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Dodgeball is a team sport in which players on two teams try to throw balls and hit opponents, while avoiding being hit themselves. The objective of each team is to eliminate all members of the opposing team by hitting them with thrown balls, catching a ball thrown by an opponent, or induce an opponent to commit a violation, such as stepping outside the court.
The sport is played informally (in schools and pick-up games) under varying rules; and formally as an international sport, under rules that vary among international governing bodies, such as the World Dodgeball Federation (WDBF) and the World Dodgeball Association (WDA). USA Dodgeball is the governing entity for dodgeball in the United States, with member leagues and clubs across the nation. 
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Modern dodgeball may be based on a game first observed in Africa about 200 years ago,[unreliable source?] where the players threw rocks at each other with the aim being to injure and possibly even kill other players.[unreliable source?] Defending injured players while trying to retaliate taught teamwork, endurance, and hunting skills.[unreliable source?] The missionary Dr. James H. Carlisle saw them playing this game and returned to teach at St. Mary's College, Norfolk, where he transformed the dangerous African game into a safer game with a leather ball instead of rocks.[unreliable source?] In 1884, Phillip Ferguson of Yale redesigned the game with a faster pace like modern dodgeball. In 1905, he returned to America and wrote the first official rules. American colleges started playing each other and the sport grew rapidly into what we now call dodgeball. [unreliable source?]
There are many different ball types used around the world, including 8.5-inch rubber, “No-Sting” Rubber, Foam and Cloth. USA Dodgeball uses all ball types across multiple tournaments held by them and their respective member organizations. The World Dodgeball Federation uses primarily Foam for their World Championships with plans to cloth in the coming years as those are the two balls used most widely across the world.
The WDBF specifies the use of 6 balls with six players per side for their World Championships. Various rulesets of number of balls and players are used all over the world depending on the court size, level or play and organization’s discretion.
The WDA specifies the use of five balls; certain national rulesets, such as in Austria, specify six. Amateur games typically use from three to ten balls, the number tailored to the size of the court and the number of players. More balls generally adds to the amount of action in a game, but can result in stalemate with many blocks. If there are too few balls, the element of stealth is removed, as players can see all the balls that might hit them.
Dodgeball can be played on any surface that has clearly marked boundaries and a center line. A typical game is played on a basketball court, volleyball court or fenced area. The NDL specifies adjacent 30 feet (9.1 m) areas for each team (nearly the size of a volleyball court), where a zone 4 feet (1.2 m) wide at the junction of the areas is a neutral zone.
Length of gameEdit
Informal matches of dodgeball are typically played until all players on one side are out. In WDA and WDBF guidelines, matches last a total of 30 minutes. These are split into two 15-minute halves, during which as many frames as possible are played. A frame lasts a maximum of 3 minutes, or until all players on one side are out. If the frame runs for the whole 3 minutes without a team being eliminated, the team with the most players remaining on court wins the frame. Teams switch sides at halftime.
Starting the gameEdit
In informal dodgeball, balls are initially distributed to players by one of the following methods:
- By even distribution to the two teams.
- By being thrown in the air for players to catch.
- By being lined up on the central dividing line.
In this last option, players then rush toward the center line to grab one of the balls. This is called the opening rush. It is never legal to immediately throw such a ball at an opponent; a player grabbing a ball on the center line retreats or throws it back to a teammate.
In WDA and WDBF regulations, the ball must be returned behind an "attack line", roughly a third of the way from the back of court. In WDA regulations, players may only run for the two balls to the left and the center ball, with a maximum of three players running per team. This means only the center ball is contested.
Following distribution, players aim to hit one another. A ball is considered "live" from the moment it leaves a player's hand up until it touches the floor, wall, or ceiling, when it becomes "dead". If a player is hit by an opponent's live ball, they are "out"; if the ball is dead, there is no hit. If a player catches a live ball, the opponent who threw the ball is out and a player on the catcher's team is "revived" from the outbox; however, if they fail to secure the catch, leading to them dropping the ball, the failed catcher is out.
In WDA and WDBF regulations, players may "block" a throw with another ball. In this situation, the thrown ball remains live, as it has not hit the floor or a wall, and so can be caught or can still hit a player out. If the blocker drops the ball used to block, they have failed to keep their ball secure and are out.
Dead balls that leave the court can only be returned to players by each team's designated ball retrievers. Stepping outside the court, including stepping on a boundary line or entering the opponents' zone, is a violation. Other violations include kicking a ball, displaying bad sportsmanship, and stalling (having a ball for over ten seconds and doing nothing with it). The penalty is that the violator is out.
Optional rules may be in effect in informal games of dodgeball or in open matches by agreement:
- "Head shots" (thrown balls that hit an opposing player in the head) may either result in the thrower being out, or the person being hit being out, or both; or may enable an out player to return to the game.
- In "jailball", players who are out go to "jail" behind the opponents' back line. They can return to the game if they:
- Capture a dead ball, or
- Capture a dead ball and throw it and hit an opponent.
- In games played on a basketball court, thrown balls that hit the backboard or go into the goal (even if deflected by a player or another ball) may have special status, such as returning all eliminated teammates to the court.
- When there are so few players on the court that dodging the ball is easy, "No Lines" may be declared. This means that there are no team zones; players can go anywhere on the court to get a better shot at an opponent.
The following basic tactics are useful:
- Thrower location: Move toward the neutral zone to attack; stay on the back line when not attacking. Do not stand in another player's line of sight. Do not turn your back to the opponents.
- Coordinated attack: Call out to teammates to coordinate multiple attacks on the same opponent, preferably from very different angles. Number the opponents, left-to-right, and call out an attack target by number.
- Throwing technique: Throw with one hand. Aim below the waist to avoid getting caught or making a head shot. Throw when the opponent is distracted. Learn to throw balls so that they curve.
Many local teams and international teams develop their own tactics and calling systems specific to their style of play. These become more complex in higher leagues, which often requires specific training for the players in calling positions such that they can make rapid, tactical decisions.
Similar games in other countriesEdit
- In Spain, a variation of the game called Datchball was created by a physical education teacher named Roberto Navarro. The game and associations and leagues are found in the north of Spain.
- On the Indian subcontinent a variation of the game is played called "Sekan-tadi" (सेकन-तड़ी). This is slang used for "slamming the hip". Other names are Gend Tadi and Maram Pitti.
- In China, a variation of the game is played called "Diu Sha Bao" (丢沙包). Instead of a ball, the game is played with a small round sand bag, which is also known as the "Sha Bao" (沙包).
In popular cultureEdit
- The 2004 movie Dodgeball: A True Underdog Story, despite presenting an unflattering view of the sport and its players, revived interest in the sport, especially among young adults.
- Also in 2004, Extreme Dodgeball, a dodgeball tournament broadcast as a game show, aired.
- The videogame Stikbold: A Dodgeball Adventure (Stikbold being the Danish word for dodgeball) features the sport of dodgeball, although the rules vary slightly from the actual game.
- The risks of injury from dodgeball, and the fact that gameplay resembles assault, have resulted in controversies, lawsuits, and calls to eliminate the game from school physical education programs.
- University of California, Irvine, reclaimed the largest game of dodgeball title on September 25, 2012, with 6,084 participants. The previous largest game of dodgeball was played by 4,979 participants at the University of Alberta on February 3, 2012.
- The longest game of dodgeball was played on April 27–29, 2012, at the Castleton State College in Castleton, Vermont. The game lasted for 41 hr 3 min 17 sec.
- "USA Dodgeball". USA Dodgeball About Us. USA Dodgeball. Retrieved 19 June 2019.
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- Paley, Amit (July 12, 2004). "All Grown Up, Dodgeball Hurtles Toward a Higher Popularity". The Washington Post. Retrieved February 3, 2012.
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- D'Angelo, Chris (2008). If you got the Guts, We got the Balls: A book about Dodgeball. Dangerous Chris Print. ISBN 978-0-578-01564-4
- Keyes, A. (2005). The Complete Book About Dodgeball. AuthorHouse. ISBN 1-4208-7548-5
- Kassock, Isaac (2012). The Philosophy of Dodgeball: A Treatise. Createspace. ISBN 1-4700-4494-3
- YMCA School Playground Partners: Dodgeball Games YMCA of San Diego County
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