from the original on 5 May 2021. Retrieved 5 May 2021.
  19. ^ Halloran, Cathy (1 October 2021). "Ireland's newest technological university opens".
  20. ^ Figure is total for Ennis UD and Ennis environs. "CSO - Census: Census Startpage". Archived from the original on 9 March 2005. Retrieved 1 May 2012. and www.histpop.org for post 1821 figures, For a discussion on the accuracy of pre-famine census returns see JJ Lee "On the accuracy of the Pre-famine Irish censuses", Irish Population, Economy and Society edited by JM Goldstrom and LA Clarkson (1981) p54, in and also New Developments in Irish Population History, 1700–1850 by Joel Mokyr and Cormac O Grada in The Economic History Review, New Series, Vol. 37, No. 4 (November 1984), pp. 473–488.
  21. ^ "Phoenix Sister Cities". Phoenix Sister Cities. Archived from the original on 24 July 2013. Retrieved 6 August 2013.
  22. ^ Weaver, Cynthia (20 October 2008). "Phoenix Sister Cities Celebrates 20 Years of Friendship with Ennis, Ireland". City of Phoenix, Arizona. Archived from the original on 11 June 2011. Retrieved 28 October 2008.
  23. ^ "Section 15 Freedom of Information Manual for Ennis Town Council (pdf format)" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 November 2007. Retrieved 26 October 2008.
  24. ^ "Ireland's First Information Age Town 1997". RTÉ Libraries and Archives. Retrieved 28 October 2022.
  25. ^ "Welcome to TidyTowns Ireland". Tidytowns.ie. Archived from the original on 18 July 2011. Retrieved 8 June 2010.
  26. ^ "Joycean Pics 2007, Ennis". Atelier Aterui. Archived from the original on 22 October 2012. Retrieved 12 April 2014.
  27. ^ "Ennis (Inis)". Clare County Library. Archived from the original on 24 October 2013. Retrieved 12 April 2014.

External linksEdit