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List of rulers of Milan

  (Redirected from Duke of Milan)

The following is a list of rulers of Milan from the 13th century to 1814, after which it was incorporated into the Kingdom of Lombardy–Venetia by the Congress of Vienna.

Contents

Lordship of Milan (1259–1395)Edit

Until 1259, Milan was a free commune, in practice an oligarchy, that elected its own podestà. The Della Torre family gained sustained power in 1240, when Pagano Della Torre was elected podestà. After Pagano's death, his nephew Martino was elected, but at the end of his tenure, Martino perpetrated a coup d'état and proclaimed himself the first "Lord of Milan", establishing the city's Signoria (Italian for "Lordship"). Another powerful family were the Viscontis, who eventually became Dukes of Milan.

  Ghibellines   Guelphs

Portrait Coat of Arms Name Reign Relationship with Predecessor(s) Title
    Martino della Torre 8 September 1259 20 November 1263  • Nephew of Pagano Captain of the People
    Filippo della Torre 20 November 1263 24 December 1265  • Brother of Martino Ancient of the City
    Napoleone della Torre 24 December 1265 21 January 1277  • Son of Pagano Ancient of the City
    Archbishop Ottone Visconti 21 January 1277 5 August 1278  • None; defeat Napoleone Archbishop of Milan
    Guglielmo VII di Monferrato 5 August 1278 27 December 1281  • None; appointed by Ottone Visconti Captain of the People,
Marquess of Montferrat
    Matteo I Visconti 27 December 1281 June 1302  • Grandnephew of Ottone Captain of the People
    Guido della Torre June 1302 February 1311  • Nephew of Napoleone Podestà
    Matteo I Visconti February 1311 24 June 1322  • Grandnephew of Ottone Captain of the People
    Galeazzo I Visconti 24 June 1322 6 August 1328  • Son of Matteo Imperial vicar of Milan
    Azzone Visconti 6 August 1328 16 August 1339  • Son of Galeazzo Imperial vicar of Milan
    Luchino Visconti 16 August 1339 24 January 1349  • Son of Matteo

 • Brother of Azzone

Imperial vicar of Milan
    Archbishop Giovanni Visconti 24 January 1349 5 October 1354  • Son of Matteo

 • Brother of Azzone and Luchino

Archbishop of Milan
    Matteo II Visconti
Galeazzo II Visconti
Bernabò Visconti
5 October 1354 29 December 1355  • Grandsons of Matteo I
  5 October 1354 4 August 1378
  5 October 1354 6 May 1385
    Gian Galeazzo Visconti 6 May 1385 5 September 1395  • Son of Galeazzo II Imperial vicar of Milan

Duchy of Milan (1395–1796)Edit

In 1395, Gian Galeazzo Visconti was appointed by Wenceslaus IV of Bohemia as "Duke of Milan". In 1447, with the death of Filippo Maria Visconti, the original line of the Viscontis ended, and the Golden Ambrosian Republic was established. After three years, Francesco Sforza, Filippo Maria Visconti's son-in-law, overthrew the Republic and re-established the Duchy. During the Renaissance, the Italian Wars undermined the Sforzas' rule in Milan, and French kings allied with the Holy Roman Empire usurped the Sforzas several times. In 1535 Francesco II Sforza died without heir, ending the original line of the Sforzas. In 1540, Charles V, uncle of the wife of Francesco II, Christina of Denmark, annexed the Duchy and appointed his son Philip II of Spain as Duke.

In 1714, with the end of the War of the Spanish Succession, Milan and its territories were conquered by Austrian Empire. In 1814, the Duchy of Milan was integrated into the new Kingdom of Lombardy-Venetia, part of the Habsburg territories.

House of ViscontiEdit

Portrait Coat of Arms Name Reign Relationship with Predecessor(s) Marriage(s)
Issue
    Gian Galeazzo Visconti 5 September 1395 3 September 1402  • Son of Galeazzo II (1) Isabella, Countess of Vertus
4 children

(2) Caterina Visconti
2 children

    Giovanni Maria Visconti 3 September 1402 16 May 1412  • Son of Gian Galeazzo and Caterina Antonia Malatesta of Cesena
No children
    Filippo Maria Visconti 16 May 1412 13 August 1447  • Son of Gian Galeazzo and Caterina (1) Beatrice Lascaris di Tenda
No children

(2) Marie of Savoy
No children (*) Agnese del Maino (mistress)
1 daughter

House of SforzaEdit

Portrait Coat of Arms Name Reign Relationship with Predecessor(s) Marriage(s)
Issue
    Francesco Sforza 25 March 1450 8 March 1466  • Son-in-law of Filippo Maria (1) Polissena Ruffo
1 daughter

(2) Bianca Maria Visconti
8 children

    Galeazzo Maria Sforza 8 March 1466 26 December 1476  • Son of Francesco Bona of Savoy
4 children
    Gian Galeazzo Sforza 26 December 1476 21 October 1494  • Son of Galeazzo Maria Isabella of Aragon
3 children
    Ludovico Sforza 21 October 1494 6 September 1499  • Son of Francesco Beatrice d'Este
2 children

House of Valois-OrléansEdit

Portrait Coat of Arms Name Reign Relationship with Predecessor(s) Marriage(s)
Issue
    Louis XII of France 6 September 1499 16 June 1512  • Descendant of Valentina Visconti (1) Joan, Duchess of Berry
No children

(2) Anne of Brittany
6 children (3) Mary Tudor
No children

House of SforzaEdit

Portrait Coat of Arms Name Reign Relationship with Predecessor(s) Marriage(s)
Issue
    Massimiliano Sforza 9 January 1513 5 October 1515  • Son of Ludovico Unmarried

House of Valois-AngoulêmeEdit

Portrait Coat of Arms Name Reign Relationship with Predecessor(s) Marriage(s)
Issue
    Francis I of France 11 October 1515 19 November 1521  • Son-in-law of Louis XII (1) Claude, Duchess of Brittany
7 children

(2) Eleanor of Austria
No children

House of SforzaEdit

Portrait Coat of Arms Name Reign Relationship with Predecessor(s) Marriage(s)
Issue
    Francesco II Sforza 4 April 1522 24 October 1535  • Son of Ludovico Christina of Denmark
No children

House of Habsburg-SpainEdit

Portrait Coat of Arms Name Reign Relationship with Predecessor(s) Marriage(s)
Issue
    Philip II of Spain 11 October 1540 13 September 1598  • Nephew of Christine of Denmark (1) Maria Manuela, Princess of Portugal
1 children

(2) Mary I of England
No children (3) Elisabeth of Valois
5 daughters (4) Anna of Austria
5 children

    Philip III of Spain 13 September 1598 31 March 1621  • Son of Philip II Margaret of Austria
8 children
    Philip IV of Spain 31 March 1621 17 September 1665  • Son of Philip III (1) Elizabeth of France
7 children

(2) Mariana of Austria
5 children

    Charles II of Spain 17 September 1665 1 November 1700  • Son of Philip IV (1) Marie Louise of Orléans
No children

(2) Maria Anna of Neuburg
No children

House of Bourbon-SpainEdit

Portrait Coat of Arms Name Reign Relationship with Predecessor(s) Marriage(s)
Issue
    Philip V of Spain 16 November 1700 24 September 1706  • Great-nephew of Charles II (1) Maria Luisa of Savoy
4 children

(2) Elisabeth Farnese
7 children

House of HabsburgEdit

Portrait Coat of Arms Name Reign Relationship with Predecessor(s) Marriage(s)
Issue
    Charles VI of Austria 12 January 1707 20 October 1740  • None Elisabeth Christine of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel
4 children
    Maria Theresa of Austria 20 October 1740 20 November 1780  • Daughter of Charles VI Francis I of Lorraine
16 children

House of Habsburg-LorraineEdit

Portrait Coat of Arms Name Reign Relationship with Predecessor(s) Marriage(s)
Issue
    Joseph II of Austria 29 November 1780 20 February 1790  • Son of Maria Theresa (1) Princess Isabella of Parma
2 daughters

(2) Maria Josepha of Bavaria
No children

    Leopold II of Austria 20 February 1790 1 March 1792  • Son of Maria Theresa Maria Luisa of Spain
16 children
    Francis II of Austria 1 March 1792 15 May 1796  • Son of Leopold II (1) Duchess Elisabeth of Württemberg
1 daughter

(2) Maria Theresa of Naples and Sicily
11 children (3) Maria Ludovika of Austria-Este
No children (4) Caroline Augusta of Bavaria
No children

See alsoEdit

BibliographyEdit