David Ernest McReynolds (October 25, 1929 – August 17, 2018) was an American politician and social activist who was a prominent democratic socialist and pacifist activist. He described himself as "a peace movement bureaucrat" during his 40-year career with the War Resisters League. He was a resident of New York City. McReynolds was twice a candidate for President of the United States, running atop the ticket of the Socialist Party USA in 1980 and 2000. He was America's first openly gay presidential candidate.
McReynolds at the 2009 Left Forum in New York City
David Ernest McReynolds
October 25, 1929
Los Angeles, California
|Died||August 17, 2018 (aged 88)|
New York, New York
|Socialist Party (1951–2015)|
Prohibition Party (before 1951)
Green (affiliated non-member)
|Alma mater||University of California Los Angeles|
|Occupation||Activist, politician, writer|
McReynolds was born in Los Angeles, to Elizabeth Grace (Tallon), a nurse, and Lt. Col. Charles McReynolds, an Air Force intelligence officer. In 1951 he joined the Socialist Party of America (SPA) and in 1953 he graduated from UCLA with a degree in political science. Between 1957 and 1960, he worked for the editorial board of the left-wing magazine Liberation. He was openly gay and wrote his first article about living as a gay man in 1969.
War Resisters LeagueEdit
McReynolds was staunchly anti-war and a draft resister, and in 1960 joined the staff of the War Resisters League (WRL), where he remained until his retirement in 1999. In 1965 he lectured on 'The Old Left and the New Left' at the newly founded Free University of New York.
On November 6, 1965, he was one of five men who publicly burned their draft cards at an anti-war demonstration at Union Square in New York. This was one of the first public draft-card burnings after U.S. law was changed on August 30, 1965 to make such actions a felony, punishable by up to five years' imprisonment. He was close friends with Bayard Rustin and other prominent peace activists, as well as literary figures such as Quentin Crisp.
In 1968, he signed the "Writers and Editors War Tax Protest" pledge, vowing to refuse tax payments in protest against the Vietnam War, and later became a sponsor of the War Tax Resistance project, which practiced and advocated tax resistance as a form of anti-war protest.
McReynolds was particularly active internationally, both in War Resisters' International of which he was chairperson for the term 1986–88, and in the International Confederation for Disarmament and Peace which eventually merged into the International Peace Bureau.
Socialist Party USAEdit
The SPA was renamed the Social Democrats USA by a majority vote at the 1972 convention. Michael Harrington resigned and then formed the Democratic Socialist Organizing Committee (now the Democratic Socialists of America, DSA) with the purpose of "realignment" strengthening the role of labor unions and other progressive organizations in the Democratic Party to pull it to the left. The smallest and the most left wing of the SPA, known as the Debs Caucus, including McReynolds, formed the Socialist Party USA (SPUSA). McReynolds was long a member of both DSA and SPUSA.
McReynolds' primary theoretical contribution to socialism came from his blending of a pacifist world-view with a commitment to re-distributive socialist economics. Politically, he was a staunch anti-authoritarian and collaborated with a diverse set of political formations on the democratic left. His widely read pamphlet, The Philosophy of Nonviolence, provides a unique window into the mind of a lifelong activist wrestling with the contradictions and pitfalls which plagued the political left in the 20th century. He concludes that "...there is no living, vital philosophy which does not have 'holes' in it." Consequently, he mapped out a pluralistic approach which is, on the one hand, socialist, yet is entirely engaged with thought systems as seemingly contradictory as Hindu philosophy. He concluded that a brand of pacifist-socialism is best suited for future socialist experiments since it offers the greatest opportunity to prefigure the kinds of democratic relations necessary to create a functional and free society.[clarification needed]
In his political career, McReynolds ran for Congress from Lower Manhattan twice and for President twice. In 1958 he ran as a write-in SPA candidate and then in 1968 as a Peace and Freedom Party candidate for Congress in the 19th district pulling in 4.7% of the vote (3,969 votes). In 1980, he ran for President of the United States as the SPUSA candidate, with Diane Drufenbrock as vice presidential candidate, receiving 6,994 votes (0.01%). Upon the request of fellow Socialists, he ran again for President as the SPUSA candidate in 2000, with Mary Cal Hollis as his running mate, receiving 5,602 votes. In both 1980 and 2000, McReynolds received the endorsement and ballot line of the Liberty Union Party in Vermont.
After the 2000 election, the Palm Beach Post speculated that 2,908 voters, "mostly in elderly Jewish districts", had mistakenly voted for both Al Gore, running for President on the Democratic ticket, and for McReynolds on a "confusing butterfly ballot", thereby resulting in voided votes, helping to cost Gore the state's crucial electoral votes.
In January 2015, the Socialist Party USA's National Committee voted to censure McReynolds over alleged racist comments made on social media regarding the Charlie Hebdo shooting and shooting of Michael Brown. He resigned from the SPUSA shortly thereafter.
2004 Senate campaignEdit
On July 10, 2004, McReynolds announced his candidacy running on the Green Party ticket for one of the New York seats in the Senate, running an anti-war campaign against Democratic incumbent Chuck Schumer, where he pulled in 36,942 votes for 0.5% of total.
McReynolds was active politically until just before his death, attending meetings; speaking in classrooms; being interviewed for films and research; and participating in peace/justice/antiwar/antinuclear actions. His last arrest was at the U.S. Mission to the U.N. in 2015 at an action calling for immediate nuclear disarmament, starting with the U.S.
He was an avid photographer throughout his adult life and spent time during the last three years of his life sorting his collection of more than 50,000 photos. A photo website is linked under Works, below.
In 2015, McReynolds endorsed U.S. Senator Bernie Sanders for President of the United States, praising him as a "serious candidate" and for not personally attacking his Democratic rival Hillary Clinton.
McReynolds died on August 17, 2018, aged 88, following a fall he sustained at his New York City home.
- James T. Havel. The Elections, 1789-1992, Macmillan Library Reference USA, (1996)
- Mulkerin, Joseph. "A socialist presidential candidate — no, not that one — looks back". The Villager, 27 August 2015. Retrieved 28 August 2015.
- David McReynolds, "Thinking About Retirement", Nonviolent Activist, March–April 1999, p. 7.
- Martin Duberman, A Saving Remnant: The Radical Lives of Barbara Deming and David McReynolds, New York: The New Press (2011):221
- "Our Campaigns - Candidate - David McReynolds". www.ourcampaigns.com. Retrieved October 4, 2017.
- "Candidate - David McReynolds". Our Campaigns. Retrieved May 30, 2019.
- Leaders from the 1960s: A Biographical Sourcebook of American Activism. Edited By David De Leon Published by Greenwood Publishing Group, 1994 ISBN 0-313-27414-2 pp.215–219
- Berke, Joseph (October 29, 1965), "The Free University of New York", Peace News: 6–7 as reproduced in Jakobsen, Jakob (2012), Anti-University of Londin–Antihistory Tabloid, London: MayDay Rooms, pp. 6–7, archived from the original on October 12, 2012
- John D'Emilio. READING THE SILENCES IN A GAY LIFE The Case of Bayard Rustin pp. 59–68 in The Seductions of Biography. Edited: Mary Rhiel, David Suchoff, David Bruce Suchoff. Routledge, 1996 ISBN 0-415-91089-7
"Rustin's only defender was Dave McReynolds, a younger gay staffer at the War Resisters League, whom Rustin had mentored over the years"
- Dave McReynolds. NOTES ON KNOWING QUENTIN. and QUENTIN CRISP: THE RADICAL, Quentin Crisp Archives (2005)
- "Writers and Editors War Tax Protest" January 30, 1968 New York Post
- "A Call to War Tax Resistance" The Cycle 14 May 1970, p. 7
- "Statistics of the Presidential and Congressional Election of November 5, 1968" (PDF). Retrieved September 27, 2011.
- "1980 Presidential General Election Results". Retrieved September 27, 2011.
- Kari Lydersen. David vs. Goliath. In These Times. Vol. 24, No. 10 (2000).
On his 1980 presidential run: "He was among the first openly gay political candidates for any office, having come out in WIN magazine in 1969, and though he doesn't see himself as a "gay and lesbian candidate," he has continued to work for gay rights."
- "Vermont November 2000 General Election". Thegreenpapers.com. Retrieved September 27, 2011.
- "Joel Engelhardt and Scott McCabe, "Over-votes cost Gore the election in Florida," ''Palm Beach Post,'' undated website". Palmbeachpost.com. Archived from the original on June 16, 2011. Retrieved September 27, 2011.
- "Kevin Phillips, "The GOP's control of Congress and the White House can last only so long," ''Los Angeles Times,'' April 15, 2001, page M-1". Retrieved September 27, 2011.[dead link]
- Reinholz, Mary (May 1, 2015). "Rift Among Socialists Over Former Presidential Hopeful's 'Potentially Racist' Comments About Michael Brown". Bedford + Bowery. Retrieved February 16, 2016.
- "NYS Board of Elections US Senate Election Returns Nov. 7, 2006" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on August 22, 2012. Retrieved 2011-09-27.
- "Why I support Bernie Sanders". Peoples World. July 7, 2015.
- "David McReynolds, longtime peace activist and agitator, dead at 88". New York Daily News. August 17, 2018.
- Paul Buhle, "David McReynolds:Socialist Peacemaker". Nonviolent Activist, March–April 1999.
- Scott H. Bennett, "Conscience, Comrades, and the Cold War: The Korean War Draft Resistance Cases of Socialist Pacifists David McReynolds and Vern Davidson," Peace and Change, vol. 38, no. 1 (Jan. 2013), pp. 83–120.
- Scott H. Bennett, Radical Pacifism: The War Resisters League and Gandhian Nonviolence in America, 1915–1963. Syracuse University Press, 2003.
- Dan Vera, "Being Peaceful: An Interview with David McReynolds." White Crane, No. 57 (Summer 2003), pp. 4–10.
- Keith Stern, Queers in History. Dallas, Texas: BenBella Books, 2009.
- Socialist Party USA
- War Resisters League
- The Philosophy of Nonviolence by David McReynolds
- The Infinite Series by David McReynolds
- His articles at MyTown
- Paul Buhle, David McReynolds: Socialist Peacemaker.
- Anthony Giacchino, Unclassified: Documentary of David McReynolds, Vimeo.
- Collection of his papers at Bryn Mawr
- Articles by David McReynolds at The Rag Blog
- David McReynolds and Martin Duberman on Rag Radio, interviewed by Thorne Dreyer, March 25, 2011 (53:28)
- Appearances on C-SPAN
|Party political offices|
| Socialist Party Presidential candidate
Mary Cal Hollis
| Socialist Party Presidential candidate
| Green Party Candidate for United States Senator from New York