Dorothy Celene Thompson (July 9, 1893 – January 30, 1961) was an American journalist and radio broadcaster, who in 1939 was recognized by Time magazine as the second most influential woman in America next to Eleanor Roosevelt. She is notable as the first American journalist to be expelled from Nazi Germany in 1934 and as one of the few women news commentators on radio during the 1930s. She is regarded by some as the "First Lady of American Journalism."
Dorothy Thompson in 1930
Dorothy Celene Thompson|
July 9, 1893
New York City, New York, U.S.
January 30, 1961|
|Education||Lewis Institute, Syracuse University|
Life and careerEdit
Dorothy Thompson was born in Lancaster, New York, in 1893, one of three children of Peter and Margaret (Grierson) Thompson. Her siblings were Peter Willard Thompson and Margaret Thompson (later Mrs. Howard Wilson). Her mother died when Dorothy was seven (in April 1901), leaving Peter, a Methodist preacher, to raise his children alone. Peter soon remarried, but Dorothy did not get along with his new wife, Elizabeth Abbott Thompson. In 1908, Peter sent Dorothy to Chicago to live with his two sisters to avoid further conflict. Here, she attended Lewis Institute for two years before transferring to Syracuse University as a junior. At Syracuse, she studied politics and economics and graduated with a degree in 1914. Because she had the opportunity to be educated, unlike many women of the time, Thompson felt that she had a social obligation to fight for women's suffrage in the United States, which would become the base of her ardent political beliefs. Shortly after graduation, Thompson moved to Buffalo, New York and became involved in the women's suffrage campaign. She worked there until 1920, when she went abroad to pursue her journalism career.
Journalism in EuropeEdit
After working for women’s suffrage in the United States, Thompson relocated to Europe in 1920 to pursue her journalism career. She was interested in the early Zionist movement. Her big break occurred when she visited Ireland in 1920 and was the last to interview Terence MacSwiney, one of the major leaders of the Sinn Féin movement. It was the last interview MacSwiney gave before he was arrested days later and died two months after that. Because of her success abroad, she was appointed Vienna correspondent for the Philadelphia Public Ledger. While working in Vienna, Thompson focused on becoming fluent in German. She met and worked alongside correspondents John Gunther and G.E.R. Gedye. In 1925, she was promoted to Chief of the Central European Service for the Public Ledger. She resigned in 1927 and, not long after, the New York Post appointed her head of its Berlin bureau in Germany. There she witnessed firsthand the rise of the National Socialist or Nazi party. According to her biographer, Peter Kurth, Thompson was "the undisputed queen of the overseas press corps, the first woman to head a foreign news bureau of any importance."
During this time Thompson cultivated many literary friends, particularly among exiled German authors. Among her acquaintances from this period were Ödön von Horváth, Thomas Mann, Bertolt Brecht, Stefan Zweig and Fritz Kortner. She developed a close friendship with author Carl Zuckmayer. In Berlin she even got involved in a lesbian affair with German author Christa Winsloe, while still married in the U.S., claiming "the right to love".
Thompson's most significant work abroad took place in Germany in the early 1930s. While working in Munich, Thompson met and interviewed Adolf Hitler for the first time in 1931. This would be the basis for her subsequent book, I Saw Hitler, in which she wrote about the dangers of him winning power in Germany. Thompson described Hitler in the following terms: "He is formless, almost faceless, a man whose countenance is a caricature, a man whose framework seems cartilaginous, without bones. He is inconsequent and voluble, ill poised and insecure. He is the very prototype of the little man."
Later, when the full force of Nazism had crashed over Europe, Thompson was asked to defend her "Little Man" remarks; it seemed she had underestimated Hitler. The Nazis considered both the book and her articles offensive and, in August 1934, Thompson was expelled from Germany. She was the first journalist to be kicked out.
At the New York TribuneEdit
In 1936 Thompson began writing "On the Record," a New York Tribune syndicated newspaper column. It was read by over ten million people and carried by more than 170 papers. She also wrote a monthly column for the Ladies' Home Journal for twenty-four years (1937–1961); its topics were far removed from war and politics, focusing on gardening, children, art, and other domestic and women's-interest topics.
Radio and the Herschel Grynszpan affairEdit
Around the same time as she started "On the Record," NBC hired Thompson as a news commentator. She began in 1936 and remained with NBC until 1938. Her radio broadcasts went on to become some of the most popular in the United States, making her one of the most sought after female public speakers of her time. When Nazi Germany invaded Poland in 1939, Thompson went on the air for fifteen consecutive days and nights.
In 1938, Thompson championed the cause of a Polish-German Jewish teenager, Herschel Grynszpan, whose assassination in Paris of a minor German diplomat, Ernst vom Rath, had been used as propaganda by the Nazis to trigger the events of Kristallnacht in Germany. Thompson's broadcast on NBC radio was heard by millions of listeners, and led to an outpouring of sympathy for the young assassin. Under the banner of the Journalists' Defense Fund, over $40,000 USD was collected, enabling famed European lawyer Vincent de Moro-Giafferi to take up Grynszpan's case.
Fame and controversyEdit
In 1939, Thompson was featured on the cover of Time, with an accompanying picture of her speaking into an NBC radio microphone. The article was captioned "she rides in the smoking car" and it named her the second most popular and influential woman in the country behind Eleanor Roosevelt. She was one of the most respected women of her age. The article explained Thompson's influence: "Dorothy Thompson is the U. S. clubwoman's woman. She is read, believed and quoted by millions of women who used to get their political opinions from their husbands, who got them from Walter Lippmann." In Woman of the Year (1942) Katharine Hepburn played Tess Harding, a character directly based on Thompson. The Broadway musical is based on Thompson as well, this time played by Lauren Bacall.
In 1941, Thompson wrote "Who Goes Nazi?" for Harper's Magazine. She was a keynote speaker at the Biltmore Conference, and by war's end was regarded as one of the most effective spokespersons for Zionism. Thompson switched her views round radically after a trip to Palestine in 1945, and ran into difficulties, including accusations of anti-Semitism, which she strongly rebuffed, after being warned that hostility toward Israel was, in the American press world, “almost a definition of professional suicide.” She eventually concluded that Zionism was a recipe for perpetual war.
She was married three times, most famously to second husband and Nobel Prize in literature winner Sinclair Lewis. In 1923 she married her first husband, Hungarian Joseph Bard; they divorced in 1927. Thompson married Lewis in 1928 and acquired a house in Vermont. They had one son, Michael Lewis, born in 1930. The couple divorced in 1942. She married her third husband, the artist Maxim Kopf, in 1945, and they were married until Kopf's death in 1958.
In popular cultureEdit
Her marriage to Sinclair Lewis was the subject of Sherman Yellen's Broadway play Strangers, where she was played by Lois Nettleton. The play opened on March 4, 1979 and closed after nine performances.
On Herschel Grynszpan affairEdit
- "I am speaking of this boy. Soon he will go on trial. The news is that on top of all this terror, this horror, one more must pay. They say he will go to the guillotine, without a trial by jury, with the rights that any common murderer has ..."
- "Who is on trial in this case? I say we are all on trial. I say the men of Munich are on trial, who signed a pact without one word of protection for helpless minorities. Whether Herschel Grynszpan lives or not won't matter much to Herschel. He was prepared to die when he fired those shots. His young life was already ruined. Since then, his heart has been broken into bits by the results of his deed."
- "They say a man is entitled to a trial by a jury of his peers, and a man's kinsmen rally around him, when he is in trouble. But no kinsman of Herschel's can defend him. The Nazi government has announced that if any Jews, anywhere in the world, protest at anything that is happening, further oppressive measures will be taken. They are holding every Jew in Germany as a hostage."
- "Therefore, we who are not Jews must speak, speak our sorrow and indignation and disgust in so many voices that they will be heard. This boy has become a symbol, and the responsibility for his deed must be shared by those who caused it."
Partial text of the Christmas Declaration by men and women of German ancestryEdit
- "[W]e Americans of German descent raise our voices in denunciation of the Hitler policy of cold-blooded extermination of the Jews of Europe and against the barbarities committed by the Nazis against all other innocent peoples under their sway. These horrors ... are, in particular, a challenge to those who, like ourselves are descendants of the Germany that once stood in the foremost ranks of civilization. ... [We] utterly repudiate every thought and deed of Hitler and his Nazis ... [and urge Germany] to overthrow a regime which is in the infamy of German history.
- "Age is not measured by years. Nature does not equally distribute energy. Some people are born old and tired while others are going strong at seventy."
- "As far as I can see, I was really put out of Germany for the crime of blasphemy. My offense was to think that Hitler was just an ordinary man, after all. That is a crime in the reigning cult in Germany, which says Mr. Hitler is a Messiah sent by God to save the German people—an old Jewish idea. To question this mystic mission is so heinous that, if you are a German, you can be sent to jail. I, fortunately, am an American, so I was merely sent to Paris. Worse things can happen." (1934)
- "No people ever recognize their dictator in advance. He never stands for election on the platform of dictatorship. He always represents himself as the instrument [of] the Incorporated National Will. ... When our dictator turns up you can depend on it that he will be one of the boys, and he will stand for everything traditionally American. And nobody will ever say 'Heil' to him, nor will they call him 'Führer' or 'Duce.' But they will greet him with one great big, universal, democratic, sheeplike bleat of 'O.K., Chief! Fix it like you wanna, Chief! Oh Kaaaay!'" (1935)
- "Only when we are no longer afraid do we begin to live."
- "Courage, it would seem, is nothing less than the power to overcome danger, misfortune, fear, injustice, while continuing to affirm inwardly that life with all its sorrows is good; that everything is meaningful even if in a sense beyond our understanding; and that there is always tomorrow."
- "It is not the fact of liberty but the way in which liberty is exercised that ultimately determines whether liberty itself survives."
- "They have not wanted peace at all; they have wanted to be spared war—as though the absence of war was the same as peace."
- "Peace is not the absence of conflict, but the presence of creative alternatives for responding to conflict."
- 1928: The New Russia (Holt)
- 1932: I Saw Hitler! (Farrar and Rinehart)
- 1938: Dorothy Thompson's Political Guide: A Study of American Liberalism and Its Relationship to Modern Totalitarian States (Stackpole)
- 1938: Refugees: Anarchy or Organization? (Random House)
- 1937: Concerning Vermont
- 1939: Once on Christmas (Oxford University Press)
- 1939: Let the Record Speak (Houghton Mifflin)
- 1939: Christian Ethics and Western Civilization
- 1941: A Call to Action, Ring of Freedom
- 1941: Our Lives, Fortunes, and Sacred Honor
- 1942: Listen Hans (Houghton Mifflin)
- 1944: To Whom Does the Earth Belong?
- 1945: I Speak Again as a Christian
- 1946: Let the Promise Be Fulfilled: A Christian View of Palestine
- 1948: The Truth About Communism
- 1948: The Developments of Our Times
- 1955: The Crisis of the West
- 1957: The Courage to Be Happy (Houghton Mifflin)
- "The Press: Cartwheel Girl". Time. June 12, 1939. Retrieved April 1, 2011.[permanent dead link]
- Kurth, Peter (1990). All American Cassandra: The Life of Dorothy Thompson. Boston: Little Brown & Co.
- Sanders, Marion K. (1973). Dorothy Thompson: A legend in her time. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company.
- "Dorothy Thompson". Eleanor Roosevelt Papers Project. Retrieved April 6, 2011.
- Kurth, Peter. "She Made It: Dorothy Thompson". Museum of Television and Radio. Archived from the original on December 19, 2010. Retrieved April 1, 2011.
- Lewis, Jone Johnson. "Dorothy Thompson Quotes." Women's History" 7 Mar 2010
- Thompson, Dorothy (December 1934). "Goodbye to Germany". Harper's Magazine.
- "Dorothy Thompson Expelled from Germany". History Unfolded.
- Thompson, Dorothy (August 1941). "Who Goes Nazi?". Harper's Magazine.
- Maguire, Gil (April 28, 2015), 'Obama’s role model to journalists — Dorothy Thompson — turned against Zionism and was silenced US Politics'. Mondoweiss.
- Thompson, Dorothy (03.01.1950) "Do Israeli Ties Conflict with U.S. Citizenship?:America Demands a Single Loyalty". Commentary
- Hertog, Susan (2011) Dangerous Ambition: Rebecca West and Dorothy Thompson: New Women in Search of Love and Power, Random House, New York. p. 344.
- Wilson, Scott (2016). Resting Places: The Burial Sites of More Than 14,000 Famous Persons, 3d ed.: 2 (Kindle Locations 46777-46778). McFarland & Company, Inc., Publishers. Kindle Edition. ISBN 1476625999
- "Michael Lewis, the actor, Sinclair's son, dies at 44", New York Times, March 7, 1975. Retrieved April 29, 2018.
- "Strangers" (play). ibdb.com
- Thompson herself was of Anglo-Scots descent.
- Peretz Elkins, Dov (2008). Jewish Stories from Heaven and Earth: Inspiring Tales to Nourish the Heart. Jewish Lights Publishing. p. 146. ISBN 1580233635.
- Hertog, Susan. Dangerous Ambition: Rebecca West and Dorothy Thompson; New Women in Search of Love and Power (New York: Ballantine, 2011) 493 pp.
- Kurth, Peter. American Cassandra: The Life Of Dorothy Thompson (1990)
- Sanders, Marion K. Dorothy Thompson: A Legend in her Time (1973)
|Wikiquote has quotations related to: Dorothy Thompson|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Dorothy Thompson.|
- Dorothy Thompson Papers at Syracuse University
- Dorothy Thompson (1893–1961)
- Radio broadcast on Hitler's invasion of Poland (September 3, 1939)
- Video: Sands of Sorrow (1950). Dorothy Thompson speaks on the plight of Arab refugees from the Arab–Israeli war (1948). Producer: Council for the Relief of Palestine Arab Refugees
- Newspaper clippings about Dorothy Thompson in the 20th Century Press Archives of the German National Library of Economics (ZBW)