COBRA (backronym for COmmando Battalion for Resolute Action) is a special operation unit of the Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF) of India proficient in guerrilla tactics and jungle warfare. Originally established to counter the Naxalite movement, CoBRA is deployed to address insurgent groups engaging in asymmetrical warfare. Numbering ten battalions as of 2011, CoBRA is considered to be one of the most experienced and successful law enforcement units in the country.
|Commando Battalion for Resolute Action (CoBRA)|
|Motto||"Saṃgrāmeṃ parākramī jyī"|
"Victory for gallant in war"
|Formed||12 September, 2008|
|Primary governing body||Central Reserve Police Force|
|Secondary governing body||Ministry of Home Affairs (India)|
|Headquarters||Directorate General, Central Reserve Police Force, New Delhi|
|Parent agency||Central Reserve Police Force|
In 2009, the MHA approved the raising of 10 CoBRA (Commando Battalion for Resolute Action) to meet the challenges posed by the Naxal rebels. The unit was initially raised to counter the Naxal insurgents in the Red Corridor. The regiment initially started off with 2 battalions, in 2009, followed by the raising of another 8 battalions in 2 years.
CoBRA Battalions are trained to conduct operations against insurgents in all manners of rugged terrain. The highly efficient personnel are chosen from the CRPF and are conditioned with rigorous physical endurance, and taught the planning and execution of operations, GPS and map reading, gathering of intelligence, and Fast-Roping amongst other activities. The highly efficient personnel are trained and specialized in various fields including but not limited to guerrilla warfare, explosive tracking and bomb disposal, field engineering, survival, and jungle warfare.
Special intelligence courses have been conducted by premier intelligence agencies to train troops in intelligence gathering. To maintain the uniformity of standards and the evolution of a unique ethos as well as training of troops. A dedicated CoBRA school of jungle warfare & tactics is in the works.
The founder of CoBRA, DIG K.V. Madhusudhanan, spoke about the CoBRA's unit's rules of engagement in an interview. "The Maoist menace is a grievance-driven movement and ideology-driven insurgency. Hence, CoBRA would require new tactical doctrines, skills and resources. While the Maoist struggle is total—no time limit or fixed geographical target—CoBRA had to operate under limitations of law. There were no drawn lines of conflict, and CoBRA had to account for every person apprehended, injured or killed. The extremists have no such liabilities."
Since its inception, the unit has been successful in the taking down of 61 Naxals, and the apprehension of 886 more. They have also recovered vast amounts of ammunition dumps, along with arms and explosives. The CoBRA personnel's efforts have also been acknowledged with more than 200 commendation disc(s) from the DG CRPF. The valour and gallant actions of CoBRA has been recognised and the unit has been decorated with multiple Gallantry medals including -
- 1 Kirti Chakra
- 8 Shaurya Chakra
- 6 PPMG
- 250 PMG
- 189 Parakram Padak
- 6 Jeevan Raksha Padak
- 13578 Antarik Suraksha Padak
- 3339 DG Commendation Disc
1986 was the year when No. 88 Mahila Battalion, CRPF was raised, earning the distinction of being the first all-women battalion in the world. In 2021, 34 personnel from the hallowed ranks of the CRPF, to form an all-women CoBRA battalion.
|201 CoBRA Battalion||Karanpur|
|202 CoBRA Battalion||Sunabeda, Koraput, Odisha|
|203 CoBRA Battalion||Changsari, Assam|
|204 CoBRA Battalion||Masgaon, Chhattisgarh|
|205 CoBRA Battalion||Barwadih, Bihar|
|206 CoBRA Battalion||Chintapur, Maharashtra|
|207 CoBRA Battalion||Tyangrasol, West Bengal|
|208 CoBRA Battalion||Balaghat, Madhya Pradesh|
|209 CoBRA Battalion||RANCHI, Jharkhand|
|210 CoBRA Battalion||Dalgaon, Assam|
|88 Mahila Battalion|
Firearms and equipment edit
Small arms edit
- INSAS rifle
- FN FAL
- Excalibur assault rifle
- AKM assault rifle
- X-95 assault rifle
- 9mm 1A Auto Pistol
- Glock pistol
- Heckler & Koch MP5 submachine gun
- Carl Gustav recoilless rifle
- Dragunov SVD sniper rifle
- Steyr SSG 69
- Heckler & Koch MSG-90 sniper rifle.
- 40×46mm Multi Grenade Launcher System (MGL)
Some weapon like long-range sniper rifles are imported from overseas
CoBRA's are trained in the CRPF jungle warfare institutions in Belgaum and Koraput. Their training regime and duration is along the lines of other commando forces of the country such as the National Security Guard. They are trained to adapt themselves in the art of camouflage and jungle warfare with the main focus being on guerilla and jungle warfare . All personnel are trained for helicopter borne insertion and drops. Refresher courses are conducted annually and bi-annually to ensure that the unit and its personnel function as a well-oiled machine without any hijinks. Their role is to carry out reconnaissance and long range patrols, gather intelligence on the whereabouts of the insurgents, and also carry out ambushes and precision strikes when required.
After three months of training in Belgaum or Koraput, CoBRA members are deployed to their respective units to counter-Naxal activities.
Major operations edit
- On 05-6 March 2018 an operation "चक्रव्यूह" was conducted in Vill-Akbaitanr, U/PS-Dumari, Distt-Giridih (Jharkhand) by "Alpha coy" of 203 Cobra Battalion in which 03 hardcore and 35 lakhs rewardee Maoists and 12 Dasta Members were apprehended along with recovery of a huge cache of arms and ammunition. It was one of the historical operations in the history of Indian Paramilitary forces as the Cobra Commandos captured all those hardcore Maoists without firing a single bullet. Team Alfa of 203 cobra recovered 15 weapons with much ammunition, IEDs, Maoist literature, laptops and mobiles etc.
- On 17 September 2009 an operation was conducted in Singamdgu Dantewada district in which approximately 30–40 Maoists were reported to be killed.
- On 9 January 2010 under PS Jagargunda in district. Dantewada, 4 Maoists were killed and 112 Bore Gun with 4 cartridges, 3 muzzle-loading guns, 2 Tiffin Bomb, 1 improvised explosive device, Drum and Maoists literature with photographs were recovered.
- Ops Jaws carried out by 08 teams of 203 CoBRA from 11 TO 15 June in area of PS Sonua & Bandgaon District.- W/ Singhbhum, Jharkhand in which a Maoists camp was destroyed and reportedly 12 Maoists cadres were killed.
- During an operation launched in Duli forest area in W/Midnapur district (West Bengal) on 15–16 June 2010, 8 Maoists cadres were killed and a huge cache of arms and ammunitions was recovered.
- During an operation launched in Kayma forest area in W/Midnapur District. (WB) from 25–26 July 2010, 6 Maoists cadres were killed and a huge cache of arms and ammunitions were recovered.
- In operation launched in Saranda forest area in District. – W/Singhbhum, Jharkhand from 24–28 September 2010 Cobra teams were able to penetrate deep in forest and kill one Maoist, apprehend 4 Maoists cadres, bust 12 Maoist camps and recover of arms, ammunitions and explosives.
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- "The Telegraph - Calcutta (Kolkata) - Frontpage - COBRA on way to fight Naxalites in Jharkhand". Archived from the original on 8 September 2008. Retrieved 27 March 2015.
- "About Sector | CoBRA Sector | Central Reserve Police Force, Government of India". crpf.gov.in. Retrieved 5 April 2022.
- Dholabhai, Nishit (7 September 2008) "COBRA on way to fight Naxalites in Jharkhand" The Telegraph, retrieved 19 June 2009
- Indian COBRA Troops to Take on Maoist Insurgents[dead link] Defence News
- Mund, Prasenjit; Mandal Caesar (19 June 2009). "Shadow warriors:Guerrillas wary of Cobra strike". The Times of India. Kolkata: 2.
- "CRPF Maintaining Peace in Nation". Retrieved 27 March 2015.
- "Cobra forces are burdened by law, naxals are not". The Week. Retrieved 24 April 2021.
- Times of India (6 October 2012)"All-out war against PLFI before puja"
- "Expenditure Profile - 2022-23, Ministry of Finance, Budget Division" (PDF). Ministry of Home Affairs (India). February 2022.
- "Indian Ordnance Factories: Weapons". Retrieved 27 March 2015.
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- "Press Information Bureau English Releases". Retrieved 27 March 2015.
- Media related to Commando Battalion for Resolute Action at Wikimedia Commons