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Some racing drivers have used doping in auto racing to enhance their performance. Deemed unsafe and illegal by the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile. Appendix A to the International Sporting Code determines which substances are banned and mandates penalties.

Contents

Appendix A to the International Sporting CodeEdit

The Appendix regarding doping in auto racing was added on 1 December 2010 after consultation with the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). The regulations apply to all FIA and national sanctioned events. The FIA adopts the banned substance list issued by WADA. The FIA has added alcohol and beta blockers to the list.[1] The FIA will test at random from a pre determined pool of drivers. The national sanctioning body will test a number of athletes during their events.

In case of a positive doping test, the driver in question will be disqualified, have his/hers results forfeited and has to return all their winnings. In case of negligence by the driver will only be disqualified for the event on hand. In case of a second violation the driver will be banned from the sport for six months. More severe penalties could be imposed, depending on the circumstances. The driver has to pay back price money won. A fine of up to € 15.000 can be imposed.[2]

INDYCAREdit

Since the series inception in 1996, INDYCAR has a substance abuse policy in place. The policy is applied to all series sanctioned by INDYCAR, currently the IndyCar Series, Indy Lights, Pro Mazda, USF2000 and Global MX-5 Cup. Drivers, crew and officials can be subjected to testing (depending on the series). The INDYCAR organisation can subject subjects to test at random. INDYCAR may require a drug test also in events of 'reasonable suspicion'. Reasonable suspicion includes, but is not limited to, violent temper or an accident during the event. When a driver is tested positive for performance enhancing drugs (PED) the driver will be suspended for one year. A fine of $ 5.000 wil also be imposed. With a non-PED positive test (alcohol for example) the driver will be suspended for no less than sixty days. A fine of $ 2.500 wil also be imposed.

In the case of multiple violations the driver will be penalized again. The height of the penalty will be determined by the specific circumstances. The driver may return to competition after psychological and medical evaluation.[3]

NASCAREdit

 
A.J. Allmendinger

NASCAR has its own anti doping regulations. The substance abuse policy was first implemented in the late 1980s. Flaws in the systems allowed drivers to continue to use banned substances. One notorious case was that of Aaron Fike. After being arrested for heroin possession, Fike admitted using black tar heroin during race weekends.[4] In 2009, Jeremy Mayfield failed a drug test for methamphetamine with his stepmother declaring Mayfield has used meth as early as 1998. After sitting out the initial penalty, Mayfield tested positive again.[5] Mayfield could return to NASCAR competition after completing the Road to Recovery. The driver however has questioned the credibility of the testing laboratory recognized by NASCAR.[6]

Following the case of Fike and the case of Mayfield, the policy was overhauled. A.J. Allmendinger was one of the first big name drivers failing a drug test. Allmendinger tested positive for Adderall. Allmendinger was suspended, fired by team owner Roger Penske, and returned to competition 2,5 months.[7] Because of the nature of the NASCAR garage, drivers and crew members can be tested by the organisation, especially because performance enhancing drugs can be abused by crew members. Crew chief Todd Parrott, for driver Aric Almirola, tested positive for an 'undisclosed substance'. The NASCAR policy is consistent with the FIA's policy.[8]

In 2018 28-year old Spencer Gallagher won his first NASCAR Xfinity Series race on 28th of April. On May 1st Gallagher failed the drug test. Gallagher was suspended indefinitely and agreed to join the Road to Recovery program.[9]n

After testing positive for a banned substance, the person in question is suspended indefinitely. To return to competition the person needs to complete the NASCAR Road to Recovery and have a Road to Recovery Plan approved. The plan includes treatment, rehabilitation, counseling and other measures necessary to prevent repetition.[10]

USACEdit

The United States Auto Club has implemented a substance abuse policy since 2008.[11] USAC also has a self determined list of banned substances, with the exclusion of prescription medication (used in accordance with the purpose and instruction). The policy states that USAC has to have reasonable suspicion that banned substances are used. The policy states (but is not limited to) a list of symptoms for drug and/or alcohol use. USAC also has the right to test at random. With a positive drug or alcohol test the USAC Director of Competition may suspend the driver indefinitely. After the failure of a drug test, the driver can return to competition after a negative drug test after the suspension period. After a failed alcohol test, the driver only has to sit out the suspended period. In both cases the driver will be subjected to more frequent tests in the future.[12]

World Racing GroupEdit

# Fine Banned from competition
First offense $ 1.000 60-90 days
Second offense $ 2.500 120-180 days
Third offense $ 5.000 365 days

The World Racing Group, sanctioning body of the World of Outlaws and DIRTcar series, started regularly testing the sprint car and late model series drivers in 2017.[13] Drivers will only be tested through urinalysis. The random selection process will take place on the day of the event, treating full season drivers and parttime drivers equally.[14] After a positive test, the driver receives a fine and will be banned from competition. After three failed tests (and three penalties) the driver can only return to competition after two negative tests and approval from World Racing Group.[15]

Justin Ratliff was the first driver hit with a penalty. Ratliff refused a drug test after the 2017 DIRTcar Nationals at Volusia Speedway Park in February. Because of the refusal Ratliff was fined in accordance of the first offense with a 90 day suspension.[16] In June 2017, Brian Lay tested positive after the World of Outlaws event at Eldora Speedway. He was also fined in accordance with a first offense.[17] In July Jacob Hawkins failed a drug test after the Dirt Late Model Dream event at Eldora Speedway.[18]

 
Scott Bloomquist

Dirt racing champion Scott Bloomquist had two run ins with the doping tests in 2018. After winning the 2018 Dirt Late Model Dream Bloomquist was selected for a drug test. However the champion fell after the victory ceremony. He sustained a rotator cuff injury and was brought into hospital, evading the drug test.[19] Later in the season Bloomquist was selected as part of 16 drivers to perform a drug test after the World of Outlaws Late Model Series at Lernerville Speedway. Bloomquist had five hours to deliver a urine sample, being requested by the organisation multiple times. As Bloomquist refused, he was suspended for 90 days.[20] Another driver, Justin Peck tested positive fora a marijuana metabolite. He was suspended for 90 days after the race at Eldora Speedway.[21] During the 2018 season a fourth case came forward. World of Outlaws driver Chris Martin tested positive for a marijuana metabolite after the Knoxville Nationals. Martin was suspended for 90 days.[22]

IMCAEdit

The International Motor Contest Association, the oldest active motorsports sanctioning body in the United States, has regulations with regard to drugs and alcohol. The 2017 IMCA General Rules and Procedures state the following with regard to drugs and alcohol: Consumption of alcoholic beverage by driver or his/her crew in advance of, or while competing in any IMCA sanctioned program is strictly forbidden. Any driver showing evidence of alcohol consumption will be required to leave the premises immediately and may be subject to a fine of no less than $250. Use of illegal drugs at any time shall be cause for immediate, indefinite suspension and/or fine of no less than $250.[23]

Notable casesEdit

Tomáš EngeEdit

 
Tomáš Enge

During the 2002 International Formula 3000 Championship Czech racer Tomáš Enge tested positive after the race at the Hungaroring. Enge raced the remaining rounds of the championship while there was an investigation. The Czech driver went on to win the championship, however the FIA determined in October that the test was positive and Enge was disqualified from the Hungaroring round. Enge dropped to third in the championship standings and Sébastien Bourdais was the official champion.[24] In 2012 Enge again tested positive for a banned substance. After the 2012 FIA GT1 Navarra round Enge tested positive, him claiming it was a drug for medical purposes. The FIA banned Enge from motorsports for 18 months.[25] He returned to competition in 2014 racing in the Blancpain Endurance Series.

Franck MontagnyEdit

Montagny tested positive for a cocaine derivative (Benzoylecgonine) after the 2014 Putrajaya ePrix. Montagny was disqualified from the race but kept his championship points and podium finish from the previous race.[26] The 37-year old was banned from motorsport for two years after a second test also proved positive. The Frenchman publicly feared that the ban would be the effective end to his racing career. His ban was lifted on December 23, 2016 but he has not competed since.[27]

Raphael MatosEdit

In 2015 Brazilian former IndyCar Series driver Raphael Matos failed a drug test. Matos competed in the 2015 Stock Car Brasil season. After the October round at Curitiba Matos tested positive for a banned substance. The Brazilian Automobile Confederation suspended his licence for two years.[28] Matos returned to competition in the Trans-Am Series. Matos made his debut in the 2017 Motor City 100 finishing second in the TA2 class.[29]

Anthony KumpenEdit

Former FIA GT1 driver and two-time NASCAR Whelen Euro Series Elite 1 champion Anthony Kumpen tested positive for amphetamines after the 2018 24 Hours of Zolder. The multiple winner of the event was immediately barred from competition. It was first reported that Kumpen was recovering from injuries sustained after a crash at Tours Speedway (even though the 2018 24 Hours of Zolder was after that event).[30][31] During the hearings of the positive drug test Kumpen claimed he used an ADHD medicine Dexedrine which caused the positive test. The commission investigated and found no doctors receipt or evidence of this medication at his home. Therfor the Flemish anti-doping agency suspended Kumpen from competition for four years and a fine of € 2.000.[32]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "PROHIBITED IN PARTICULAR SPORTS". WADA. Retrieved 10 September 2017.
  2. ^ "Appendix A - FIA Anti-Doping Regulations - 2017". FIA. Retrieved 10 September 2017.
  3. ^ "2017 INDYCAR Substance Abuse Policy" (PDF). INDYCAR. Retrieved 14 September 2017.
  4. ^ "Former truck racer Fike admits using heroin on race days". ESPN.com. Retrieved 10 September 2017.
  5. ^ "NASCAR driver Mayfield fails another drug test". The Virginian Pilot. Retrieved 14 September 2017.
  6. ^ "Jeremy Mayfield adamant he didn't use drugs, won't go through NASCAR recovery program". Sporting News. Retrieved 14 September 2017.
  7. ^ "NASCAR: The Curious Case of AJ Allmendinger". Bleacher Report. Retrieved 10 September 2017.
  8. ^ "Previously suspended crew chief has completed NASCAR Road to Recovery program". NASCAR. Retrieved 10 September 2017.
  9. ^ "Gallagher issued Substance Abuse Policy penalty". NASCAR.
  10. ^ "ALLMENDINGER TO PARTICIPATE IN RECOVERY PROGRAM". NASCAR. Retrieved 10 September 2017.
  11. ^ "USAC CONTINUES MOTORSPORTS LEADERSHIP ROLE WITH SUBSTANCE ABUSE POLICY ANNOUNCEMENT". USAC. Archived from the original on 13 February 2008. Retrieved 11 September 2017.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  12. ^ "2008 Substance Abuse Policy" (PDF). USAC. Retrieved 11 September 2017.
  13. ^ "Drug Testing For World Of Outlaws Drivers Testing begins in 2017 for sprint car and late model drivers". Racing Roundup. Retrieved 14 September 2017.
  14. ^ "Frequently Asked Questions about Drug Testing" (PDF). World of Outlaws. Retrieved 14 September 2017.
  15. ^ "SUBSTANCE ABUSE POLICY TERMS AND CONDITIONS" (PDF). Eldora Speedway. Retrieved 14 September 2017.
  16. ^ "JUSTIN RATLIFF REFUSED WORLD OF OUTLAWS DRUG TEST – DRIVER SUSPENDED". Racing News. Retrieved 14 September 2017.
  17. ^ "Brian Lay fails to complete World of Outlaws drug test and is hit with first offense penalty". Sprintcar Unlimited. Retrieved 14 September 2017.
  18. ^ "DIRTCAR RACING DRIVER FAILED DIRT LATE MODEL DREAM DRUG TEST". Racing News. Retrieved 14 September 2017.
  19. ^ "Scott Bloomquist Cleared To Return To Action". Speedsport. 2018-06-29. Retrieved 2019-02-22.
  20. ^ "Bloomquist Skips Drug Test, Suspended By DIRTcar". Speedsport. 2018-06-23. Retrieved 2019-02-22.
  21. ^ "Penalty Report - Justin Peck". World of Outlaws. 2018-07-12. Retrieved 2019-02-22.
  22. ^ "Penalty Report - Chris Martin". World of Outlaws. 2018-08-22. Retrieved 2019-02-22.
  23. ^ "2017 General Rules". IMCA. Retrieved 11 September 2017.
  24. ^ "Tomas Enge loses F3000 title". GP Update. Retrieved 10 September 2017.
  25. ^ "Enge given 18-month ban for failing drugs test". GP Update. Retrieved 10 September 2017.
  26. ^ "Ex-F1 driver Franck Montangy tests positive for cocaine derivative". autosport.com. Retrieved 10 September 2017.
  27. ^ "Ex-F1 driver Franck Montagny gets two-year ban over doping test". Autosport. Retrieved 10 September 2017.
  28. ^ "Former IndyCar driver Matos gets two-year ban for doping". Motorsport.com. Retrieved 14 September 2017.
  29. ^ "Trans Am ready for Motor City alongside 3-Dimensional Services". Trans-Am. Retrieved 14 September 2017.
  30. ^ "NASCAR Whelen: Bert Longin vervangt geblesseerde Anthony Kumpen". Autosport.nl. 2018-09-14. Retrieved 2019-02-22.
  31. ^ "Anthony Kumpen loopt tegen dopinglamp: vier jaar geschorst". HLN. 2019-02-22. Retrieved 2019-02-22.
  32. ^ "Zaak:Anthony Kumpen" (PDF). Momeprom. 2019-01-08. Retrieved 2019-02-22.