Duke Huan of Tian Qi

Duke Huan of Tian Qi (Chinese: 田齊桓公; pinyin: Tián Qí Huán Gōng; 400–357 BC) was from 374 to 357 BC ruler of the State of Qi, a major power during the Warring States period of ancient China. Duke Huan's personal name was Tian Wu (田午), and ancestral name Gui (). His official posthumous title was simply Duke Huan of Qi, but he is commonly called Duke Huan of Tian Qi to be distinguished from the original Duke Huan of Qi from the House of Jiang, who was the first of the Five Hegemons of the Spring and Autumn period.[1]

Duke Huan of Qi
Ruler of Qi
Reign374–357 BC
PredecessorYan, Duke of Qi
SuccessorKing Wei of Qi
Born400 BC
Died357 BC (aged 43)
IssueKing Wei of Qi
Ancestral name: Gui (媯)
Clan name: Tian (田)
Given name: Wu (午)
HouseHouse of Tian
FatherDuke Tai of Tian Qi
MotherConsort Xiao


Duke Huan was born in 400 BC, during the reign of Duke Kang, the last Qi ruler from the House of Jiang. In 386 BC Duke Kang was deposed by Duke Huan's father Duke Tai of Tian Qi, the first Qi ruler from the House of Tian. Duke Tai died in 384 BC and was succeeded by his son Tian Yan, Duke Huan's elder brother. In 375 BC Duke Huan murdered Tian Yan and his son Tian Xi, and usurped the throne.[1][2]

Duke Huan ruled through a period of war and instability. In the first five years of his reign, Qi was invaded by the states of Lu, Wei, Wey, and Zhao on separate occasions.[1] And besides murdering his brother and nephew, the Bamboo Annals also records that he killed his mother in the 11th year of his reign.[2] Although his grandson King Xuan is generally credited with the establishment of the Jixia Academy, other Chinese sources trace it to Duke Huan.[3]

Duke Huan reigned for 18 years and died in 357 BC, at the age of 43. He was succeeded by his son Tian Yinqi, under whose reign Qi would become the most powerful state of China. Yinqi would also be the first ruler to declare himself King of Qi, and is posthumously known as King Wei of Qi.[1]


Duke Huan's mausoleum is located on the Dingzu Mountain (鼎足山) near Qiling Town, in Linzi District of Zibo, Shandong, near the ancient Qi capital Linzi. There are two hill-like tombs built on the same platform. Together they measure 190 metres (620 ft) from north to south, 320 metres (1,050 ft) from east to west, and 30 metres (98 ft) high.[4][5] The area is called Two Kings' Cemetery (二王冢), and had been for 2,000 years thought to be the tombs of earlier Duke Huan of Qi and Duke Jing of Qi. However, archaeologists have concluded that they are in fact the tombs of Duke Huan of Tian Qi and Yan, Duke of Qi, the brother he had murdered.[4]

All seven known mausoleums of Tian Qi rulers are now protected as a National Historical and Cultural Site.[4] Since 2008 they have been included in the tentative list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites as part of the ancient Qi capital and mausoleum complex.[5]



  • Prince Yinqi (公子因齊; 378–320 BC), ruled as King Wei of Qi from 356–320 BC


Viscount Cheng of Tian
Viscount Xiang of Tian
Viscount Zhuang of Tian (d. 411 BC)
Duke Tai of Tian Qi (d. 384 BC)
Duke Huan of Tian Qi (400–357 BC)
Consort Xiao


  1. ^ a b c d Han Zhaoqi (韩兆琦) (2010). "House of Tian Jingzhong Wan". Shiji (史记) (in Chinese). Beijing: Zhonghua Book Company. pp. 3662–3664. ISBN 978-7-101-07272-3.
  2. ^ a b Annals of Wei, Bamboo Annals (in Chinese).
  3. ^ Makeham, John. Name and Actuality in Early Chinese Thought, p. 249. SUNY Press, 1994. ISBN 9780791419847.
  4. ^ a b c 战国王陵的典型代表--田齐王陵 [Tian Qi mausoleums: typical examples of Warring States mausoleums] (in Chinese). Qidu.net. 11 January 2009. Archived from the original on 23 June 2012. Retrieved 1 June 2012.
  5. ^ a b "Site of the Qi State Capital and the Mausoleum of King of the Qi State at Linzi". UNESCO. Retrieved 1 June 2012.
Duke Huan of Tian Qi
Born: 400 BC Died: 357 BC
Regnal titles
Preceded by Ruler of Qi
374–357 BC
Succeeded by