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COBRA (backronym for COmmando Battalion for Resolute Action) is a special operation unit of the Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF) of India proficient in guerrilla tactics and jungle warfare. Originally established to counter the Naxalite problem, CoBRA is deployed to address insurgent groups engaging in asymmetrical warfare. Currently[when?] numbering ten battalions, CoBRA is ranked as one of India's most experienced and successful law enforcement units.
|Commando Battalion for Resolute Action (CoBRA)|
|Motto||"Saṃgrāmeṃ parākramī jyī"|
"Victory for gallant in war"
|Formed||12 September, 2008|
|Primary governing body||Central Reserve Police Force|
|Secondary governing body||Ministry of Home Affairs (India)|
|Headquarters||Directorate General, Central Reserve Police Force, New Delhi|
|Parent agency||Central Reserve Police Force|
In 2009, the MHA has approved raising of 10 CoBRA (Commando Battalion for Resolute Action) to meet the challenges being posed by naxalites. It was created with the view of attacking on naxalite insurgents within their camps.
Accordingly, in phased manner the CoBRA battalions were raised – 02 Bn in 2008–09, 04 Bn in 2009–10, 04 Bn in 2010–11.
CoBRA Battalions are trained to adapt in multi tasking skills operations in extreme terrain. CoBRA personnel are trained in guerrilla warfare, field engineering, tracking of explosives, jungle survival techniques along with ops tactics to fight insurgents. Specialized training programme includes jungle warfare, Ops planning and execution, physical endurance, map reading and GPS, intelligence, heli-slithering.
Special intelligence courses have been conducted by premier intelligence agencies to train troops in intelligence gathering. To maintain uniformity of standards and evolution of a unique CoBRA ethos as well as training of troops, a dedicated CoBRA school of jungle warfare & tactics is under active consideration.
Founder DIG of CoBRA, K.V. Madhusudhanan, spoke about the CoBRA's unit's rules of engagement in an interview. "The Maoist menace is a grievance-driven movement and ideology-driven insurgency. Hence, CoBRA would require new tactical doctrines, skills and resources. While the Maoist struggle is total—no time limit or fixed geographical target—CoBRA had to operate under limitations of law. There were no drawn lines of conflict, and CoBRA had to account for every person apprehended, injured or killed. The extremists have no such liabilities."
CoBRA Bn, true to its training and competence have killed 61 naxals and apprehended 866 suspects as well as recovered huge amount of arms, ammunition and explosives till 2011. The CoBRA personnel's efforts have also been acknowledged with 200 plus DG commendation discs. The valour and gallant actions of CoBRA have been recognised and the personnel have been decorated with 09 Gallantry medals including two Shaurya Chakra. CoBRA Commando Ashish Kumar Tiwari was awarded Shaurya Chakra for single-handedly pinning down a squad of Maoists which resulted in the killing of a top naxal leader and Asst Commandant RV Mishra for taking down a group of 32 Maoists in Jharkhand in a clandestine operation with a team of only 8 and killing 5 Maoist even after a mine shredded his leg while trying to save a fellow member.
In March 2021, first 88 Mahila (Women) Battalion was formed consisting primarily of women.
The Indian government established 10 units for CoBRA since 2008.
|201 CoBRA Battalion||Karanpur|
|202 CoBRA Battalion||Sunabeda, Koraput, Odisha|
|203 CoBRA Battalion||Changsari, Assam|
|204 CoBRA Battalion||Masgaon, Chhattisgarh|
|205 CoBRA Battalion||Barwadih, Bihar|
|206 CoBRA Battalion||Chintapur, Maharashtra|
|207 CoBRA Battalion||Tyangrasol, West Bengal|
|208 CoBRA Battalion||Balaghat, Madhya Pradesh|
|209 CoBRA Battalion||RANCHI, Jharkhand|
|210 CoBRA Battalion||Dalgaon, Assam|
|88 Mahila Battalion|
Firearms and equipmentEdit
- INSAS rifle
- FN FAL
- Excalibur assault rifle
- AKM assault rifle
- X-95 assault rifle
- 9mm 1A Auto Pistol
- Glock pistol
- Heckler & Koch MP5 submachine gun
- Carl Gustav recoilless rifle.
- Dragunov SVD sniper rifle
- 84mm CGRL
- Steyr SSG 69
- Heckler & Koch MSG-90 sniper rifle.
- 40×46 mm MULTI GRANED LAUNCHER SYSTEM (MGL)
Some weapon like sniper guns are imported from other countries.
Cobras are trained in the CRPF jungle warfare institutions in Belgaum and Koraput. Their training regime and duration is similar to that of lines of NSG Commandos. They are trained to adapt the art of camouflage and jungle warfare with main focus on jungle warfare . All the personnel are trained for heli borne insertion and drops. Regular refreshing training is carried out of the commandos to check their physical and firing skills matching the standard. Their role is to carry out reconnaissance and long range patrols, gather intelligence on the whereabouts of the insurgents, and also carry out ambushes and precision strikes when required. Their sniper teams can also be used to headshot key targets.
After three months of training in Belgaum or Koraput, CoBRA members are deployed to their respective units to counter-Naxal activities.
- On 05-06 March 2018 an operation "चक्रव्यूह" was conducted in Vill-Akbaitanr, U/PS-Dumari, Distt-Giridih (Jharkhand) by "Alfa coy" of 203 Cobra Battalion in which 03 hardcore and 35 lakhs rewardee Maoists and 12 Dasta Members were apprehended along with recovery of a huge cache of arms and ammunition. It was one of the historical operations in the history of Indian Paramilitary forces as the Cobra Commandos captured all those hardcore Maoists without firing a single bullet. Team Alfa of 203 cobra recovered 15 weapons with much ammunition, IEDs, Maoist literature, laptops and mobiles etc.
- On 17 September 2009 an operation was conducted in Singamdgu Dantewada district in which approximately 30–40 Maoists were reported to be killed.
- On 9 January 2010 under PS Jagargunda in district. Dantewada, 4 Maoists were killed and 112 Bore Gun with 4 cartridges, 3 muzzle-loading guns, 2 Tiffin Bomb, 1 improvised explosive device, Drum and Maoists literature with photographs were recovered.
- Ops Jaws carried out by 08 teams of 203 CoBRA from 11 TO 15 June in area of PS Sonua & Bandgaon District.- W/ Singhbhum, Jharkhand in which a Maoists camp was destroyed and reportedly 12 Maoists cadres were killed.
- During an operation launched in Duli forest area in W/Midnapur district (West Bengal) on 15–16 June 2010, 8 Maoists cadres were killed and a huge cache of arms and ammunitions was recovered.
- During an operation launched in Kayma forest area in W/Midnapur District. (WB) from 25–26 July 2010, 6 Maoists cadres were killed and a huge cache of arms and ammunitions were recovered.
- In operation launched in Saranda forest area in District. – W/Singhbhum, Jharkhand from 24–28 September 2010 Cobra teams were able to penetrate deep in forest and kill one Maoist, apprehend 4 Maoists cadres, bust 12 Maoist camps and recover of arms, ammunitions and explosives.
- "CRPF - CENTRAL RESERVE POLICE FORCE, GOVT. OF INDIA". Archived from the original on 15 May 2015. Retrieved 27 March 2015.
- "The Telegraph - Calcutta (Kolkata) - Frontpage - COBRA on way to fight Naxalites in Jharkhand". Retrieved 27 March 2015.
- "About Sector | CoBRA Sector | Central Reserve Police Force, Government of India". crpf.gov.in. Retrieved 5 April 2022.
- Dholabhai, Nishit (7 September 2008) "COBRA on way to fight Naxalites in Jharkhand" The Telegraph, retrieved 19 June 2009
- Indian COBRA Troops to Take on Maoist Insurgents[dead link] Defence News
- Mund, Prasenjit; Mandal Caesar (19 June 2009). "Shadow warriors:Guerrillas wary of Cobra strike". The Times of India. Kolkata: 2.
- "CRPF Maintaining Peace in Nation". Retrieved 27 March 2015.
- "Cobra forces are burdened by law, naxals are not". The Week. Retrieved 24 April 2021.
- "First women team inducted into CRPF's CoBRA commando unit". The Economic Times. Retrieved 5 April 2022.
- Times of India (6 October 2012)"All-out war against PLFI before puja"
- "Indian Ordnance Factories: Weapons". Retrieved 27 March 2015.
- "Indian Ordnance Factories: OFB in Brief". Retrieved 27 March 2015.
- "Press Information Bureau English Releases". Retrieved 27 March 2015.
- Media related to Commando Battalion for Resolute Action at Wikimedia Commons