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Drag queen

  (Redirected from Drag queens)
RuPaul is a famous drag queen known for the series RuPaul's Drag Race, its international spin-offs, and its related DragCons.

A drag queen is a person, almost always male, who uses drag clothing and makeup to imitate and often exaggerate female gender signifiers and gender roles for entertainment purposes. Historically, most drag queens have been men dressing as women. In modern times, drag queens are associated with gay men and gay culture, but queens can be of any gender and sexual identity.

People partake in the activity of doing drag for reasons ranging from self-expression to mainstream performance. Drag shows frequently include lip-syncing, live singing, and dancing. They occur at events like gay pride parades and drag pageants and in venues such as cabarets and nightclubs. Drag queens vary by type, culture, and dedication, from professionals who star in films to people who do drag only occasionally.

Terminology, scope and etymologyEdit

The origin of the term drag is uncertain;[1] the first recorded use of drag in reference to actors dressed in women's clothing is from 1870.[2] For much of history, drag queens were men, but in more modern times, cisgender and trans women, as well as non-binary people, also perform as drag queens.[3][4][5][6] In a 2018 article, Psychology Today stated that drag queens are "most typically gay cisgender men (though there are many drag queens of varying sexual orientations and gender identities)".[7] Examples of trans female drag queens, sometimes called trans queens,[8] include Monica Beverly Hillz[3][4] and Peppermint.[5] Cisgender female drag queens are sometimes called faux queens or bioqueens, though both terms are problematic: faux carries the connotation that the drag is fake, and the use of bioqueen exclusively for cisgender females is a misnomer since trans female queens also have female bodies.[9][10] Drag queens' counterparts are drag kings: performers, usually women, who dress in exaggeratedly masculine clothing. Trans men who dress like drag kings are sometimes termed trans kings.

Female impersonatorEdit

 
Drag queens walking in a parade in São Paulo, Brazil

Another term for a drag queen is female impersonator.[11] Female impersonation has been and continues to be illegal in some places, which inspired the drag queen José Sarria to hand out labels to his friends reading, "I am a boy", so he could not be accused of female impersonation.[12] American drag queen RuPaul once said, "I do not impersonate females! How many women do you know who wear seven-inch heels, four-foot wigs, and skintight dresses?" He also said, "I don't dress like a woman; I dress like a drag queen!".[13]

Alternative termsEdit

 
Pabllo Vittar is a Brazilian drag queen, singer and songwriter.[14]

Some drag queens may prefer to be referred to as "she" while in drag and desire to stay completely in character.[15] Other drag performers, like RuPaul, seem to be completely indifferent to which pronoun is used to refer to them. In his words, "You can call me he. You can call me she. You can call me Regis and Kathie Lee; I don't care! Just so long as you call me."[16]

Drag queens are sometimes called transvestites, although that term also has many other connotations than the term drag queen and is not much favored by many drag queens themselves.[17] The term tranny has been adopted by some drag performers, notably RuPaul,[18] and the gay male community[19] in the United States, but it is considered offensive to most transgender and transsexual people.[20]

Many drag performers refer to themselves as drag artists, as opposed to drag queens, as some contemporary forms of drag have become nonbinary.[21][22]

Uncommon termsEdit

In the drag queen world today, there is an ongoing debate about whether transgender drag queens are actually considered "Drag Queens". Some argue that, because a drag queen is defined as a man portraying a woman, transgender women cannot be drag queens. Drag Kings are biological females who assume a masculine aesthetic. However this is not always the case, because there are also biokings, bio-queens, and faux queens, which are people who perform their own biological sex through a heightened or exaggerated gender presentation.[23][24][25]

History of dragEdit

EuropeEdit

Pantomime damesEdit

In the late 1800s to the mid-1900s, pantomime dames became a popular form of female impersonation in Europe.[26] This was the first era of female impersonation in Europe to use comedy as part of the performance, contrasting with the serious Shakespearean tragedies and Italian operas.[27] The dame became a stock character with a range of attitudes from "charwoman" to "grande dame" that mainly was used for improvisation.[27] The most famous and successful pantomime dame was Dan Leno. After World War I and World War II, the theatre and movie scenes were changing, and the use of pantomime dames declined.[26]

AmericaEdit

 
Eugene d'Ameli, a white man, dressed in blackface as an African-American woman for a minstrel show in the late 19th century

Minstrel showsEdit

Development of the drag queen in the United States started with the development of the blackface minstrel show.[28] Originally the performers would only mock African American men, but as time went on they found it amusing to mock African American femininity as well. They performed in comedic skits, dances, and "wench" songs.[29] These minstrel shows and their "wench players" were used by white men to both mock and oppress women and African Americans.[29]

Vaudeville and female impersonatorsEdit

 
Julian Eltinge as a female impersonator in the Fascinating Widow, early 1910s

The broad comedic stylings of the minstrel shows helped develop the vaudeville shows of the late 1800s to the early 1900s.[28] With this shift, the "wench players" became "prima donnas", and became more elegant and refined, while still retaining their comedic elements.[29] While the "wenches" were purely American creations, the "prima donnas" were inspired by both America and European cross-dressing shows, like Shakespearean actors and castrati.[29] With the United States shifting demographics, including the shift from farms to cities, Great Migration of African Americans, and an influx of immigrants, vaudeville's broad comedy and music expanded the audience from minstrelsy.[28] With vaudeville becoming more popular, it allowed female impersonators to become popular as well. Many female impersonators started with low comedy in vaudeville and worked their way up to perform as the prima donna.[26] Famous female impersonator Julian Eltinge found success in this and eventually made his way to the broadway stage performing as a woman.[26] At this time being a female impersonator was seen as something for the straight white male, and any deviation was punished.[28] Connection with sex work and homosexuality eventually lead to the decline of vaudeville during the Progressive Era.[28] Both the minstrelsy and vaudeville eras of female impersonation led to an association with music, dance, and comedy that still lasts today.[26]

Night clubsEdit

In the early to mid-1900s, female impersonation had become tied to the LGBT community[dubious ] and thus criminality, so it had to change forms and locations.[28] It moved from being popular mainstream entertainment to something done only at night in disreputable areas, such as San Francisco's Tenderloin.[28] Here female impersonation started to evolve into what we today know as drag and drag queens.[27] Drag queens such as José Sarria[30] and Aleshia Brevard[31] first came to prominence in these clubs.[28] People went to these nightclubs to play with the boundaries of gender and sexuality and it became a place for the LBGT community, especially gay men, to feel accepted. As LGBT culture has slowly become more accepted in American society, drag has also become more, though not totally, acceptable in today's society.[27]

ProtestsEdit

The Cooper Do-nuts Riot was a May 1959 incident in Los Angeles in which drag queens, lesbians, transgender women, and gay men rioted; it was one of the first LGBT uprisings in the United States.[32]

The Compton's Cafeteria riot, which involved drag queens and others, occurred in San Francisco in 1966.[33] It marked the beginning of transgender activism in San Francisco.[33]

On March 17, 1968, in Los Angeles, to protest entrapment and harassment by the LAPD, two drag queens known as "The Princess" and "The Duchess" held a St. Patrick's Day party at Griffith Park, a popular cruising spot and a frequent target of police activity. More than 200 gay men socialized through the day.[34]

Drag queens were also involved in the Stonewall riots, a series of spontaneous, violent demonstrations by members of the LGBT community against a police raid that took place in the early morning hours of June 28, 1969, at the Stonewall Inn, located in the Greenwich Village neighborhood of Manhattan, New York City. The riots are widely considered to be the catalyst for the gay liberation movement and the modern fight for LGBT rights in the United States.[35][36]

During the summer of 1976, a restaurant in Fire Island Pines, New York, denied entry to a visitor in drag named Terry Warren. When Warren's friends in Cherry Grove heard what had happened, they dressed up in drag, and, on July 4, 1976, sailed to the Pines by water taxi. This turned into a yearly event where drag queens go to the Pines, called the Invasion of the Pines.

Story time in librariesEdit

In December 2015, Radar Productions and Michelle Tea developed the concept of Drag Queen Story Hour.[37] Launched at the San Francisco Public Library, Drag Queen Story Hour was adopted by the Brooklyn Public Library in the summer of 2016, and has since traveled to various libraries, museums, bookstores, and recreation centers, and parks across the United States, Canada, and the United Kingdom.[38] Such events sometimes prompt opposition against the libraries and organizers.[39][40]

IndiaEdit

Post the legalization of Sec 377, Drag culture in India has been growing and becoming the mainstream art culture. The Hotels chain of Lalit Groups spaced a franchise of clubs where drag performances are hosted in major cities of India such as Mumbai, Delhi and Banglore. Maya the drag queen[41], Rani Kohinoor (Sushant Divgikar) [42], Tropical Marca [43], Zeeshan Ali[44] and Patruni Sastry [45] are some of the Indian drag artists.

Drag queen namesEdit

 
Advert for drag queen jobs as spoofed in Wild Side Story

A drag queen may either pick or be given a drag name by a friend, sometimes called a "drag mother", the so named thus becoming known as a "drag daughter".[46] Drag mothers and drag daughters have a mentor-apprentice relationship. Drag families are a part of ball culture and drag 'houses'’.[47]

Art of dragEdit

The process of getting into drag or into character can take hours. A drag queen may aim for a certain style, celebrity impression, or message with their look. Hair, make-up, and costumes are the most important essentials for drag queens.[48] Drag queens tend to go for a more exaggerated look with a lot more makeup than a typical feminine woman would wear.

Some people do drag simply as a means of self-expression,[49][50] but often drag queens (once they have completed a look) will go out to clubs and bars and perform in a "drag show."[51] Many drag queens do dress up for money by doing different shows, but there are also drag queens that have full-time jobs but still enjoy dressing up in drag as a hobby.[52]

Many parts of the drag show, and of the drag queens' other intellectual properties, cannot be protected by intellectual property law. To substitute the lack of legal protection, drag queens revert to social norms in order to protect their intellectual property.[53]

In entertainmentEdit

Drag shows and venuesEdit

 
Drag queen at Sofia Pride 2019 in Bulgaria
 
A drag queen preparing stage makeup

A drag show is an entertainment consisting of a variety of songs, monologues or skits featuring either single performers or groups of performers in drag meant to entertain an audience. They range from amateur performances at small bars to elaborately staged theatrical presentations. Many drag shows feature performers singing or lip-synching to songs while performing a pre-planned pantomime, or dancing. The performers often don elaborate costumes and makeup, and sometimes dress to imitate various famous female singers or personalities. Some events are centered around drag, such as Southern Decadence where the majority of festivities are led by the Grand Marshals, who are traditionally drag queens.[54]

In filmEdit

In musicEdit

While some male music celebrities wear exaggerated feminine clothing as part of their show, they are not necessarily drag queens. For example, Boy George wears drag queen style clothes and cosmetics but he once stated he was not a drag queen.[57] However, RuPaul[58] is a professional drag queen performer and singer.

Examples of songs where lyrics refer to drag queens:

In televisionEdit

What Would You Do?, airing since early 2008, has had episodes featuring drag queens.[59][60]

In mid-2008, RuPaul began producing RuPaul's Drag Race, a reality television game show which began airing in February 2009. The premise of the program has several drag queens compete to be selected by RuPaul and a panel of judges as "America's next drag superstar". It inspired the similar spin-off shows RuPaul's Drag U and RuPaul's Drag Race: All Stars.

In 2018, Celebrity Big Brother featured Queen Shane Jenek (drag name Courtney Act) as one of its contestants, placing first in the season with 49.43% of the public vote.[61]

In 2018, American Idol featured a drag queen, Adam Sanders (drag name Ada Vox) as one of its contestants.[62] He made it to the top ten.[62]

Also in 2018, So You Think You Can Dance featured Jay Jackson (drag name Laganja Estranja) as one of its contestants.[63]

The Netflix Original Series Dancing Queen also released in 2018, which starred Justin Johnson (drag name Alyssa Edwards) and his dance studio, Beyond Belief Dance Company.[64]

In educationEdit

While drag queens have a prevalent status as entertainers, they play a role in educating people on gender roles and stereotyping. Professor Stephen Schacht of Plattsburgh State University of New York began introducing his and his students' experiences of attending a drag show to his gender/sexualities class to challenge his students' ideas of dichotomy. Over time he began inviting students to attend with him. He gathered from his students that after attending the drag show they had a new appreciation for gender and sexuality and often become very vocal about their new experiences in the classroom.[65]

With childrenEdit

Nina West, Drag Race season eleven contestant and winner of Miss Congeniality, and producer of Drag Is Magic, an EP of kids music about the art form, says she hopes to inspire them to “dream big, be kind, and be their perfect selves.”[66] West feels the art form is “an opportunity for children to get creative and think outside the boxes us silly adults have crafted for them.”[66] Marti Gould Cummings said something similar when a video of them performing “Baby Shark” at a drag brunch event went viral.[67] “Anyone who thinks drag isn’t for children is wrong,” said Cummings, “Drag is expression, and children are such judgment-free beings; they don’t really care what you’re wearing, just what you’re performing.”[67] As of May 2019, the video has been viewed over 806,000 times.[66]

West’s responded to critics who question if children are too young to experience drag, “Drag is an opportunity for anyone – including and especially children – to reconsider the masks we are all forced to wear daily.”[66] West added, “Children are inundated with implicit imagery from media about what is ‘boy’ and what is ‘girl.’ And I believe that almost all kids are really less concerned about playing with a toy that’s supposedly aligned to their gender, and more concerned with playing with toys that speak to them.”[66]

John Casey, an adjunct professor at Wagner College in New York City, posits in The Advocate,

“[Drag queens] are incredibly talented, and they are trying to live their lives, and in the process, brighten the lives of those around them. That’s the message parents should be communicating to their kids, at any age. It’s all about acceptance and being loved for who you are.”[68]

The phenomena of drag kids is relatively recent, The New York Times notes that as of September 2019 there are over a hundred public drag kids in the U.S., with Desmond is Amazing as the one with the most followers.[69] The mainstream access to drag queens on television exponentially increased in 2009 when RuPaul’s Drag Race started airing.

Societal receptionEdit

Drag has come to be a celebrated aspect of modern gay life.[70] Many gay bars and clubs around the world hold drag shows as special parties. Several "International Drag Day" holidays have been started over the years to promote the shows. In the U.S. Drag Day is typically celebrated in early March.

A televised drag competition, RuPaul's Drag Race, is the most successful program on the Logo television network. In 2016, the show won a Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Host for a Reality or Reality-Competition Program.[71] In 2018, the show became the first show to win a Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Reality-Competition Program and a Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Host for a Reality or Reality-Competition Program in the same year.[72][73][74] However, its winners and contestants have yet to receive the same level of recognition as mainstream reality show contestants.

RuPaul received a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame for his contributions to the television industry on March 16, 2018, making him the first drag queen to be given such an award.[75][76]

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Baroni, Monica (2012) [1st pub. 2006]. "Drag". In Gerstner, David A. (ed.). Routledge International Encyclopedia of Queer Culture. New York: Routledge. p. 191. ISBN 978-1-136-76181-2. OCLC 815980386. Retrieved 27 April 2018.
  2. ^ Felix Rodriguez Gonzales (26 June 2008). "The feminine stereotype in gay characterization: A look at English and Spanish". In María de los Ángeles Gómez González; J. Lachlan Mackenzie; Elsa M. González Álvarez (eds.). Languages and Cultures in Contrast and Comparison. Pragmatics & beyond new series v 175. Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company. p. 231. ISBN 978-90-272-9052-6. OCLC 860469091. Retrieved 29 April 2017.
  3. ^ a b Levin, Sam (March 8, 2018). "Who can be a drag queen? RuPaul's trans comments fuel calls for inclusion". The Guardian. Retrieved August 7, 2018.
  4. ^ a b Beverly Hillz, Monica (March 9, 2018). "I'm a trans woman and a drag queen. Despite what RuPaul says, you can be both". The Washington Post. Retrieved August 7, 2018.
  5. ^ a b Kirkland, Justin (March 22, 2018). "Peppermint Is Taking on a New Fight for the Trans Community". Esquire. Retrieved August 7, 2018.
  6. ^ Alexandra, Rae (2019-01-09). "Meet the Trans, Non-Binary and Bio Queens Who Deserve a Spot on 'RuPaul's Drag Race U.K.'". kqed.org. KQED. Archived from the original on 2019-11-15. Retrieved 2019-11-15.
  7. ^ O'Brien, Jennifer (2018-01-30). "The Psychology of Drag". Psychology Today. John Thomas. Retrieved 2019-11-15.
  8. ^ Framke, Caroline (March 7, 2018). "How RuPaul's comments on trans women led to a Drag Race revolt — and a rare apology". Vox. Retrieved August 7, 2018.
  9. ^ Coull, Jamie Lee (2015). Faux Queens: an exploration of gender, sexuality and queerness in cis-female drag queen performance (PhD). Curtin University.
  10. ^ Nicholson, Rebecca (July 10, 2017). "Workin' it! How female drag queens are causing a scene". The Guardian. Retrieved August 7, 2018.
  11. ^ "When Cross Dressing was a crime" in The Advocate
  12. ^ ">> social sciences >> Sarria, José". glbtq. 1923-12-12. Archived from the original on 2013-12-03. Retrieved 2014-03-01.
  13. ^ Dr. Susan Corso (April 15, 2009). Drag Queen Theology. Retrieved: April 1, 2018.
  14. ^ Billboard Brasil. "Meet Pabllo Vittar: Major Lazer's Favorite Brazilian Drag Queen". Billboard. Retrieved June 30, 2018.
  15. ^ "Understanding Drag". transequality.org. National Center for Transgender Equality. 2017-04-28. Retrieved 2018-03-13.
  16. ^ RuPaul (June 1995), Lettin' It All Hang Out: An Autobiography, Hyperion Books, p. 139
  17. ^ Ford, Zack. "The Quiet Clash Between Transgender Women And Drag Queens." ThinkProgress, 25 June 2014. Web. 9 September 2017.
  18. ^ Spargo, Chris (2012-01-15). "NEW: RuPaul's 'Tranny' Conroversy". NewNowNext. Retrieved 2013-10-06.
  19. ^ Musto, Michael (2010-11-12). "Is "Tranny" So Bad?". Blogs.villagevoice.com. Archived from the original on 2013-10-04. Retrieved 2013-10-06.
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  21. ^ Knauf, Ana Sofia. "Person of Interest: Arson Nicki". The Stranger. Tim Keck. Retrieved 1 July 2018.
  22. ^ Lam, Teresa. "Getting to Know Non-Binary Drag Artist Rose Butch". Hypebae. Retrieved 1 July 2018.
  23. ^ Underwood, Lisa (2013). The Drag Queen Anthology. doi:10.4324/9780203057094. ISBN 9780203057094.
  24. ^ "Britannica Academic". academic.eb.com. Retrieved 2018-12-05.
  25. ^ Barnett, Joshua Trey; Johnson, Corey W. (November 2013). "We Are All Royalty". Journal of Leisure Research. 45 (5): 677–694. doi:10.18666/jlr-2013-v45-i5-4369. ISSN 0022-2216.
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  27. ^ a b c d Baker, Roger. Drag: A History of Female Impersonation in the Performing Arts. NYU Press, 1994.
  28. ^ a b c d e f g h Boyd, Nan Alamilla (2003), Wide-Open Town, University of California Press, ISBN 9780520938748
  29. ^ a b c d Bean, Annemarie (2001), Female Impersonation in Nineteenth-Century American Blackface Minstrelsy, New York University
  30. ^ "The Drag Times." Drag, 1980. Archives of Sexuality.
  31. ^ "Finocchio's 1961 Revue One of LaMonte's Best". The Times. San Mateo, California. February 3, 1961. p. 23. Retrieved May 11, 2017.
  32. ^ Moffitt, Evan (31 May 2015). "10 Years Before Stonewall, There Was the Cooper's Donuts Riot". Out Magazine. Here Media Inc. Retrieved 30 June 2017.
  33. ^ a b Boyd, Nan Alamilla (2004). "San Francisco" in the Encyclopedia of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgendered History in America, Ed. Marc Stein. Vol. 3. Charles Scribner's Sons. pp. 71–78.
  34. ^ Witt, Lynn, Sherry Thomas and Eric Marcus (eds.) (1995). Out in All Directions: The Almanac of Gay and Lesbian America, pg. 210. New York, Warner Books. ISBN 0-446-67237-8.
  35. ^ National Park Service (2008). "Workforce Diversity: The Stonewall Inn, National Historic Landmark National Register Number: 99000562". US Department of Interior. Retrieved January 21, 2013.
  36. ^ "Obama inaugural speech references Stonewall gay-rights riots". North Jersey Media Group Inc. January 21, 2013. Archived from the original on July 23, 2013. Retrieved January 21, 2013.
  37. ^ Lamarche, Una (19 May 2017). "Drag Queen Story Hour Puts the Rainbow in Reading". The New York Times. Retrieved 22 June 2017.
  38. ^ "About Drag Queen Story Hour". Drag Queen Story Hour -- drag queens reading stories to children in libraries, schools, and bookstores. Drag Queen Story Hour. Retrieved 22 June 2017.
  39. ^ Kuga, Mitchell (2018-11-15). "Some Libraries Are Facing Backlash Against LGBT Programs — And Holding Their Ground". BuzzFeed News. Retrieved 2019-06-21.
  40. ^ "Drag Queen Storytime Held at Fall River Library Despite Protests". WBZ – CBS Boston. 2019-06-01. Retrieved 2019-06-21.
  41. ^ https://www.thebetterindia.com/81870/alex-mathew-drag-queen-india-bengaluru-lgbt-rights/
  42. ^ https://www.hindustantimes.com/bollywood/drag-is-part-of-our-culture-to-refute-it-is-to-refute-history-sushant-divgikar/story-9Gfu2P2GjRidL3yettnnGJ.html
  43. ^ https://elle.in/article/drag-queens/
  44. ^ https://homegrown.co.in/article/801643/the-phenomenal-transformations-of-makeup-artist-zeeshan-ali
  45. ^ https://telanganatoday.com/its-time-for-drag-shows-to-begin
  46. ^ Rupp, Leila J.; Taylor, Verta A. (2003-05-15). Drag Queens at the 801 Cabaret. University of Chicago Press. p. 168. ISBN 9780226731582.
  47. ^ "The Rainbow History Project: Drag in DC". Rainbow History Project. 2000–2007. Archived from the original on 2014-06-14. Retrieved 2007-10-20.
  48. ^ "Dude to Diva: How to Become a Drag Queen | The Chronicle". Dukechronicle.com. Archived from the original on 2014-03-07. Retrieved 2014-03-01.
  49. ^ O'Brien, Jennifer (January 30, 2018). "The Psychology of Drag". Psychology Today. Retrieved August 7, 2018.
  50. ^ Jackson, Angie (May 20, 2015). "Performing in drag is all about self-expression for some West Michigan men". Retrieved August 7, 2018.
  51. ^ King, Mark. "A working life: the drag queen | Money". The Guardian. Retrieved 2014-03-01.
  52. ^ "Tom Bartolomei: 10 Myths About Drag Queens". Huffingtonpost.com. 2013-04-01. Retrieved 2014-03-01.
  53. ^ Sarid, Eden (2014). "Don't Be a Drag, Just Be a Queen – How Drag Queens Protect their Intellectual Property without Law". Florida International University Law Review. 10 (1). Retrieved 8 April 2016.
  54. ^ "Southern Decadence Official Website". Southerndecadence.net. 2013-09-03. Retrieved 2014-03-01.
  55. ^ Ebert, Roger. "Wigstock: The Movie Movie Review (1995) | Roger Ebert". www.rogerebert.com. Retrieved 13 October 2018.
  56. ^ "Hurricane Bianca (2016)".
  57. ^ "Boy George: "I'M Not A Dragqueen!" At YouTube". YouTube.com. 2007-12-27. Retrieved 2014-03-01.
  58. ^ Rupaul Biography Drag Queen Diaries
  59. ^ News, ABC. "Video: What Would You Do: Parents disapprove of their drag queen son's look while out to eat". ABC News.
  60. ^ "Drag Queens Harassed: What Would You Do?". ABC News. 6 July 2011.
  61. ^ "Courtney Act crowned winner of Celebrity Big Brother". Digital Spy. 2018-02-02. Retrieved 2018-08-14.
  62. ^ a b "Facts About Ada Vox From "American Idol" You Need to Know". Goodhousekeeping.com. 2018-04-25. Retrieved 2018-06-01.
  63. ^ "'Drag Race' Star Laganja Estranja Shows Off Sickening Moves on 'So You Think You Can Dance'". billboard.com. 2018-06-04. Retrieved 2018-06-08.
  64. ^ Desk, TV News. "Drag Superstar Alyssa Edwards to Star in Docu-Series DANCING QUEEN on Netflix". BroadwayWorld.com. Retrieved 2019-01-08.
  65. ^ Schacht, Steven P. (2004). "Browse journals by subject". Journal of Homosexuality. 46 (3–4): 225–240. doi:10.1300/J082v46n03_14. PMID 15132493.
  66. ^ a b c d e Wong, Curtis M. (May 21, 2019). "Nina West Of 'RuPaul's Drag Race' Wants Kids To Feel 'Loved And Seen' With New Video". HuffPost. Retrieved 2019-09-09.
  67. ^ a b Wong, Curtis M. (March 19, 2019). "Drag Queen Performs 'Baby Shark' At 2-Year-Old's Request, And It's Delightful". HuffPost. Retrieved 2019-09-09.
  68. ^ Casey, John (September 17, 2019). "Exposing Kids to Drag Isn't Abuse". The Advocate. Retrieved September 19, 2019.
  69. ^ Hines, Alice (September 7, 2019). "Sashaying Their Way Through Youth". The New York Times. Retrieved September 9, 2019.
  70. ^ Sarid, Eden (2014). "Don 't Be a Drag, Just Be a Queen—How Drag Queens Protect their Intellectual Property without Law". Florida International University Law Review. 10 (1): 142.
  71. ^ "RuPaul's Drag Race". Television Academy. Retrieved 2016-09-28.
  72. ^ Billboard. "'RuPaul's Drag Race's Emmys Win: See The Best Reactions". Billboard. Retrieved 2018-09-19.
  73. ^ "Nominees/Winners | Television Academy". Emmys.com. Retrieved 2018-09-19.
  74. ^ "Nominees/Winners | Television Academy". Emmys.com. Retrieved 2018-09-19.
  75. ^ France, Lisa Respers (23 June 2017). "Hollywood Walk of Fame Class of 2018 revealed". CNN. Retrieved 21 February 2018.
  76. ^ "RuPaul Is the First Drag Queen to Get a Star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame".

Further readingEdit

External linksEdit