Dolní Věstonice

Dolní Věstonice (German: Unterwisternitz) is a municipality and village in Břeclav District in the South Moravian Region of the Czech Republic. It has about 300 inhabitants. It is known for the eponymous archaeological site.

Dolní Věstonice
View of Dolní Věstonice from Děvín
View of Dolní Věstonice from Děvín
Flag of Dolní Věstonice
Coat of arms of Dolní Věstonice
Dolní Věstonice is located in Czech Republic
Dolní Věstonice
Dolní Věstonice
Location in the Czech Republic
Coordinates: 48°53′14″N 16°38′38″E / 48.88722°N 16.64389°E / 48.88722; 16.64389Coordinates: 48°53′14″N 16°38′38″E / 48.88722°N 16.64389°E / 48.88722; 16.64389
Country Czech Republic
RegionSouth Moravian
DistrictBřeclav
First mentioned1312
Area
 • Total8.82 km2 (3.41 sq mi)
Elevation
174 m (571 ft)
Population
 (2021-01-01)[1]
 • Total304
 • Density34/km2 (89/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+2 (CEST)
Postal code
691 29
Websitewww.obecdolnivestonice.cz

GeographyEdit

Dolní Věstonice lies on the border between Mikulov Highlands and Dyje–Svratka Valley. It is located on the banks of the Nové Mlýny reservoirs.

The municipality is partly located in the Pálava Protected Landscape Area. The area on the reservoir is protected as the Věstonice Reservoir nature reserve.

HistoryEdit

 
Venus of Dolní Věstonice

Prehistoric timesEdit

Dolní Věstonice is known for the Dolní Věstonice archaeological site. Approximately 25,000 years ago, during the Upper Paleolithic period of the Stone Age, a small settlement of mammoth hunters consisting of huts built with rocks and mammoth bones was founded on the site of what is now Dolní Věstonice. This is the oldest permanent human settlement that has ever been found.[2] Numerous other archaeological discoveries point to extensive human habitation of the area in prehistoric times. The archaeological site is also known for finding Venus of Dolní Věstonice, one of the most important archaeological discoveries in Europe and one of the oldest and most famous art in the world.[3]

9th–20th centuryEdit

During the Great Moravia period, which lasted between the 9th and 10th centuries, a small Slavic gord was built here. The gord protected a ford on an important trade route.[4]

The first written mention of Věstonice is from 1312. During the 13th century the place became inhabited by German colonists. In 1460, the village was promoted to a market town by King George of Poděbrady. From the beginning of the 16th century until their expulsion in 1622, the anabaptists settled here. They were famous for their high level of education and the establishment of wine cellars, which have survived to this day.[4]

Until 1918, the village was part of the Austrian monarchy (Austria side after the compromise of 1867), in the Nikolsburg District, one of the 34 Bezirkshauptmannschaften in Moravia.[5]

In 1938, it was occupied by the Nazi army as one of the municipalities in Sudetenland. The German speaking population was expelled in 1945 according to the Beneš decrees and replaced by Czech settlers.

DemographyEdit

Historical population
YearPop.±%
1869779—    
1880752−3.5%
1890826+9.8%
1900842+1.9%
1910771−8.4%
YearPop.±%
1921686−11.0%
1930688+0.3%
1950412−40.1%
1961450+9.2%
1970376−16.4%
YearPop.±%
1980356−5.3%
1991334−6.2%
2001339+1.5%
2011294−13.3%
2021304+3.4%
Source: Historical lexicon of municipalities of the Czech Republic[6]

EconomyEdit

Dolní Věstonice is known for viticulture. The municipality lies in the Mikulovská wine subregion.

SightsEdit

Tourist attractions follow the archaeological glory of the municipality. The archaeological site includes an outdoor exhibition. An educational archeological path leads from Dolní Věstonice to the neighbouring Pavlov.

Remains of the gord rampart and floor plan of the church, which stood here until the early 13th century, are preserved.[4]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Population of Municipalities – 1 January 2021". Czech Statistical Office. 30 April 2021.
  2. ^ Stuart, Gene S. (1979). "Ice Age Hunters: Artists in Hidden Cages". Mysteries of the Ancient World. National Geographic Society. p. 19.
  3. ^ "Prehistoric settlement near Dolní Věstonice and Pavlov". CzechTourism. Retrieved 29 November 2021.
  4. ^ a b c "O obci Dolní Věstonice" (in Czech). Obec Dolní Věstonice. Retrieved 29 November 2021.
  5. ^ Die postalischen Abstempelungen auf den österreichischen Postwertzeichen-Ausgaben 1867, 1883 und 1890, Wilhelm Klein, 1967
  6. ^ "Historický lexikon obcí České republiky 1869–2011 – Okres Břeclav" (in Czech). Czech Statistical Office. 21 December 2015. pp. 1–2.

External linksEdit