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Crow Wing County, Minnesota

Crow Wing County is a county in the U.S. state of Minnesota. As of the 2010 United States Census, the population was 62,500.[1] Its county seat is Brainerd.[2] The county was formed in 1857, and was organized in 1870.[3]

Crow Wing County
Historic Crow Wing County courthouse
Map of Minnesota highlighting Crow Wing County
Location within the U.S. state of Minnesota
Map of the United States highlighting Minnesota
Minnesota's location within the U.S.
Coordinates: 46°29′N 94°04′W / 46.49°N 94.07°W / 46.49; -94.07
Country United States
State Minnesota
FoundedMay 23, 1857 (created)
March 3, 1870 (organized)
Named forCrow Wing River
SeatBrainerd
Largest cityBrainerd
Area
 • Total1,157 sq mi (3,000 km2)
 • Land999 sq mi (2,590 km2)
 • Water157 sq mi (410 km2)  14%%
Population
 • Estimate 
(2018)
64,889
 • Density64.5/sq mi (24.9/km2)
Time zoneUTC−6 (Central)
 • Summer (DST)UTC−5 (CDT)
Congressional district8th
Websitewww.co.crow-wing.mn.us

Crow Wing County is included in the Brainerd, MN Micropolitan Statistical Area.

HistoryEdit

This area was long occupied by the Ojibwe people, known as Chippewa in the United States. In addition, numerous Dakota people lived in central and southern Minnesota before European settlement. European Americans established a trading post by 1837 in this area, on the east side of the Mississippi River opposite the mouth of the Crow Wing River. The post (named "Crow Wing") soon became a center of trading with the Native Americans on the region, with a general-supply store that serviced the area. By 1866, the village contained about 600 whites and Chippewa; it was a major population center. The territorial government enacted the county's creation on May 23, 1857, and named Crow Wing as the county seat.[4] The governmental structure of the county was not effected until March 3, 1870. The county was named for the river,[5] which is itself named for an island in the river that resembles a crow's wing.

Brainerd township was founded in 1870 when the Northern Pacific Railroad selected this site for a crossing of the Mississippi River. It attracted development and population, soon surpassing Crow Wing. It was also designated as the new county seat, drawing off more residents and businesses from what became known as a ghost town, Old Crow Wing. Crow Wing State Park encompasses much of the former village site along the river.

Brainerd City was incorporated on 19 November 19, 1881, named for Lawrence Brainerd, the father-in-law of J. Gregory Smith, the first president of the Northern Pacific Railroad Company. Smith had served as governor of Vermont (1863-1865) before moving west. He is called the father and founder of Brainerd. Lawrence Brainerd was the first president of the Vermont Central Railroad.[citation needed] The Northern Pacific Railroad ran a special train as its first service to Brainerd on March 11, 1871. Its regular passenger service began the next September. The first passenger train from the Twin Cities, by way of Sauk Rapids, did not arrive until November 1, 1877.

The Minnesota legislature on February 18, 1887 annexed a portion of Cass County (west of the Mississippi) to Crow Wing County, which doubled the former area of Crow Wing County.

 
Soils of Crow Wing County[6]
 
Soils of Crow Wing State Park neighborhood

GeographyEdit

Crow Wing County has a total area of 1,157 square miles (3,000 km2), of which 999 square miles (2,590 km2) is land and 157 square miles (410 km2) (14%) is water.[7]

Topography and vegetationEdit

Crow Wing County has two state forests, the Crow Wing State Forest and the Emily State Forest. The Cuyuna Lakes State Trail lies in the Upper Mississippi River Basin. The topography of the region is gently rolling to flat, mostly wooded and heavily dotted with waters and wetlands.[8] It is home to an abundance of wildlife, including white-tailed deer, cottontail rabbit, snowshoe hare, raccoon, red fox, gray fox, coyote, mink, muskrat, squirrels, beaver, occasional American black bear, Bald eagle, osprey and many other waterfowl.

Lakes and riversEdit

The main river is the Mississippi River, and there are several smaller streams in the county. It has about 417 recognized lakes. The top ten ranked according to size are:

  1. Gull Lake – 9,419 acres (38.12 km2)
  2. Pelican Lake – 8,254 acres (33.40 km2)
  3. Upper and Lower White Fish Lake – 7,372 acres (29.83 km2)
  4. North Long Lake – 5,997 acres (24.27 km2)
  5. Lake Edward – 2,576 acres (10.42 km2)
  6. Bay Lake – 2,393 acres (9.68 km2)
  7. Cross Lake – 1,752 acres (7.09 km2)
  8. Round Lake – 1,645 acres (6.66 km2)
  9. Big Trout Lake – 1,343 acres (5.43 km2)
  10. Lower South Long Lake – 1,312 acres (5.31 km2)

Major highwaysEdit

Adjacent countiesEdit

Protected areas[8]Edit

  • Crow Wing State Forest
  • Crow Wing State Park (part)
  • Cuyuna Country State Recreation Area
  • Cuyuna Lakes State Trail (within Cuyuna Country SRA)[9]
  • Duck Lakes State Wildlife Management Area
  • Emily State Forest
  • Loerch State Wildlife Management Area
  • Mille Lacs Moraine Scientific and Natural Area
  • Safari North Wildlife Park
  • Upper Dean State Wildlife Management Area

Superfund site and environmental damageEdit

The presence of railroads increased development in the county, but they also brought environmental problems. The Burlington Northern (Brainerd/Baxter) EPA Superfund site is here, between Brainerd and Baxter. Burlington Northern Railroad had a treatment plant here for railroad ties, to protect the wood from weather and insects. Wastewater generated from the wood-treating process was sent to two shallow, unlined ponds. This created a sludge, which contaminated both the underlying soils and the groundwater with creosote and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs).[10]

DemographicsEdit

Census Pop.
1860269
1870200−25.7%
18802,3191,059.5%
18908,852281.7%
190014,25061.0%
191016,86118.3%
192024,56645.7%
193025,6274.3%
194030,22617.9%
195030,8752.1%
196032,1344.1%
197034,8268.4%
198041,72219.8%
199044,2496.1%
200055,09924.5%
201062,50013.4%
Est. 201864,889[11]3.8%
US Decennial Census[12]
1790-1960[13] 1900-1990[14]
1990-2000[15] 2010-2018[1]
 
Age pyramid of county residents based on 2000 US census data

2000 censusEdit

As of the 2000 United States Census, there were 55,099 people, 22,250 households, and 15,174 families in the county. The population density was 55.2/sqmi (21.3/km²). There were 33,483 housing units at an average density of 33.5/sqmi (12.9/km²). The racial makeup of the county was 97.64% White, 0.31% Black or African American, 0.78% Native American, 0.28% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.20% from other races, and 0.78% from two or more races. 0.69% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 32.5% were of German, 16.4% Norwegian, 9.4% Swedish, 6.2% Irish and 5.2% American ancestry.

There were 22,250 households out of which 30.20% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.70% were married couples living together, 8.00% had a female householder with no husband present, and 31.80% were non-families. 26.40% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.70% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.43 and the average family size was 2.93.

The county population contained 24.80% under the age of 18, 8.10% from 18 to 24, 25.60% from 25 to 44, 24.40% from 45 to 64, and 17.10% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females there were 96.80 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.50 males.

The median income for a household in the county was $37,589, and the median income for a family was $44,847. Males had a median income of $33,838 versus $22,896 for females. The per capita income for the county was $19,174. About 6.50% of families and 9.80% of the population were below the poverty line, including 11.40% of those under age 18 and 9.90% of those age 65 or over.

CommunitiesEdit

PoliticsEdit

Crow Wing County voters have been reliably Republican for several decades. In only one national election since 1976 has the county selected the Democratic Party candidate (as of 2016).

Presidential election results
Presidential elections results[16]
Year Republican Democratic Third parties
2016 62.2% 22,287 30.6% 10,982 7.2% 2,573
2012 55.6% 19,415 42.3% 14,760 2.1% 745
2008 52.8% 18,567 45.1% 15,859 2.1% 739
2004 57.0% 19,106 41.8% 14,005 1.3% 434
2000 53.5% 15,035 40.0% 11,255 6.5% 1,838
1996 40.4% 10,095 44.7% 11,156 14.9% 3,712
1992 37.1% 9,112 36.3% 8,896 26.6% 6,531
1988 52.7% 11,017 46.3% 9,674 1.1% 220
1984 56.2% 11,362 43.1% 8,719 0.8% 151
1980 50.0% 10,844 43.0% 9,323 7.0% 1,510
1976 41.3% 8,072 54.5% 10,653 4.3% 839
1972 53.0% 8,774 44.3% 7,328 2.7% 449
1968 45.2% 6,687 50.1% 7,411 4.7% 697
1964 35.8% 5,131 64.1% 9,197 0.2% 21
1960 52.9% 7,727 46.8% 6,835 0.4% 52
1956 54.4% 6,657 45.4% 5,556 0.3% 30
1952 54.0% 6,992 45.4% 5,883 0.6% 81
1948 39.7% 4,702 57.2% 6,773 3.1% 370
1944 44.7% 4,500 54.7% 5,504 0.6% 63
1940 44.0% 5,524 54.8% 6,876 1.2% 150
1936 33.8% 3,611 61.5% 6,561 4.7% 501
1932 41.7% 3,991 52.9% 5,068 5.4% 519
1928 67.9% 6,436 30.1% 2,851 2.1% 196
1924 50.1% 4,230 4.9% 417 45.0% 3,802
1920 70.3% 5,262 14.4% 1,077 15.3% 1,142
1916 44.4% 1,715 40.6% 1,568 15.0% 578
1912 21.0% 691 21.5% 709 57.5% 1,897
1908 59.4% 1,681 23.4% 661 17.2% 487
1904 77.0% 2,150 11.9% 333 11.1% 309
1900 67.2% 1,803 30.0% 804 2.8% 75
1896 59.4% 1,701 37.2% 1,066 3.5% 99
1892 53.1% 916 30.1% 519 16.8% 290

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b "State & County QuickFacts". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved August 31, 2013.
  2. ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Archived from the original on May 31, 2011. Retrieved June 7, 2011.
  3. ^ "Minnesota Place Names". Minnesota Historical Society. Retrieved March 17, 2014.
  4. ^   Ripley, George; Dana, Charles A., eds. (1879). "Crow Wing" . The American Cyclopædia.
  5. ^ Warren Upham (1920). Minnesota Geographic Names: Their Origin and Historic Significance. Minnesota Historical Society. p. 154.
  6. ^ Nelson, Steven (2011).Savanna Soils of Minnesota. Minnesota: Self. pp. 53-56. ISBN 978-0-615-50320-2.
  7. ^ "2010 Census Gazetteer Files". US Census Bureau. August 22, 2012. Archived from the original on September 21, 2013. Retrieved October 6, 2014.
  8. ^ a b Crow Wing County MN Google Maps (accessed 7 March 2019)
  9. ^ Minnesota Div of Natural Resources: Cuyuna Lakes State Trail (accessed 7 March 2019)
  10. ^ "Burlington Northern (Brainerd/Baxter) Fact Sheet" Archived December 5, 2012, at the Wayback Machine, EPA, July 13, 2012
  11. ^ "Population and Housing Unit Estimates". Retrieved April 30, 2019.
  12. ^ "US Decennial Census". US Census Bureau. Archived from the original on April 26, 2015. Retrieved October 6, 2014.
  13. ^ "Historical Census Browser". University of Virginia Library. Retrieved October 6, 2014.
  14. ^ "Population of Counties by Decennial Census: 1900 to 1990". US Census Bureau. Retrieved October 6, 2014.
  15. ^ "Census 2000 PHC-T-4. Ranking Tables for Counties: 1990 and 2000" (PDF). US Census Bureau. Retrieved October 6, 2014.
  16. ^ Leip, David. "Atlas of US Presidential Elections". uselectionatlas.org. Retrieved April 10, 2018.

External linksEdit