The title Earl of Dunbar, also called Earl of Lothian or Earl of March, applied to the head of a comital lordship in south-eastern Scotland between the early 12th century and the early 15th century. The first man to use the title of Earl in this capacity was Gospatric II, Earl of Lothian, son of Gospatric, Earl of Northumbria. It descended to George de Dunbar, 11th Earl of March, whose titles & estates were declared forfeit by the Scottish parliament in 1435, and retired into obscurity in England. His son Patrick retained a barony at Kilconquhar in Fife.[2]

Earldom of the March

The Arms of the Realm and Ancient Local Principalities of Scotland[1]

The title of Earl of Dunbar was revived in 1605 for George Home, 1st Lord Hume of Berwick, Chancellor of the Exchequer, and his heirs male.[3][4] This title became dormant[5] only six years after its creation, upon Home's death in 1611. Some of his kinsmen were said to be acknowledged as de jure holders of the title, but none of them ever appears to have assumed the title.[6]

There have been no subsequent creations; however, two other peerages with similar names are Lord of Dunbar and Viscount of Dunbar.

First creation edit

Using title "Earl of Lothian" edit

Using title "Earl of Dunbar" edit

Using mainly the title "Earl of March" edit

Earls of Dunbar, Second Creation (1605) edit

Subsequent claimants to the title[7][8]

  • John Home, de jure 2nd Earl of Dunbar (a 1628), brother of 1st Earl, according to the Lord Advocate[9] in 1634, he “conceiving his fortune too mean, forebore to assume the dignity”. He died without male issue.
  • George Home, de jure 3rd Earl of Dunbar (a 1637), son of Alexander Home of Manderston and nephew of 1st Earl, certified in his claim in 1634 by the same Lord Advocate.
  • Alexander Home, de jure 4th Earl of Dunbar (d. 1675), son of 3rd Earl, said to have been confirmed in title by Charles II in 1651 but which does not appear in the Great Seal of Scotland.[10] Died without male issue.
  • Alexander Hume, of Manderstone, de jure 5th Earl of Dunbar (b. 1651, d. 4 January 1720 Aurich, Germany),[11] nephew of 4th Earl. Capt. of a troop of horse in the service of the States of Holland,[12] later Geheimrat in Aurich, Germany.[13] To him 14 October 1689, William III, King of England, Ireland and Scotland confirmed the Earldom of Dunbar exemplifying the previous confirmation thereof by Charles II.[14] It is not known if Alexander Hume styled himself "Earl of Dunbar" in Germany,[15] where he and his descendants rather are known as Grafen (Counts) Hume of Manderstone. He married the daughter of Leonard Fewen, General Steward of Emden, who inherited the manor house and estate of Stikelkamp at Hesel, East Frisia. His son—Leonard Hume (1684–1741), de jure 6th Earl of Dunbar—inherited the estate in Stikelkamp from his father.[16] Leonard married Gesina Bruncken (1701–1763). A son of Leonard—Heere Andries Hume[17]—was de jure the 7th Earl of Dunbar (b. 1738 in Norden).[18] Leonard's daughter Helena Hume of Manderstone (1722–1784)[19] inherited the estate of Stikelkamp; she married Bebäus Scato Kettwig; their daughter Isabella (1742–1797) married Eger Carl Christian Lantzius-Beninga (1744–1798); the Lantzius-Beninga family owned the Stikelkamp estate until 1971, when it was purchased by the Landkreis Leer. Note: No claimant has progressed his claim before the House of Lords Committee for Privileges to a satisfactory conclusion. This Committee was—until the Dissolution of Parliament on 12 April 2010—the only body which was authorised to decide whether or not a claimant may be confirmed in the title. The Lord Advocate of Scotland, for instance, has no authority in these matters, especially in the 17th century, given the corruption and nepotism rampant at that time. The usual way to establish the right to inherit a title is to apply for a Writ of Summons to attend Parliament (a procedure that will have to be reviewed in the light of new legislation abolishing the hereditary parliamentary rights of peers). Then the Committee for Privileges examines the validity of the documentation supporting the line of descent of the claimant and his relationship to the previous holder of the peerage title. Currently, there are several authorities who theoretically could recognize the use of the title "Earl of Dunbar", issued by William III.[20]

In 1721 James Murray (c.1690–1770), second son of David Murray, 5th Viscount of Stormont, was created Earl of Dunbar, Viscount of Drumcairn and Lord of Hadykes in the Jacobite Peerage by James Francis Edward Stuart, the "Old Pretender". These creations were never recognised by the British government.

In 1776, John Home, descended from David, second son of Sir David Home of Wedderburn, appears to have had the title's privileges upheld for him (given "retour") as heir male of the Earl of Dunbar, but the service was reduced by the Court of Session, at the instance of Sir George Home of Blackadder, Bt., a descendant of Sir David through an immediate younger brother of Alexander Home, the first of Manderston (grandfather of George, 1st Earl).[21]

In 1810 Sir John Home of Renton, Bt.,[clarification needed] served notice that he was preparing a case to lay before The House "to the title, honour, and dignity of Earl of Dunbar, as heir male to the first patentee".[22] He appears not to have pursued the case to a conclusion.

During the 19th century Mr Home Drummond of Blair Drummond, Perthshire, as descended from, and heir male of, Patrick Home of Renton, uncle of George, 1st Earl of Dunbar, also had a claim to that peerage.[23]

See also edit

References edit

  1. ^ Bartholomew Scotland of old: clan names map; the lands, the arms and the crests. 1983. ISBN 0-7028-1709-0
  2. ^ Miller, James, The History of Dunbar, Dunbar, 1830: 89
  3. ^ Playfair, William, British Family Antiquity, London, 1811, vol.viii: cccxi
  4. ^ Cokayne, G. E; Gibbs, Vicary; Doubleday, H. Arthur, editors, The Complete Peerage, London, 1916, 'Dunbar', p. 510
  5. ^ The Complete Peerage, 1912, Cokayne, et al. eds., Vol IV, p. 511
  6. ^ Paul, Sir James Balfour, ed. (1904) The Scots Peerage, Vol. III, p. 280-89
  7. ^ Balfour Paul, Sir James, editor, The Scots Peerage, Edinburgh, 1904, vol.iii:280-9
  8. ^ Cokayne, G. E. et al., eds. (1916) The Complete Peerage, London; vol.iv: p. 511
  9. ^ who has no authority in such a matter.
  10. ^ Thomson, John Maitland; Stevenson, John Horne; Dickson, William Kirk, Advocates and associated editors, The Register of the Great Seal of Scotland vol.ix, 1634–1651, and vol.x, 1652–1659, Scottish Record Society, Edinburgh, 1984, where there is no record of this confirmation
  11. ^ Lantzius-Beringa, Nota zur Familie Fewen, in Quellen und Forschungen zur Ostfriesische Familien- und Wappenkunde 17 (1968), p. 92; Paechter und Ertraege des Gutes Stikelkamp in Quellen und Forschungen zur Ostfriesische Familien- und Wappenkunde 10 (1961), p. 13.
  12. ^ Archief Raad van State, 1527, p. 78
  13. ^ John Burke, A Genealogical and Heraldic Dictionary of the Peerage and Baronetage of the British Empire, 6. Aufl., London 1840, S. 545; Karl Herquet, Miscellen zur Geschichte Ostfrieslands, Norden 1883, S. 97, Anm. 1; Joseph König, Verwaltungsgeschichte Ostfrieslands bis zum Aussterben seines Fürstenhauses (Veröffentlichungen der nieders. Archivverwaltung, 2), Göttingen 1955. (Portr.:) Paul Weßels, Hesel: „wüste Fläche, dürre Wildnis und magere Heideplanzen, Weener 1998, S. 101; Paul Weßels: Gut Stikelkamp, Aurich 2002, S. 128. Ostfriesische Landschaft, Biographisches Lexikon fuer Ostfriesland , 177938/622/23814
  14. ^ G.E.C., Complete Peerage of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain and The United Kingdom, extant, extinct or dormant., Vol. III (D to F), London 1890; Koninklijk Nederlandsch Genootschap voor Geslacht- en Wapenkunde, De Nederlandsche Leeuw , Jg. 37 ( 1919), column 329; Arbeitsgruppe Familienkunde und Heraldik, Ostfriesischen Landschaft ."Quellen und Forschungen zur Ostfriesischen Familien- und Wappenkunde, 13. Jahrgang (1964) Heft 3, Seite 26; Arbeitsgruppe Familienkunde und Heraldik, Ostfriesischen Landschaft ."Zur C."
  15. ^ Ostfriesische Landschaft, Biographisches Lexikon fuer Ostfriesland, 177938/622/23814
  16. ^ Stadt Archiv Aurich, Dep. 40, Nr. 6, 13 und 13 a.; Quellen: StAA, Rep. 100, Nr. 1026; Karl Herquet, Miscellen der Geschichte Ostfrieslands, Norden 1883
  17. ^ Ahnenpass Tjapko Antoon van Bergen (1903–1944), p. 11
  18. ^ He married Antje van Bergen (K.B. Haan, De Kokkengieters van Bergen, Van Midwolda naar Heiligerlee). After this marriage the family name converted into Van Bergen as stated in the Ahnenpass of Tjapko Antoon van Bergen, member of the Dutch Olympic Rowing Team 1928. T.A. van Bergen served as SS-Rottenführer in the second World War. His grave can be found on Lit.: Bijkerk, T. (2004) Olympisch Oranje De Vrieseborch ISBN 90-6076-522-2.
  19. ^ Family web tree
  20. ^ Lines of succession of the Peerage, created by William III of England, Ireland and Scotland
  21. ^ Anderson, William (1867) The Scottish Nation, Edinburgh, vol. iv, p. 77
  22. ^ Playfair, William, British Family Antiquity &c., London, 1811, vol.viii: cccx
  23. ^ Anderson, William, The Scottish Nation, Edinburgh, 1867, vol.iv: 76