Circuit intendant of Shanghai

The circuit intendant[1] or daotai[2] of Shanghai, also formerly romanized as taotai or tao tai, was an imperial Chinese official who oversaw the circuit of Shanghai, then part of Jiangsu Province, in the Qing Empire. He oversaw the area's courts, law enforcement, civic defense, canals, and customs collection. As well as areas within modern Shanghai, his remit also included Qidong in present-day Jiangsu.

Circuit intendant of Shanghai
Traditional Chinese上海道臺
Simplified Chinese上海道台

The position was only compensated at the 4a level[clarify] () but, in addition to other sources of income, it was seen as a springboard to higher office within the empire.

HistoryEdit

The original seat of the circuit was at Taicang. It was moved to Shanghai in the 18th century. The first foreign settlement in Shanghai, the British Concession, was established by the Land Regulations (土地章程) undertaken on the initiative of the intendant Gong Mujiu.[3] His was the one who signed it on behalf of the Qing government on 29 November 1845. Lin Gui approved the British consul Rutherford Alcock's proposal to extend the British boundary west from Barrier Road (, today's Henan Rd.)[4] to Thibet Road (泥城, now Xizang Rd.)[5] on 27 November 1848. On 6 April 1849, he signed the agreement with Charles de Montigny formalizing and delineating the city's French Concession.[6] An intendant was also involved with the establishment of the Shanghai International Settlement upon the merging of the British and American settlements in 1863.[7]

The intendant was forced to flee the Small Sword Society in 1853 amid the chaos surrounding the Taiping Rebellion.[8]

The intendants of the 1870s and '80s resisted French plans to expand their concession southwest, particularly the construction of a road through Shanghai's Ningbo Cemetery to connect the French Concession with Xujiahui (then "Siccawei"). One of the intendants in the 1890s finally yielded upon an agreement by the French to pay the duly assessed value of the land condemned, but the demolition of the cemetery walls in July 1898 prompted riots which killed twelve and the landing of French troops to protect the construction workers.[9]

ListEdit

Installed Name Origin Notes
1730 Xu Yongyou 徐永佑
1731 Wang Chenghui 王澄慧 Henan
1735 Li Shan 礼山 Manchu army
1735 Cui Lin 崔琳 Shanxi
1736 Weng Zao 翁藻 Zhejiang
1740 Li Shijie 李士杰 Hubei Acting
1740 Weng Zao 翁藻 Zhejiang
1740 Wang Yunming 王云铭 Shandong
1743 Wang Dexin 汪德馨 Henan
1745 Tuo Enduo 托恩多 Manchu
1747 Fu Chun 傅椿 Manchu
1748 Tao Shihuang 陶士偟 Hunan
1748 Zhu Lin 朱霖 Manchu army Acting
1749 Guang An 广安 Manchu
1843 Gong Mujiu 宫慕久 Dongping in Shandong
March 1847 Xian Ling 咸龄
April 1848 Wu Jianzhang 吴健彰 Xiangshan in Guangdong Acting
1848 Lin Gui 麟桂 Manchu
August 1851 Wu Jianzhang 吴健彰 Xiangshan in Guangdong Acting
August 1854 Lan Weiwen 蓝蔚雯 Acting
October 1857 Xue Huan 薛焕
1858 Wu Xu 吴煦
1862 Huang Fang 黄芳 Acting
July 1864 Ding Richang 丁日昌
September 1865 Ying Baoshi 应宝时
1869 Tu Zongying 涂宗瀛
1872 Shen Bingcheng 沈秉成
1875 Fen Junguang 冯焌光
May 1877 Liu Ruifen 刘瑞芬
April 1882 Shao Youlian 邵友濂
October 1896 Lü Haihuan 吕海寰
July 1897 Cai Jun 蔡钧
April 1899 Li Guangjiu 李光久
1899 Yu Lianyuan 余联沅
1901 Yuan Shuxun 袁树勋 Transferred
1906 Rui Cheng 瑞澂 Itinerant

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

CitationsEdit

  1. ^ Murakami, Ei (December 2013), "A Comparison of the End of the Canton and Nagasaki Trade Control Systems", Itinerario, 37, Leiden: Leiden University, pp. 39–48.
  2. ^ Fox, Josephine (Autumn 2000), "Common Sense in Shanghai: The Shanghai General Chamber of Commerce and Political Legitimacy in Republican China", History Workshop Journal, No. 50, pp. 22–44.
  3. ^ Cassel, Pär (2003), "Excavating Extraterritoriality: The "Judicial Sub-Prefect" as a Prototype for the Mixed Court in Shanghai", Late Imperial China, 24, pp. 156–182.
  4. ^ French (2010), p. 63.
  5. ^ French (2010), p. 165.
  6. ^ French (2010), p. 215.
  7. ^ French (2010), p. 49.
  8. ^ Hamashita, Takeshi (2002), "Tribute and Treaties: East Asian Treaty Ports Networks in the Era of Negotiation, 1834–1894", European Journal of East Asian Studies, 1, pp. 59–87.
  9. ^ French (2010), pp. 52–3.

BibliographyEdit