Damour massacre

The Damour massacre took place on January 20, 1976, during the 1975–1990 Lebanese Civil War. Damour, a Maronite Christian town on the main highway south of Beirut, was attacked by the left-wing militants of the Palestine Liberation Organisation and as-Sa'iqa units. Many of its people died in battle or in the massacre that followed, and the others were forced to flee.[3] According to Robert Fisk, the massacre was part of the first act of ethnic cleansing in the Lebanese Civil War.[4] The massacre was in retaliation to the Karantina massacre of Muslims by the Phalangists.[5]

Damour massacre
Part of the Lebanese Civil War
JeanJacquesKurz-DarmourMassacre1976-DestroyedHouse ICRC-AV-Archives-V-P-LB-D-00003-12.jpg
A destroyed house in Damour (ICRC archives)
LocationDamour, Lebanon
Coordinates33°44′N 35°27′E / 33.733°N 35.450°E / 33.733; 35.450Coordinates: 33°44′N 35°27′E / 33.733°N 35.450°E / 33.733; 35.450
DateJanuary 20, 1976; 46 years ago (1976-01-20) (cc)
Attack type
Massacre
Deaths150[1]-582 civilians[2]
Perpetrators Palestine Liberation Organization

BackgroundEdit

The Damour massacre was a response to the Karantina massacre of January 18, 1976 in which Phalangists, a predominantly-Christian right-wing militia, killed 1,000 to 1,500 people.[5][6]

The Ahrar and the Phalangist militias, based in Damour, and Dayr al Nama had blocked the coastal road leading to southern Lebanon and the Chouf, which turned them into a threat to the PLO and its leftist and nationalist allies in the Lebanese Civil War.[7]

That occurred as part of a series of events during the Lebanese Civil War in which Palestinians joined the Muslim forces,[8] in the context of the Christian-Muslim divide,[9] and soon Beirut was divided along the Green Line, with Christian enclaves to the east and Muslims to the west.[10]

On 9 January, the militias began a siege of Damour and Jiyeh.[11] Jiyeh was entered by the PLO on 17 January.[11] Before January 20, more than 15,000 civilians fled Damour.[4]

EventsEdit

 
Severed head of a doll in Damour (ICRC archives)

On January 20, under the command of Fatah and as-Sa'iqa, members of the Palestine Liberation Organization and leftist Muslim Lebanese militiamen entered Damour.[12] Along with twenty Phalangist militiamen, civilians - including women, the elderly, and children, and often comprising whole families - were lined up against the walls of their homes and sprayed with machine-gun fire by Palestinians; the Palestinians then systematically dynamited and burned these homes.[13][4][12] Several of the town's young women were separated from other civilians and gang-raped.[4] Estimates of the number killed range from 100 to 582, with the overwhelming majority of these being civilians; Robert Fisk puts the number of civilians massacred at nearly 250.[4][14][15][16][2][17] Among the killed were family members of Elie Hobeika and his fiancée.[18] For several days after the massacre, 149 bodies of those executed by the Palestinians lay in the streets; this included the corpses of many women who had been raped and of babies who were shot from close range in the back of the head.[15] In the days following the massacre, Palestinians and Lebanese Muslims, some of whom were high on hashish, exhumed the coffins in the town's Christian cemetery and scattered the skeletons of several generations of the town's deceased citizens in the streets.[15]

After the Battle of Tel al-Zaatar later that year, the PLO resettled Palestinian refugees in Damour. After the Israeli invasion of Lebanon in 1982, the Zaatar refugees were expelled from Damour and the original inhabitants brought back.[19]

According to Thomas L. Friedman, the Phalangist Damouri Brigade, which carried out the Sabra and Shatila massacre during the 1982 Lebanon War, sought revenge not only for the assassination of Bachir Gemayel but also for what he describes as past killings of their own people by Palestinians, including those at Damour.[20][21] According to the International Center for Transitional Justice, the leadership of Fatah and as-Sa'iqa made a decision to "empty the city."[12]

According to an eyewitness, the attack took place from the mountain behind the town. "It was an apocalypse," said Father Mansour Labaky, a Christian Maronite priest who survived the massacre. "They were coming, thousands and thousands, shouting 'Allahu Akbar! (God is great!) Let us attack them for the Arabs, let us offer a holocaust to Mohammad!", and they were slaughtering everyone in their path, men, women and children."[22][23][24][25]

According to Robert Fisk, women were gang-raped and babies were shot from close range; houses belonging to Christians were also systematically destroyed, and graves of the Christian cemetery were dug up and old skeletons scattered in the streets.[15][4][12]

PerpetratorsEdit

There are varying claims about the precise composition of the forces that committed the massacre at Damour. According to some,[according to whom?] bulk of the attacking forces seems to have been composed of brigades from the Palestinian Liberation Army[26] and as-Sa'iqa, as well as other members of other groups, including Fatah, as well as the Muslim Lebanese al-Murabitun militia. Others contend that there were no Lebanese involved in perpetrating the massacre, and that those who committed atrocities were Palestinians from the Fatah, Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine, and Democratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine along with militiamen from Syria, Jordan, Libya,[27] Iran, Pakistan and Afghanistan, and possibly even Japanese Red Army terrorists who were then undergoing training by the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine in Lebanon.[28]

Some sources suggest that Yasser Arafat, who had authorized the PLO to participate in the attack, wanted to execute the local PLO commanders afterwards for what they had permitted;[29] others claim that Arafat had "direct control" of the forces conducting the massacre.[30]

In Popular CultureEdit

The Damour massacre has not received as much attention as the one in Sabra and Shatila, but nevertheless has still garnered some attention in popular culture.

The Insult, a film by the Lebanese-French director, Ziad Doueiri, about a lawsuit between a Palestinian-Lebanese refugee who fled after the Jordanian Civil War, and a Lebanese Christian who survived the Damour massacre, was nominated for the Oscars in 2018.

Robert Fisk said the massacre reminded him of the Bosnian War in an article for The Independent.[4]

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Hirst, David (2010). Beware of small states. Nation Books. p. 111. ISBN 978-0-571-23741-8. With Palestinian help, the Muslim/lefitsts then overran Damour, in their domain, on the coastal road a few kilometres south of the capital, sacked it, killed some 150 inhabitants, and drove out the rest.
  2. ^ a b Nisan, 2003
  3. ^ Armies in Lebanon, 1985, Osprey Publishing
  4. ^ a b c d e f g "Lebanon's dispossessed come home: Robert Fisk in Damour on the scars". The Independent. October 23, 2011. Retrieved June 18, 2021.
  5. ^ a b William W. Harris (January 2006). The New Face of Lebanon: History's Revenge. Markus Wiener Publishers. p. 162. ISBN 978-1-55876-392-0. Retrieved July 27, 2013. the massacre of 1,500 Palestinians, Shi'is, and others in Karantina and Maslakh, and the revenge killings of hundreds of Christians in Damour
  6. ^ Noam Chomsky, Edward W. Said (1999) Fateful Triangle: The United States, Israel, and the Palestinians South End Press, ISBN 0-89608-601-1 pp 184–185
  7. ^ Yezid Sayigh (1999) Armed Struggle and the Search for State: The Palestinian National Movement, 1949–1993 Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-829643-6 p 368
  8. ^ Samuel M. Katz (1985). Armies in Lebanon. Osprey Publishing. p. 5. ISBN 978-0-85045-602-8. Retrieved July 27, 2013.
  9. ^ Frank Brenchley (1989). Britain and the Middle East: Economic History, 1945-87. I.B.Tauris. p. 221. ISBN 978-1-870915-07-6. Retrieved July 27, 2013.
  10. ^ Terry John Carter; Lara Dunston; Amelia Thomas (2008). Syria & Lebanon. Ediz. Inglese. Lonely Planet. p. 35. ISBN 978-1-74104-609-0. Retrieved July 27, 2013.
  11. ^ a b "Lebanon's Legacy of Political Violence: A Mapping of Serious Violations of International Human Rights and Humanitarian Law in Lebanon, 1975-2008" (PDF). pp. 14, 15.
  12. ^ a b c d "Lebanon’s Legacy of Political Violence A Mapping of Serious Violations of International Human Rights and Humanitarian Law in Lebanon, 1975–2008." International Center for Transitional Justice. https://www.ictj.org/sites/default/files/ICTJ-Report-Lebanon-Mapping-2013-EN_0.pdf
  13. ^ Fisk, 2001, pp. 99–100.
  14. ^ Hirst, David (2010) Beware of Small States. Lebanon, battleground of the Middle East. Faber and Faber. ISBN 978-0-571-23741-8 p.111: ‘some 150’ killed
  15. ^ a b c d Fisk, Robert (2002). Pity the Nation: The Abduction of Lebanon. New York: Thunder's Mouth/Nation Books. p. 105.
  16. ^ Randal, Jonathan (1983) ‘’The Tragedy of Lebanon. Christian Warlords, Israeli Adventurers and American Bunglers’’ Chatto & Windus. ISBN 0-7011-2755-4 p.90
  17. ^ Nisan (2003) 24.
  18. ^ "Elie Hobeika". moreorless : heroes & killers of the 20th century. www.moreorless.au.com. Archived from the original on August 5, 2012. Retrieved 8 July 2012.
  19. ^ Helena Cobban (November 8, 2004). "Back to Shatila, part 2". Just World News. Just World News. Archived from the original on July 12, 2012. Retrieved 8 July 2012.
  20. ^ Friedman, 1998, p. 161.
  21. ^ Friedman, New York Times, Sep 20, 21, 26, 27, 1982.
  22. ^ Israel undercover: secret warfare and hidden diplomacy in the Middle East By Steve Posner, ISBN 0-8156-0220-0, ISBN 978-0-8156-0220-0, p. 2
  23. ^ J. Becker: The PLO: The Rise and Fall of the Palestine Liberation Organization, Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1984, p. 124 [1] qtd in [2] [3]
  24. ^ "Articles > PLO Policy towards the Christian Community during the Civil War in Lebanon". ICT. Retrieved July 5, 2012.
  25. ^ The PLO: The Rise and Fall of the Palestine Liberation Organization, Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1984, p. 124 [4] qtd in [5] [6]
  26. ^ Some sources name the PLA's Ayn Jalout brigade armed by Egypt and the Qadisiyah brigade from Iraq. This page Archived January 14, 2006, at the Wayback Machine also mentions the Yarmouk brigade, set up by Syria.
  27. ^ Brian Lee Davis (January 1, 1990). Qaddafi, Terrorism, and the Origins of the U.S. Attack on Libya. ABC-CLIO. p. 11. ISBN 978-0-275-93302-9. Retrieved July 27, 2013.
  28. ^ Nisan, 2003, p. 41.
  29. ^ Fisk, 2001, pps. 89, 99,
  30. ^ Nisan (2003) 24.

ReferencesEdit

  • Abraham, A. J. (1996). The Lebanon War. Praeger/Greenwood. ISBN 0-275-95389-0
  • Fisk, Robert. (2001). Pity the Nation: Lebanon at War. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-280130-9
  • Friedman, Thomas. (1998) From Beirut To Jerusalem. 2nd Edition. London: HarperCollins. ISBN 0-00-653070-2
  • Nisan, M. (2003). The Conscience of Lebanon: A Political Biography of Etienne Sakr (Abu-Arz). London: Routledge. ISBN 0-7146-5392-6.

Further readingEdit

  • Becker, Jillian. (1985). The PLO: The Rise and Fall of the Palestine Liberation Organization . New York: St. Martin's Press ISBN 0-312-59379-1

External linksEdit