Electricity sector in Russia
This article needs to be updated.April 2014)(
Russia has a single synchronous electrical grid encompassing much of the country. The Russian electric grid links over 3,200,000 kilometres (2,000,000 mi) of power lines, 150,000 kilometres (93,000 mi) of which are high voltage cables over 220 kV. Electricity generation is based largely on gas (46%), coal (18%), hydro (18%), and nuclear (17%) power. 60% of thermal generation (gas and coal) is from combined heat and power plants. Russia operates 31 nuclear power reactors in 10 locations, with an installed capacity of 21 GW.
Despite considerable geothermal, wind and wave resources, renewable energy production (other than hydro) accounts for less than one percent.
- 1 History
- 2 Equipment producers
- 3 Power companies
- 4 Consumption
- 5 Mode of production
- 6 Power stations
- 7 Electrical grid
- 8 Kyoto carbon allowances
- 9 See also
- 10 References
- 11 External links
The electric power industry has been a state monopoly since Soviet times. After the collapse of the Soviet Union Unified Energy System of Russia RAO UES was founded as state-owned (50%) company. From 1992-2008 it was the largest electric power holding company. Four energy companies - Novosibirskenergo, Tatenergo, Irkutskenergo and Bashenergo - managed to avoid incorporation into RAO UES.
Privatization and reformEdit
In 2002, the Russian government began reforming the power sector. The main goal was and remains upgrading the aging and outdated heating and electricity infrastructure. The restructuring involved the separation and privatization of the generation, transmission and sales companies. The grids were brought under regulatory supervision.
Power generation was divided up into seven wholesale generating companies (OGK) – including RusHydro, 14 territorial generating companies (TGK), independents and state-owned entities. OGKs contain power plants and specialize mainly in electric power generation. TGKs contain predominantly combined heat and power plants (CHPs).
The gradual liberalization of the wholesale electricity market, completed in January 2011, now allows producers to charge market prices. The transmission grid remains mostly under state control.
As a result of the reorganization, Inter RAO UES became a major generating company in Russia in the field of export and import of electric power. The total installed capacity of the power plants owned or managed by the company is around 18,000 MW. The company’s main types of activities are generation of electric and thermal power, sales of electric and thermal power to consumers and export and import of electric power.
Price increase followed the reform process, 3-4 times the margin set by regulatory authorities. In November 2011, then prime minister Vladimir Putin tasked the Ministry for Economic Development (Russia), the Ministry of Energy (Russia) and the 'Federal Tariffs Service' to draft a government resolution restricting the profitability of electric utilities. This "restricted the ability of electric utilities to make money from providing services other than supplying electricity"
As of 2013, Russia had no wholesale electricity market. The Ministry for Energy of Russia, concerned with price increases envisions a wholesale market under bi-lateral contracts between consumers and specific power plants. Inter RAO and Gazprom Energy Holding were lobbying for a different one.
Power Machines is the leading Russian equipment producer, with a share of over 50%. It unites production, supply, construction, maintenance and modernization of equipment for thermal, nuclear, hydraulic and gas turbine power plants. The following big international energy equipment holdings are well established and have joint ventures or their own production facilities in Russia: General Electric, Siemens, Alstom, ABB, Skoda Power, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ansaldo Energia, and Areva.
Territorial generating companiesEdit
- TGK-1 - North-West (Leningrad, Murmansk Oblasts and Karelia);
- TGK-2 - north of Central Russia, Vologda and Arkhangelsk Oblasts;
- Mosenergo (TGK-3) - Moscow and Moscow Oblast;
- Quadra (TGK-4) - Black Earth and southern regions of Central Russia (12 Oblasts in all);
- T Plus Group:
- Lukoil-Ecoenergo (TGK-8) - Southern Federal District;
- Fortum (TGK-10) - Urals Federal District (except for Sverdlovsk Oblast);
- TGK-11 - Omsk and Tomsk Oblasts;
- Siberian Generation Company:
- TGK-14 - Buryatia and the Trans-Baikal Krai.
Wholesale generating and other companiesEdit
- Inter RAO
- OGK-6 - merged into OGK-2 in 2010
- Unipro (OGK-4)
- Enel Russia (OGK-5)
- Irkutskenergo - independent vertically integrated company, it owns the production and distribution facilities supplying the Irkutsk region.
- RusHydro - excluded from the 2003 reform law, as it is considered a strategic asset.
- Rosenergoatom - state-owned company controlling all nuclear power generation assets.
Transmission and distribution companiesEdit
Largest supply companies:
Isolated energy systemsEdit
Some parts of the country have limited connections to the Russian unified energy system, reducing the likelihood that new companies will enter the energy supply market by importing energy from neighboring energy systems. Those areas, defined as "non-price" zones, include Kaliningrad Oblast, the Komi Republic, Arkhangelsk Oblast, the south of the Sakha Republic, Primorsk Krai, Khabarovsk Krai, Amur Oblast, and the Jewish Autonomous Oblast.
Additionally, some parts of Russia are completely isolated from the unified energy system, including Kamchatka, Magadan Oblast, Sakhalin Oblast, Chukotka and Taimyr Autonomous Okrug, the western and central parts of the Sakha Republic, as well as many remote settlements across the country. Energy prices in "non-price" and isolated regions are exempt from liberalization and remain regulated.
|Note: Gross use of electricity 2008: Russia 1,038 TWh, the world 20,181 TWh|
Mode of productionEdit
- Natural gas: 521,788 GWh (47.9%)
- Nuclear: 196,614 GWh (18.1%)
- Hydro: 186,640 GWh (17.1%)
- Coal: 171,443 GWh (15.7%)
- Oil: 10,968 GWh (1.0%)
- Solar: 462 GWh (0.0%)
- Geothermal: 446 GWh (0.0%)
- Wind: 146 GWh (0.0%)
- Waste: 32 GWh (0.0%)
|Note: The end use (2008) Russia 726 TWh.|
According to the IEA the Russian gross production of electricity was 1,038 TWh in 2008 and 930 TWh in 2004 giving the 4th top position among the world producers in 2008. Top ten countries produced 67 % of electricity in 2008. The top producers were: 1) United States 21.5% 2) China 17.1% 3) Japan 5.3% 4) Russia 5.1% 5) India 4.1% 6) Canada 3.2% 7) Germany 3.1% 8) France 2.8% 9) Brazil 2.3% and 10) South Korea 2.2%. The rest of the world produced 33%.
Coal and peatEdit
In 2008 Russian federation was the 4th country by nuclear electricity production with 163 TWh (6% of the world total). According to the IEA 15.7% of Russian domestic electricity was generated by nuclear power in 2008. 
Nuclear reactor construction and exportEdit
In 2006 Russia had exported nuclear reactors to Armenia, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Finland, Hungary, India, Iran, Lithuania, Slovak Republic and Ukraine. In Russia, the average construction time was in 1) 1965-1976 57 months and 2) 1977-1993 72–89 months, but the four plants that have been completed since then have taken around 180 months (15 years), due to increased opposition following the Chernobyl accident and the political changes after 1992.
As of 2008[update] hydroelectric power plants generated 167 TWh from a total capacity of 47 GW. Russia is the 5th-largest producer of electricity from hydropower in the world, accounting for 5.1% of the world's hydroelectric generation. The use of other renewable sources for electricity in 2008 was not significant in the Russian Federation, according to the statistics of the IEA in terms of electricity volume in 2008.
The IPS/UPS is a wide area synchronous transmission grid of some CIS countries with a common mode of operation and centralized supervisory control. It has an installed generation capacity of 300 gigawatts, and produces 1,200 terawatt-hours (TWh) per year for its 280 million customers. The system spans eight time zones.
Kyoto carbon allowancesEdit
The revenues from Kyoto allowances via Joint Implementation projects sales can be significant – in the billions of euros in the cases of Russia. If a number of (relatively strict) criteria were filled JI projects could be implemented during the Kyoto protocol agreement, for which no international third-party checking or UN approval was needed. According to Transparency International a lack of regulation in carbon trading poses the risk of fraud. In 2009 it was not in all cases clear which government organisations had the authority to sell the surplus and how transparently and accountably such transfers of public wealth were carried out.
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