Chlorophyllum molybdites

Chlorophyllum molybdites, commonly known as the green-spored parasol,[1] false parasol, green-spored lepiota and vomiter, is a widespread mushroom. Poisonous and producing severe gastrointestinal symptoms of vomiting and diarrhea, it is commonly confused with the shaggy parasol (Chlorophyllum rhacodes) or shaggy mane (Coprinus comatus), and is the most commonly misidentified poisonous mushroom in North America.[2] Its large size and similarity to the edible parasol mushroom (Macrolepiota procera), as well as its habit of growing in areas near human habitation, are reasons cited for this. The nature of the poisoning is predominantly gastrointestinal.

Green-spored parasol
Chlorophyllum molybdites
Picture of the fungi
Scientific classification Edit this classification
Domain: Eukaryota
Kingdom: Fungi
Division: Basidiomycota
Class: Agaricomycetes
Order: Agaricales
Family: Agaricaceae
Genus: Chlorophyllum
Species:
C. molybdites
Binomial name
Chlorophyllum molybdites
(G. Mey.) Massee (1898)
Synonyms

Agaricus molybdites
Lepiota molybdites
Leucocoprinus molybdites
Macrolepiota molybdites
Lepiota morgani

Chlorophyllum molybdites
View the Mycomorphbox template that generates the following list
Gills on hymenium
Cap is flat
Hymenium is free
Stipe has a ring
Spore print is green
Ecology is saprotrophic
Edibility is poisonous

Description

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It is an imposing mushroom with a pileus (cap) ranging from 8 to 30 cm (3.1 to 12 in) in diameter, hemispherical and with a flattened top. The cap is whitish in colour with coarse brownish scales. The gills are free and white, usually turning dark and green with maturity. It has a rare green spore print.[3] The stipe ranges from 5 to 30 cm (2.0 to 12 in) tall and bears a double-edged ring.[3] Its stem lacks the snakeskin pattern that is generally present on the parasol mushroom.[4] Flesh thick, firm at first, soft with age, white, unchanging or sporadically becoming reddish-brown to pale reddish-pink, almost orange in the base of the foot when cut or crushed.

Distribution and habitat

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Chlorophyllum molybdites grows in lawns and parks across eastern North America and California, as well as temperate and subtropical regions around the world.[5] Fruiting bodies generally appear after summer and autumn rains. It appears to have spread to other countries, with reports from Scotland, Australia, and Cyprus.[6]

Toxicity

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Chlorophyllum molybdites is the most frequently eaten poisonous mushroom in North America.[2] The symptoms are predominantly gastrointestinal in nature, with vomiting, diarrhea and colic, often severe, occurring 1–3 hours after consumption.[5] Although these poisonings can be severe, particularly in children,[3] none have yet resulted in death.[7]

Professor James Kimbrough writes:

Chlorophyllum molybdites, the green-spored Morgan's Lepiota, is responsible for the greatest number of cases of mushroom poisonings in North America, and in Florida. This is probably due to the fact that it is easily confused with choice edible species such as Lepiota procera and L. rhacodes, and it is one of the most common mushrooms found on lawns and pastures throughout the country, with the exception of the Pacific Northwest. When eaten raw C. molybdites produce severe symptoms, including bloody stools, within a couple of hours. When cooked well, or parboiled and decanting the liquid before cooking, others eat and enjoy it. Eilers and Nelso (1974) found a heat-labile, high molecular weight protein which showed an adverse effect when given by intraperitoneal injection into laboratory animals.[8]

Cases of poisoning from these mushrooms are also reported in Malaysia, where they are often mistaken for Termitomyces mushrooms that are found locally.[9]

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References

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  1. ^ Arora, David (1986). Mushrooms demystified: a comprehensive guide to the fleshy fungi (Second ed.). Berkeley: Ten Speed Press. ISBN 978-0-89815-169-5.
  2. ^ a b Beug, Michael W. An Overview of Mushroom Poisonings in North America. Archived 2010-05-20 at the Wayback Machine The Mycophile, vol. 45(2):4-5, March/April 2004
  3. ^ a b c Davis, R. Michael; Sommer, Robert; Menge, John A. (2012). Field Guide to Mushrooms of Western North America. Berkeley: University of California Press. p. 85. ISBN 978-0-520-95360-4. OCLC 797915861.
  4. ^ "How to not pass up a parasol and how not to". Archived from the original on 14 December 2017. Retrieved 24 May 2010.
  5. ^ a b Benjamin, Denis R. (1995). "Gastrointestinal syndrome". Mushrooms: poisons and panaceas — a handbook for naturalists, mycologists and physicians. New York: WH Freeman and Company. pp. 351–377. ISBN 0-7167-2600-9.
  6. ^ Loizides M, Kyriakou T, Tziakouris A. (2011). Edible & Toxic Fungi of Cyprus (in Greek and English). Published by the authors. pp. 132–33. ISBN 978-9963-7380-0-7.
  7. ^ "Chlorophyllum molybdites". Urban Mushrooms.
  8. ^ Common Florida Mushrooms, p. 325.
  9. ^ Phan Chia Wei (17 December 2018). "Preventing fatal harvest of mushrooms". Asia Research News. Retrieved 14 July 2023.
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