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A dodgeball player dodging a ball.

Dodgeball refers to a collection of team sports in which players on two teams try to throw balls at each other while avoiding being hit themselves.

There are many variations of the game, but generally the main objective of each team is to eliminate all members of the opposing team by hitting them with thrown balls, catching a ball thrown by a member of the opposing team, or forcing them to move outside the court boundaries when a ball is thrown at them.

Internationally, there are currently two world bodies: World Dodgeball Federation (WDBF), which uses foam, and the World Dodgeball Association (WDA), which uses cloth. The international dodgeball day is April 27.[citation needed]



A dodgeball on a court, prior to the beginning of the match.
Dodgeball game, 2014

The number of dodgeballs used in the game often varies, but three to ten are common. Exceptions are usually made if a court is particularly small or if many people participate. More balls generally adds to the amount of action in a game, but can result in stalemate with many blocks. World Dodgeball Association rules are played with five (international dodgeball is played with 6) balls.[1] An odd number is generally favorable as one team will necessarily have a majority of balls in possession and should take the offensive role.[citation needed]

Dodgeball is played with many different types of dodgeballs. The three most used are foam, rubber and cloth depending on the organizations that endorse the sport. Rubber is mostly played in the United States while Foam and Cloth are played in at least 16 countries worldwide.[citation needed]


An example of a dodgeball court used in the National Dodgeball League

A typical dodgeball game is usually played on a basketball court, volleyball court, fenced area or even an Australian Rules Football oval, soccer pitch, or a football field. There is no fixed dodgeball court design. The game is picked on the best available surface that is usually one of the above-mentioned. Unless it is a variation of dodgeball, the court must have a center line.

Rules of gameEdit

Dodgeball players preparing for the opening rush
The opening rush of a dodgeball game.

At the beginning of a dodgeball game, the balls are lined up on the central dividing line (in some versions of the game, the balls are thrown in the air for the players to catch or divided evenly to both teams before a match). The players then simultaneously rush towards the center line and try to grab one of the dodgeballs and throw or roll it backwards to their teammates; players cannot pick up a ball and throw it instantly. In some versions there is a "check line" that the dodgeballs have to be behind before they can be considered "live." This is known as the opening rush. Once the game has commenced, players throw balls at members of the opposing team in an attempt to eliminate the players.

When a player has been hit by a dodgeball "on the full" (i.e. without hitting the roof, the floor, any of the walls, or an outside object and rebounding off) and no one catches it before it becomes dead, that player has been eliminated and must move to his team's designated bench area (players are still out if the ball rebounds off another dodgeball and/or player and hits them on the full). The same rule applies if any number of people try to catch the ball but drop it. Depending on the rules and variation, "headshots" (balls thrown in dodgeball that hit an opposing player in the head) may either result in the thrower being out, or the person being hit being out, or both.

If a player catches a ball thrown by the opposing team on the full, then the player who threw the ball is eliminated. As long as the ball has been caught in any way and is held for at least two seconds, the thrower is out (i.e. even if the ball is caught between the legs, the thrower is still out). If a dodgeball hits an opposing player but gets caught by one of the hit player's teammates, the thrower is out, a player gets reinstated, and the player who was hit is also out. In dodgeball games that are played on a basketball court, if a player throws the ball and it goes into the opposing basket and/or it hits the basketball backboard on the full, the whole team gets resurrected. The ball is still counted to have scored a basket or hit the backboard on the full if it rebounded off another dodgeball or it was deflected into the backboard by an opposing player. If the ball hits the backboard supports and/or the ring but fails to hit the backboard or go into the hoop, there is no effect. Players cannot be caught out if the ball hits the backboard, backboard supports, and/or the ring.

Players can pick up dead balls and throw them back at the other team; as such, a thrower may delay throwing a ball to avoid giving the opposing team something to hit him with. Players are not allowed to leave the confines of the court to gather balls that have rolled out of bounds, balls must be returned to players by each team's designated ball retrievers. If a player steps outside the court, including stepping on a boundary line, that player is out. If a player moves into the opponent's zone, that player is out. Players can also get eliminated if their throw intentionally hits an opponent on the head, displays bad sportsmanship, or cheats. Kicking the balls is prohibited.

Depending on the rules of a particular game, a ball in the possession of a player can be used to block incoming balls thrown by the opposing team. Depending on the rules of the game being played, if a player gets a dodgeball knocked out of their hands from an opposition throw, or drops the dodgeball when it is used to deflect oncoming balls, the player is eliminated.

Once all players on either team are eliminated, the game is over.

This will be in effect when there is a few players on each team: Alternate rule is ‘No Lines’ or open court. This rule is used at a point in the game when there are few players left and it is too easy to dodge the ball with all the extra room. When ‘No Lines’ is declared, all boundary lines no longer count and the players can go anywhere to get a better shot at their opponent.

In popular cultureEdit

In Spain, there is a variation of the game which is called Datchball. This game was created by Roberto Navarro, a Physical Education teacher, in order to include the game in the school. Nowadays it is one of the most important games[citation needed] played by the students in the north of Spain and we can find associations, championships and leagues of the game.

  • In the Indian subcontinent a variation of the game is played called "Sekan-tadi" (सेकन-तड़ी). This is slang used for "slamming the hip". Other names are Gend Tadi and Maram Pitti.
  • In China, a variation of the game is played called "Da Yi Mao" (打一毛). Instead of a ball, the game is played with a small round sand bag, which is also known as the kick-ball (毽). There are multiple techniques of throwing the sand bag, making it hitting the target more efficiently and harder to catch. This sport is very popular among primary school students as an after-class activity.
  • The 2004 movie Dodgeball: A True Underdog Story is generally credited with reviving interest in the sport, especially among young adults, despite referencing the sport as being about "violence, exclusion and degradation".[2]
  • Also in 2004, Extreme Dodgeball, a dodgeball tournament broadcast as a game show, aired
  • The videogame Stikbold: A Dodgeball Adventure (named after the Danish word for dodgeball, stikbold) features the sport of dodgeball, although the rules vary slightly from the actual game.[3]

In addition, the dangerous nature and associated risks of dodgeball have resulted in controversies, lawsuits, and calls to eliminate the game from school physical education programs.[4]

World recordsEdit


Usage in American vernacularEdit

In some American idioms, the act of avoiding something or someone mildly unpleasant can be referred to as 'playing dodgeball.' Additionally, in a variant of the same concept, the term "dodgeball" is sometimes used to describe a situation in which an individual is caught between two untenable positions, in a reference to the version of the game in which players from the same team can surround opposing players from two opposite sides.

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ "Rules and Regulations of Dodgeball" (PDF). Dodgeball Austria. World Dodgeball Association. Retrieved 13 March 2018.
  2. ^ Paley, Amit (July 12, 2004). "All Grown Up, Dodgeball Hurtles Toward a Higher Popularity". The Washington Post. Retrieved February 3, 2012.
  3. ^
  4. ^ "School dodgeball goes to court in New York". The Associated Press. November 20, 2004. Retrieved February 3, 2012.
  5. ^ CBS
  6. ^ "U of A smashes dodgeball record". Edmonton Journal. February 3, 2012. Retrieved February 3, 2012.
  7. ^ "Longest marathon playing dodgeball". Guinness World Records. Retrieved June 19, 2013.


External linksEdit