Comparison of server-side web frameworks

This is a comparison of notable web frameworks, software used to build and deploy web applications.

General edit

Basic information about each framework.

Systems listed on a light purple background are no longer in active development.

ASP.NET edit

Project Current stable version Release date License
ASP.NET Dynamic Data
Base One Foundation Component Library (BFC) 7.51 2018-06-01 Proprietary
Component-based Scalable Logical Architecture (CSLA) 4.11.2 2019-07-31[1] MIT
MonoRail 2.1 2011-03-17[2] Apache

C++ edit

Project Current stable version Release date License
CppCMS 1.2.1 2018-05-18[3] MIT
Drogon 1.8.4 2023-03-20[4] MIT
Poco 1.11.3[5] 2022-06-12[±] Boost Software License
Wt 4.7.1 2022-04-15[6] GPL, Proprietary

ColdFusion Markup Language (CFML) edit

Project Current stable version Release date License
ColdBox Platform 6.8.1[7] 2022-08-11[±] Apache v2
ColdSpring 1.2 2008-09-12 Apache v2

Elixir edit

Project Current stable version Release date License
Phoenix 1.7.11[8]   2024-02-02; 2 months ago MIT License

Haskell edit

Project Current stable version Release date License
Snap 1.1.3.0[9] 2020-05-07 BSD-3
Yesod 1.6.23[10] 2022-04-20[±] MIT License

Java edit

Project Current stable version Release date License
Apache Click 2.3.0 2011-03-27 Apache 2.0
Apache OFBiz 18.12.12[11]   2024-02-16; 56 days ago Apache 2.0
Apache Shale 1.0.4 2007-12-19 Apache
Apache Sling 12 2022-03-18 Apache 2.0
Apache Struts 2 6.0.0 2022-06-06 Apache 2.0
Apache Tapestry 5.8.4[12]   2024-02-06; 2 months ago Apache 2.0
Apache Wicket 10.0.0[13]   2024-03-11; 32 days ago Apache 2.0
AppFuse 3.5.0 2015-02-20 Apache 2.0
Eclipse RAP 3.11 2019-12-18 Eclipse
Grails 6.1.2[14]   2024-01-31; 2 months ago Apache
Google Web Toolkit 2.9.0 2020-05-02 Apache 2.0
JavaServer Faces (Mojarra) 4.0.0[15]   2022-05-19; 22 months ago CDDL, GNU GPL 2, Apache 2.0
JBoss Seam 3.1.0 final 2012-01-13 GNU LGPL
JWt 4.10.4[16]   2024-03-06; 37 days ago GPL, Proprietary
Netty (software) 4.1.108[17]   2024-03-21; 22 days ago Apache License 2.0
OpenLaszlo 4.9.0 2010-10-21 CPL
Oracle ADF 12.2.1.4 2019-10-09 Oracle Technology Network Developer License
Play 2.8.21[18]   2023-11-09; 5 months ago Apache 2.0
Spring 6.1.4[19]   2024-02-15; 57 days ago Apache 2.0
Stripes 1.6.0 2015-07-23 Apache
Vaadin 14.0.3 2019-09-04 Apache 2.0
Wavemaker 11.6.0[20] 2024-03-03 Apache
WebObjects 5.4.3 2008-09-15 Proprietary

JavaScript edit

Project Current stable version Release date License
Express.js 4.17.1 2019-05-25 MIT License
Meteor 2.13[21]   2023-08-02; 8 months ago MIT License
Sails.js 1.2.3 2019-06-18 MIT License
Next.js 14.1.4[22]   2024-03-20; 23 days ago MIT License
Remix 2.8.1 2021-11-22 MIT License

Perl edit

Project Current stable version Release date License
Catalyst 5.90128[23] 2020-09-11[±] Artistic, GPL
Dancer 0.400001 [24] 2023-02-05[±] Artistic, GPL
Maypole 2.13 2008-04-18 Artistic, GPL
Mojolicious 9.30[25] 2022-11-22[±] Artistic

PHP edit

Project Start date Current stable version Release date License
CakePHP 2005-08 5.0.1[26] 2023-09-29[±] MIT
CodeIgniter 2006-02-28 4.4.3[27] 2023-10-26[±] MIT
Fat-Free 2009-09 3.8.2[28] 2023-07-24[±] GPLv3
FuelPHP 2011-08 1.9.0[29] 2021-12-28[±] MIT
Gyroscope 2008-11-20 20.4[30] 2023-11-24 BSD
Jamroom 2003-07-28 7.0.1[31] 2024-01-01[±] MPL
Kajona 2006 6.2[32] 2017-06-08 LGPLv2
Laminas (formerly Zend Framework) 2006-03 3.3.3[33] 2022-02-21 New BSD
Laravel 2011-07-31 11.0.3[34]   2024-03-14; 29 days ago MIT
Li3 (Lithium) 2009-10 2.0.0[35] 2022-12-08[±] BSD
Nette Framework 2006-01[36] 3.1.0[37] 2021-01-05 New BSD, GPLv2, GPLv3[38]
Phalcon 2012-11-14 5.5.0[39] 2023-12-25 BSD
Pop PHP 2012-03-19 5.3.0[40] 2024-04-01 BSD Licence
PRADO 2004-01 4.2.0[41] 2022-04-19[±] New BSD[42]
SilverStripe 2007-02-03 5.1.0[43] 2023-10-16[±] BSD
Smart.Framework 2015-02-01 svn.1925[44] 2024-01-19[±] BSD
Symfony 2005-10 7.0.1[45] 2023-12-01[±] MIT
Yii 2008-12-03 2.0.48[46] 2023-05-22[±] New BSD

Python edit

Project Current stable version Release date License
BlueBream 1.0[47]   2011-01-18; 13 years ago ZPL
CherryPy 18.8.0[48]   2022-07-18; 20 months ago BSD
CubicWeb 3.30.0[49]   2021-03-16; 3 years ago LGPL
Django 5.0.3[50]   2024-03-04; 39 days ago BSD
FastAPI 0.110.0[51]   2024-02-24; 48 days ago MIT
Flask 3.0.2[52]   2024-02-03; 2 months ago BSD
Google App Engine 1.9.91[53]   2020-05-11; 3 years ago LGPL, Proprietary
Grok 5.0[54]   2024-01-29; 2 months ago ZPL
Jam.py 5.4.136[55]   2023-11-14; 4 months ago BSD
Nagare 0.5.2[56]   2017-11-10; 6 years ago BSD
Pyjs 0.8.1a[57]   2012-05-09; 11 years ago Apache
Pylons 1.0.2[58]   2015-07-22; 8 years ago BSD
Pyramid 2.0.2[59]   2023-08-25; 7 months ago BSD
TACTIC 4.8.0.b04[60]   2020-09-25; 3 years ago EPL
Tornado 6.4.0[61]   2023-11-29; 4 months ago Apache
TurboGears 2.4.3[62]   2020-03-01; 4 years ago MIT, LGPL
web2py 2.27.1[63]   2023-11-16; 4 months ago LGPL3
Zope 2 5.6.0[64]   2022-09-09; 19 months ago ZPL

Ruby edit

Project Current stable version Release date License
Padrino 0.14.4 2019-01-14[65] MIT
PureMVC 2.0.4 2008-08-14 CC +Attribution
Ruby on Rails 7.1.3.2[66]   2024-02-21; 51 days ago MIT
Sinatra 3.0.2[67]   2022-10-01; 18 months ago MIT

Scala edit

Project Current stable version Release date License
Lift 3.4.3 2020-11-28 Apache 2.0
Play 2.8.8 2021-04-08 Apache 2.0
Scalatra 2.8.1 2021-09-25 BSD

Others edit

Project Language Current stable version Release date License
AIDA/Web Smalltalk 6.7 2014-09-14 MIT
Oracle APEX PL/SQL 22.2 2022-11-10 Proprietary freeware
Flex ActionScript, MXML 4.16.1 2019-11-23 Apache
Grails Groovy (JVM) 4.0.0 2019-07-11 Apache
Morfik C#, BASIC, Pascal, Java 3.0.8.1 2010-12-13 Proprietary freeware
Opa Opa 1.1.1 2013-04-16[68] MIT and AGPL
OpenACS Tcl 5.10.0[69] 2021-09-15 GPL
Seaside Smalltalk 3.4.4[70] 2021-02-07 MIT

Comparison of features edit

C++ edit

Project Ajax MVC framework MVC push-pull i18n & L10n? ORM Testing framework(s) DB migration framework(s) Security framework(s) Template framework(s) Caching framework(s) Form validation framework(s)
CppCMS Yes Yes Push Yes CppDB No No Yes Yes Yes Yes
Wt Yes Yes Push & Pull Yes Wt::Dbo Boost.test Yes Yes No Yes

ColdFusion Markup Language (CFML) edit

Project Ajax MVC framework MVC push-pull i18n & L10n? ORM Testing framework(s) DB migration framework(s) Security framework(s) Template framework(s) Caching framework(s) Form validation framework(s)
ColdBox Platform Yes Yes Push-pull Yes Quick & cbORM Yes via TestBox Yes Yes CFML Yes Yes
Fusebox via CF or any JavaScript library optional Push CFML via lexicons for Transfer, Reactor via other testing frameworks No via plugins CFML via lexicon for ColdSpring No

Java edit

Project Language Ajax MVC framework MVC push-pull i18n & L10n? ORM Testing framework(s) DB migration framework(s) Security framework(s) Template framework(s) Caching framework(s) Form validation framework(s)
Apache Click Java jQuery Page oriented Pull Yes Hibernate, Cayenne Yes pluggable Velocity, JSP Cached templates Built-in validation
Apache OFBiz Java, Groovy, XML, jQuery Yes Push-pull Yes Entity Engine (Internal kind of ORM, not really ORM, notably used by Atlassian Jira) JUnit Entity Engine Tools, Data File Tool, CSV Parser, Apache POI Internal Security framework based on OWASP Freemarker (Recommended), Velocity (Support Available), JSP (Support Available) Internal Cache Maintenance with Distributed Cache Clearing for clusters Server side validation, Client Side Validation (JQuery)
Apache Sling Java Yes Yes Push-pull Uses JCR content repository Yes Yes Yes
Apache Struts Java Yes Yes Push-pull Yes Yes Unit tests Yes Yes
Apache Tapestry Java Prototype, jQuery Yes Pull Yes JPA, Hibernate, Cayenne Selenium, TestNG, JUnit Spring Security, Shiro Yes with extensions Native or Bean Validation
Apache Wicket Java Extensions for YUI, ExtJS, more No (Modular event-driven) Pull Yes with extensions Mock objects, unit and integration tests via extension Yes Yes Yes Yes
Grails Groovy Yes Yes Push Yes GORM, Hibernate Unit tests, integration test, functional test multiple plugins: autobase, dbmigrate, more Spring Security,[71] Apache Shiro[72] Yes Yes Yes
JavaServer Faces Java Yes Yes Pull Yes JPA, Hibernate and any other Java EE ORM framework JUnit Yes Facelets, JSP Yes Native validators, integration with Bean Validation
Project Language Ajax MVC framework MVC push-pull i18n & L10n? ORM Testing framework(s) DB migration framework(s) Security framework(s) Template framework(s) Caching framework(s) Form validation framework(s)
JBoss Seam Java Yes Yes Pull Yes JPA, Hibernate JUnit, TestNG JAAS integration, Drools, Hibernate Filters, OpenID, CAPTCHA Facelets JBoss Cache, Ehcache Hibernate Validator
JVx WebUI Java Yes Model Driven Yes Yes, pluggable JUnit Yes Single sourcing Yes, pluggable
JWt Java Yes Yes Push-pull Yes Yes Yes Yes
Play Java, Scala Yes Yes Push-pull Yes JPA, Hibernate JUnit, Selenium Yes via Core Security module Yes Yes Server-side validation
Spring Java Yes Yes Push Yes Hibernate, iBatis, more Mock objects, unit tests Spring Security (formerly Acegi) JSP, Commons Tiles, Velocity, Thymeleaf, more Ehcache, more Commons validator, Bean Validation
Stripes Java Yes Yes Pull Yes JPA, Hibernate Yes framework extension Yes Yes
Vaadin Java GWT Push-pull Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Wavemaker JavaScript (client), Java (server) Dojo Toolkit Yes Push Dojo Toolkit Hibernate JUnit Hibernate Spring Security (formerly Acegi), role-based access control Dojo Toolkit Dojo Toolkit Regular expression, schema-driven validation
Project Language Ajax MVC framework MVC push-pull i18n & L10n? ORM Testing framework(s) DB migration framework(s) Security framework(s) Template framework(s) Caching framework(s) Form validation framework(s)
WebObjects Java Yes Yes Push-pull Yes EOF WOUnit (JUnit), TestNG, Selenium in Project WONDER Yes Yes Yes
Google Web Toolkit Java, JavaScript Yes Yes JPA with RequestFactory JUnit (too early), jsUnit (too difficult), Selenium (best) via Java Yes Bean Validation
ZK Java, ZUML jQuery Yes Push-pull Yes any J2EE ORM framework JUnit, ZATS HibernateUtil, SpringUtil Spring Security Macro components & composition Yes client, server

JavaScript edit

Project Ajax MVC framework MVC push-pull i18n & L10n? ORM Testing framework(s) DB migration framework(s) Security framework(s) Template framework(s) Caching framework(s) Form validation framework(s)
AngularJS XHR, JSONP Yes i18n and l10n Karma (unit testing), Protractor (end-to-end testing) Content Security Policy (CSP), XSRF Templates Caching Form validation (client-side)
EmberJS Yes Yes Yes Ember Data QUnit Handlebars
qooxdoo Yes Data binding i18n Testrunner Form Validation
SproutCore Yes Yes
Wakanda Yes Yes Push & Pull Native Object NoSQL DB CommonJS Unit Testing YUI Test Service Data Security and Access Control Storage (application.storage, user.storage, SessionStorage)

Perl edit

Project Ajax MVC framework MVC push-pull i18n & L10n? ORM Testing framework(s) DB migration framework(s) Security framework(s) Template framework(s) Caching framework(s) Form validation framework(s)
Catalyst Toolkit-independent (REST & JSON support, specific plugins for Prototype JavaScript Framework, more) Yes Push in its most common usage Yes DBIx::Class, Rose::DB::Object, more Supports Perl testing standards, Test Anything Protocol (TAP) ? ACL-based, external engines, more Template::Toolkit, HTML::Template, HTML::Mason, PHP and any extant Perl template engine Cache, Memcached, shared memory, more HTML::FormHandler HTML::FormFu, HTML::FormValidator, more
Dancer Yes Yes Push Yes DBIx::Class, ORMesque Yes ? ? Template::Toolkit, HTML::Mason, Text::MicroTemplate, any extant Perl template engine Cache, Memcached, shared memory, more DataFu, any extant Perl form validation software
Maypole ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Mojolicious Toolkit-independent (REST & JSON support) No explicit model support though commonly used as MVC Push Yes Commonly used with DBIx::Class Test::Mojo ? Signed session cookie Built-in Perl templating, Template::Toolkit and several others via plugins ? Not explicitly, use any Perl Modules

PHP edit

Project Language Ajax MVC framework MVC push-pull i18n & L10n? ORM Testing framework(s) DB migration framework(s) Security framework(s) Template framework(s) Caching framework(s) Form validation framework(s) Scaffolding RAD Mobility
CakePHP PHP >= 7.2[73] Any Yes Yes, Push & Cells Yes ORM, Data Mapper Pattern, SQL Relational Algebra Abstraction Layer Unit tests, object mocking, fixtures, code coverage, memory analysis with PHPUnit and Xdebug and Continuous Integration via Travis Yes CRUD based, ACL-based, Multiple Plugins Themes, Layouts, Cells, Views, Elements, Plugins for Twig, Bootstrap, etc. Memcache, Redis, XCache, APC, File Validation via Contexts (Table (DAO), Entity (VO) & Controller), CSRF Protection Plugin CRUD Cake Bake Mobile Agent Detection, Layouts
CodeIgniter PHP >= 7.2[74] (ver 4 and up) or PHP >= 5.6.0[75] (until ver 3.1.11) Any Yes Push Mostly[76] Third party only Ready for next release, Unit tests for v.4 and up Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No[77] Yes Templates
Fat-Free Framework PHP >= 5.4[78] Any MVC, RMR Push-pull Yes Data mappers for SQL, MongoDB, Flat-File Built-in Yes Yes Yes APC, Memcache, XCache, WinCache, and Filesystem Yes No ? ?
FuelPHP PHP >= 5.3.3[79] Yes MVC, HMVC Push Yes Yes PHPUnit Yes Yes, Plugins available Yes, Plugins available File, Redis, Memcache, more Yes Yes ? ?
Gyroscope PHP >= 5.4 nano.js, replaceable[80] LCHH Push-pull Mostly Data-source agnostic No Built-in Schema comparison tool and UDF editor ACL-based, replaceable Implementation-specific; helper functions and theme templates available APC, Memcache Yes Interactive code generator Yes Dedicated mobile and tablet layouts, landscape-portrait transformation
Kajona PHP >= 7[81] Any Yes Push Yes Yes PHPUnit, Selenium, Jasmine Yes Yes Yes APC, Database, File Yes Yes Yes Bootstrap
Laminas (formerly Zend Framework) PHP >= 7.3[82] Toolkit-independent Yes Push-pull Yes Table and row data gateway or Doctrine Unit tests, PHP Unit or other independent Yes ACL-based Yes APC, Database, File, Memcache, Zend Platform Yes Yes ? ?
Laravel PHP >= 8.0[83] Any Yes Push Yes Eloquent PHPUnit Yes Yes Yes APC, Database, File, Memcache, Redis Yes Yes Yes Yes
Li3 (Lithium) PHP >= 5.3.6 Any Yes Push Yes Yes Unit tests, builtin test framework or other independent No Yes, Plugins available PHP, Twig Plugin available Memcache, Redis, XCache, APC, File Yes, with CSRF Protection and Form Signing No Yes ?
Nette Framework PHP >= 5.6.0[84] Toolkit-independent MVP Push Yes Third party only Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes No ? ?
Phalcon PHP >= 7.4[85] Any Yes Push Yes Yes Codeception PHPUnit Yes Yes Volt Yes Yes Yes Yes ?
Pop PHP PHP >= 8.1 Any Yes Push Yes Yes PHPUnit with CI via GitHub Actions Yes ACL-based Yes APC, Database, File, Memcache, Redis, Session Yes Yes Yes ?
PRADO PHP >= 7.3[86] Prototype, script.aculo.us, own components[87] No Push-pull Yes Data access objects (DAO), active record pattern, SQLMap data mapper PHPUnit, SimpleTest, Selenium No Yes XML-based, similar to ASP.NETs[87] APC, Database, eAccelerator, Memcached, XCache Yes[87] Yes[87] ? ?
SilverStripe (Sapphire) PHP >= 7.1[88] jQuery, jQuery UI Yes Push-pull Yes Active record pattern Unit tests, Selenium Automatic incl. OpenID Themes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Silex PHP >= 5.3.9 Yes Yes Yes Yes Plugin exists (Doctrine) Yes No Yes PHP, Twig Plugin exists Yes Plugin exists ? ?
Smart.Framework PHP >= 7.3[89] Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes (PostgreSQL, MySQL, SQLite, MongoDB, Solr, others via plugins) Yes No Yes Yes (Markers, Twig, others via plugins) Yes (File, Redis, others via plugins) Yes No Yes Yes, (jQuery mobile, Bootstrap, others via plugins)
Symfony PHP >= 8.1[90] Prototype, script.aculo.us, Unobtrusive Ajax with UJS and PJS plugins Yes Push Yes Propel, Doctrine (YAML) Yes Plugin exists (alpha code) Plugin PHP, Twig Yes Yes Yes ? ?
TYPO3 PHP >= 7.2[91] Any Yes Push-pull Yes Yes Yes Partial Yes TYPO3 Fluid Yes Yes Plugin exists Plugin exists ?
Yii PHP >= 5.4[92] jQuery, jQuery UI, own components, plugins Yes Push-pull Yes Data Access Objects (DAO), Active Record Pattern, Plugins (incl. Doctrine 2.0) PHPUnit, Selenium Yes ACL-based, RBAC-based, plugins PHP-based, PRADO-like, plugins APC, Database, eAccelerator, File, Memcache, Redis, WinCache, XCache, Zend Platform Yes Yes[93] ? ?

Python edit

Project Language Ajax MVC framework MVC push-pull i18n & L10n? ORM Testing framework(s) DB migration framework(s) Security framework(s) Template framework(s) Caching framework(s) Form validation framework(s) Python 3.*
CherryPy Python - - _ - pluggable - - - pluggable - - Yes
Django Python Yes Yes Push Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes built-in, Jinja2, Mako, Cheetah Yes Yes Yes
FastAPI Python Yes - - - ORM-agnostic via pytest depends on ORM Yes Jinja2 - Yes Yes
Flask Python Yes - - Yes ORM-agnostic via unittest depends on ORM Yes Jinja2 Yes Yes Yes
Jam.py Python, JavaScript Yes Event driven Yes Yes Yes via pytest and mocha Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Pyjs Python, JavaScript Yes Use PureMVC Python version (compiled to JavaScript) Yes ??, no direct data access No No
Pylons Python helpers for Prototype and script.aculo.us controller Push Yes ORM-agnostic via nose depends on ORM pluggable: Mako, Genshi, Myghty, Kid, more native: pluggable: Redis, Beaker (memory, memcached, file, databases) preferred formencode No
Pyramid Python Yes Yes Push Yes ORM-agnostic Yes depends on ORM Yes pluggable: Jinja2, Chameleon, Mako, Genshi, more default: native session factory. pluggable: Redis, PyNaCl, Beaker (memory, memcached, file, databases), more deform, formencode, WTForms, more Yes
TACTIC Python Yes Yes Pull No Yes Yes Yes Yes Mako No Yes No
Tornado Python See Advanced Async Example implements AJAX - - - - - - - - - - Yes
TurboGears Python Toolkit-independent, provides support via JSON Full stack, best-of-breed based Push Yes SQLAlchemy nose SQLAlchemy-Migrate Repoze.what & Repoze.who pluggable: Genshi, more Support for memcached, and any WSGI compliant system ToscaWidgets, utilizing FormEncode Yes
web2py Python Yes Yes Push Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes[94]
BlueBream (Zope 3) Python via add-on products, e.g. Plone w/KSS Yes Pull Yes ZODB, SQLObject, SQLAlchemy Unit tests, functional tests ZODB generations ACL-based Yes Yes Yes No
Zope 2 Python Yes Pull Yes ZODB, SQLObject, SQLAlchemy Unit tests ACL-based Yes Yes CMFFormController No

Ruby edit

Project Ajax MVC framework MVC push-pull i18n & L10n? ORM Testing framework(s) DB migration framework(s) Security framework(s) Template framework(s) Caching framework(s) Form validation framework(s)
Ruby on Rails Prototype, script.aculo.us, jQuery ActiveRecord, Action Pack Push Yes ActiveRecord Unit Tests, Functional Tests and Integration Tests Yes Plug-in Yes Yes Yes
Sinatra No Yes Push No ORM-independent rack-test Yes through a Rack middleware Yes through a Rack middleware No

Others edit

Project Language Ajax MVC framework MVC push-pull i18n & L10n? ORM Testing framework(s) DB migration framework(s) Security framework(s) Template framework(s) Caching framework(s) Form validation framework(s)
AIDA/Web Smalltalk Yes Yes Yes Gemstone/S, GLORP, more SUnit Yes Yes
Application Express PL/SQL Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Flex ActionScript, MXML Not by name but similar technology[95] FlexUnit
Lift Scala Yes Yes Pull Yes Yes ScalaTest, Selenium[96] Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Opa Opa Yes Yes MongoDB Yes Yes Yes
OpenACS Tcl Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Seaside Smalltalk jQuery, jQuery UI, Prototype JavaScript Framework, script.aculo.us, more Yes Yes GLORP, Gemstone/S, more Unit tests, SUnit No, intentionally Magritte
Project Language Ajax MVC framework MVC push-pull i18n & L10n? ORM Testing framework(s) DB migration framework(s) Security framework(s) Template framework(s) Caching framework(s) Form validation framework(s)

See also edit

References edit

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