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Chinatown in Vancouver, British Columbia, is Canada's largest Chinatown. Centred on Pender Street, it is surrounded by Gastown and the Downtown financial and central business districts to the west, the Downtown Eastside to the north, the remnant of old Japantown to the northeast, and the residential neighbourhood of Strathcona to the east.

Chinatown
Millennium Gate on Pender Street in Chinatown
Millennium Gate on Pender Street in Chinatown
Coordinates: 49°16′48″N 123°5′58″W / 49.28000°N 123.09944°W / 49.28000; -123.09944Coordinates: 49°16′48″N 123°5′58″W / 49.28000°N 123.09944°W / 49.28000; -123.09944
Country Canada
Province British Columbia
City Vancouver
Time zoneUTC−8 (Pacific)
 • Summer (DST)UTC−7 (PDT)
Area Codes604, 778, 236
Chinatown, Vancouver
Traditional Chinese溫哥華唐人街
Simplified Chinese温哥华唐人街
Alternative Chinese name
Traditional Chinese溫哥華華埠
Simplified Chinese温哥华华埠
Designations
Official nameVancouver's Chinatown National Historic Site of Canada
Designated2011

Chinatown remains a popular tourist attraction and is one of the largest historic Chinatowns in North America. However, it experienced decline as newer members of Vancouver's Cantonese Chinese community dispersed to other parts of the metropolitan area.

Due to the large ethnic Chinese presence in Vancouver—especially represented by multi-generation Chinese Canadians and first-generation immigrants from Hong Kong—the city has been referred to as "Hongcouver".[1] However, in recent years, most immigration has been from Mainland China.

Contents

GeographyEdit

 
Selected locations in Chinatown, Vancouver 
  •  Points of interest 
  •  Parks and open spaces 

1
Millennium Gate
2
Dr. Sun Yat-Sen Classical Chinese Garden
3
Sam Kee Building
4
International Village
5
Andy Livingstone Park
6
Chinese Benevolent Association of Vancouver
7
Kuomintang Building
8
Carnegie Community Centre

The approximate borders of Chinatown as designated by the City of Vancouver are the alley between Pender and Hastings Streets, Georgia Street, Gore Avenue, and Taylor Street,[2] although unofficially the area extends well into the rest of the Downtown Eastside. Main, Pender, and Keefer Streets are the principal areas of commercial activity.

Golden VillageEdit

It has been more recently overshadowed by the newer Chinese immigrant business district along No. 3 Road in the City of Richmond, south of Vancouver. Many affluent Hong Kong and Taiwanese immigrants have moved there since the late 1980s, coinciding with the increase of Chinese ethnic retail and restaurants in that area. This new area is designated the "Golden Village" by the City of Richmond. The proposed renaming of the area to "Chinatown" met resistance both from merchants in Vancouver's Chinatown and from non-Chinese residents and merchants in Richmond itself.

HistoryEdit

Early immigration and head taxEdit

 
Chinese railway construction workers for CP Rail, 1884

Chinese immigrants, primarily men, first came to Vancouver in large numbers during the late 19th century, attracted in part by the British Columbia gold rush of 1858 and then the construction of the Canadian Pacific Railway in the 1880s.[3]:3 In the census of 1880–81, the total Chinese population in Canada was 4,383, of which the overwhelming majority (4,350) resided in British Columbia.[4]:7 By 1884, 17,000 Chinese immigrants had arrived in Canada to work on the railroad alone.[3]:3 The 1891 census counted 9,129 Chinese in Canada (8,910 in British Columbia), and the population at the 1901 census had increased to 16,792 in Canada (14,376 in British Columbia as an incomplete count).[4]:7–8 Of the estimated 16,000 Chinese immigrants in British Columbia in 1901, 2,715 lived in Victoria and another 2,011 lived in Vancouver.[4]:8

After the completion of the railroad, under the Chinese Immigration Act of 1885, a head tax of CA$50 per person was levied solely on Chinese immigrants to discourage further settlement; the head tax was raised to $100 in 1900 and then $500 in 1903.

By 1900, Chinatown covered the four square blocks bounded by Canton Alley (on the west), Hastings Street (on the north), Keefer Street (on the south), and Main Street (on the east, named Westminster Avenue at the time), with Pender Street (then called Dupont) as the main commercial district.[3]:4 In 1896, the health officer for the City of Vancouver reported the city had to destroy houses in Chinatown "owing to their filthy condition" and that "one could hardly pass through the [Chinatown] quarter without holding one's nose."[4]:14 Another health officer noted "The Chinese merchants and employers of labour endeavour to assist the health officials, and are, as a rule, willing to co-operate and help in this matter, but the lower classes of Chinese emigrants give a great deal of trouble unless constantly watched," concluding that continued immigration would lead to "circumstances and conditions which predispose to infectious disease, and serve to spread it rapidly when once it is roused into activity."[4]:19

Clan societies and 1907 riotEdit

 
Boarded storefronts on Carrall Street following September 1907 riots

As more people of Chinese heritage came to Vancouver, clan associations were formed to help the newcomers assimilate in their adopted homeland and to provide friendship and support. Clan societies were often formed around a shared surname lineage, county (e.g., Kaiping, Zhongshan), or other feature of identity.[3]:4

The Vancouver riots of September 1907 grew out of an anti-immigration rally being held by the Asiatic Exclusion League, resulting in significant damage to Chinatown businesses.[5] 2,000 Chinese immigrants were displaced from their homes, and total property damage resulting from the actions of the mob of 10,000 was estimated at $15,000.[6] One news report speculated the riot was held to intimidate a visiting Japanese delegate.[7] Another blamed the presence of American agitators.[8] Mackenzie King, then the Deputy Minister of Labour, was dispatched to investigate the riot and recommended the disbursement of $36,000 in compensation.[9][10]

The head tax was repealed via the Chinese Immigration Act of 1923, which instead abolished Chinese immigration to Canada entirely, except in limited circumstances.

Late 20th century improvementsEdit

In 1979, the Chinatown Historic Area Planning Committee sponsored a streetscape improvement program to add various Chinese-style elements to the area, such as specially paved sidewalks and red dragon streetlamps that demarcated the area's borders while emphasizing it as a destination for heritage tourism. Starting with its designation by the province as a historic area in 1971 and subsequent economic shifts,[11] Chinatown shifted from a central business district to playing a largely cultural role. Murality, a local non-profit, is installing a mural on East Pender Street with the aim of bringing colour and vitality to the neighbourhood.

The growth of Chinatown during much of the 20th century created a healthy, robust community that gradually became an aging one as many Chinese immigrants no longer lived nearby. Noticing local businesses suffering, the Chinatown Merchants Association cited the lack of parking and restrictive heritage district rules as impediments to new uses and renovations. Their concerns subsequently led to a relaxation of zoning laws to allow for a wider range of uses, including necessary demolition.[12] Additions in the mid-1990s included a large parkade, a shopping mall, and the largest Chinese restaurant in Canada. More residential projects around the community and a lowering of property taxes helped to maintain a more rounded community. Reinvigoration was a discussed topic along government members, symbolically embedded in the Millennium Gate project, which opened in 2002.[13] It can be argued that the role of the early Chinese settlers in Vancouver's Chinatown area in the late 19th and early 20th centuries helped to put Vancouver on the global map as a popular destination for Asian investment and immigration.

Recent immigrationEdit

 
Street in Chinatown

In addition to Han Chinese from Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Mainland China, Chinese Latin Americans have also settled in the Chinatown area.[citation needed] Most of them were from Peru and arrived shortly after Juan Velasco Alvarado took over that country in a military coup in 1968. Others have come from Brazil, Mexico, and Nicaragua.

Vancouver experienced large numbers of immigrants from the Asia-Pacific region in the last two decades of the twentieth century, most notably from China, whose population in the Vancouver Census Metropolitan Area was estimated at 300,000 in the mid-1990s.[14] A significant development since the 1980s has been the increase of transnational awareness among the Chinese. The heightened mobility of capital, information, people, and commodities across territorial boundaries and distance challenged the traditional meaning of migration.

Compared to Chinatown itself, more Chinese immigrants have settled in Richmond, drawn by its lower house prices, considerable concentration of Chinese retailers, and the nearby Vancouver airport. The business heart of Chinatown was visibly affected after the arrival of suburban Asian shopping districts, such as Richmond's Aberdeen Centre, which was promoted as North America's largest enclosed Asian mall, was near other Chinese shopping centres, and which offered more parking and open space than historic Chinatown.

Businesses and developmentEdit

Chinatown is becoming more prosperous as new investment and old traditional businesses flourish[citation needed]. Today the neighbourhood features many traditional restaurants, banks, markets, clinics, tea shops, clothing stores, and other shops catering to the local community and tourists alike. The Vancouver office of Sing Tao Daily, one of the city's four Chinese-language dailies, remains in Chinatown. OMNI British Columbia (formerly Channel M) had its television studio in Chinatown from 2003 to 2010. The renowned bar & nightclub known as ‘Fortune Sound Club’ is situated within the heart of Chinatown (formerly Ming’s Restaurant). As of 2019, they have grown to become one of the most popular night clubs in all of BC, rivalling off the Granville Entertainment District and bringing in world-class musicians.

Chinatown's businesses today predominantly consist of those selling lower-order, working-class goods, such as groceries, tea shops, and souvenir stores. While some businesses, such as restaurants, stand out, they are no longer the only Chinese food establishments in the city, a shift that contributed to a visible decline in foot traffic and nighttime activity in Chinatown. As the vacancy rate in Chinatown currently stands at 10%, it has been acknowledged that Chinatown needs a new approach to development, since some businesses have relocated to suburban shopping centres while others simply retired or went out of business. Examples include the closing of some restaurants and shops, sometimes in instances where the family did not have successors or where the business could not sustain itself any longer. Although there is a considerable business vacancy, Chinatown lease rates are considered the cheapest in the city, at $15–$30 per square foot—about one-tenth of the asking price on Vancouver's Downtown Robson Street, the city's upscale shopping district.

The new Chinatown business plan encourages new entrepreneurs to move in—and has attracted a longboard store and German sausage shop—as ways of restoring storefronts and bringing in a younger crowd, and to make higher-income people more comfortable in the area.[15] Attracted to the lower rent and the building's heritage status, younger businesses have moved in, often with white owners who also live in apartments above the shops.[16] The general consensus is that Chinatown's priority is to attract people of all backgrounds to Chinatown, and it is believed that the opening of non-traditional stores will bring a new flow of energy and income to the streets.[17] As a result, the commercial activity is becoming more diversified, dotted with Western chain stores such as Waves Coffeeshop and Dollar Giant. Other additions include vintage stores, two art galleries, bars, and a nightclub, built on the site of the former Ming's restaurant,[18] in an attempt to bring something of a nightlife atmosphere, reminiscent of the 1950s and 1960s, back to the neighbourhood. The diversity of new shops and businesses is believed to be necessary in creating a new image for Chinatown in order to bring vibrancy back to the area and encourage commercial activities in general, and as a way to compete with suburban districts as well as nearby Gastown and Downtown Vancouver.

Chinatown Revitalization Action PlanEdit

The Chinatown Historic Area planning committee, along with AECOM Economics, a US-based planning firm, helped to prepare a Chinatown Revitalization Action Plan for Vancouver's planning department in November 2011.[19] Vancouver planners surveyed 77 businesses and found that 64% reported a decrease in revenue between 2008 and 2011. The majority of consumers, 58%, were local residents, with 21% coming from elsewhere in the Lower Mainland. Tourist spending accounted for only 12% of Chinatown customers.[20] Recognizing the shifting role of Chinatown, the report highlighted key points to help the district keep up with the times:

  • Although Chinatown experienced rapid residential growth, Vancouver's Chinese population is no longer concentrated in the Chinatown area, as new immigration settlement is dispersed throughout Metro Vancouver, especially in Richmond.
  • Historically, Chinese immigrants to Vancouver were predominantly from Southern China, while immigrants today come from throughout China and Asia. Therefore, Chinatown restaurants need to broaden their offerings beyond mostly Cantonese dishes to cuisine from other parts of China and Asia in order to serve a more diversified consumer base.

Building on these points, the report recommended that Chinatown needs:

  • More life on the streets at night and on weekends as a way to dilute social problems
  • To provide better restaurants, as these make up the heart of Chinatown and are key to improving its business sector
  • To modernize the cultural centre and museum as a viable attraction while keeping its neighbourhood aspects
  • To cater more to its residents through everyday services such as groceries and restaurants
  • To take advantage of its fine-grained streetscape pattern, which offers a unique sidewalk experience compared to newer auto-oriented suburban areas
  • To involve younger community members in decision-making roles
  • To renovate its 20 heritage buildings, creating a historic district unparalleled in Western Canada, which will increase appeal to tourists and residents, leading to more local spending
  • To be clean and safe in order to reduce negative images, such as illegal drug use and panhandling, associated with the Downtown Eastside in general

International VillageEdit

In recent years Chinatown has seen growth in new construction as a downtown building boom continued into the former Expo 86 lands, which adjoin Chinatown. New high-rise towers are being constructed around the old Expo 86 site, including International Village, which was built in 1998 and is located next to Stadium–Chinatown SkyTrain station. Anchored by Cineplex Odeon International Village Cinemas and flanked by Rexall Drugstore and Yokoyaya 123, the International Village Shopping Centre is a 300,000 ft² entertainment and shopping venue. It is one of the first master-planned communities in Greater Vancouver; is the central hub connecting Gastown, Chinatown, and Yaletown; and is adjacent to the Rogers Arena, the Plaza of Nations, and BC Place Stadium.

International Village was designed to be downtown's answer to the Asian malls found in the Golden Village, though it is not as racially exclusive and includes businesses and residents that are non-Chinese.

International Village also refers to the name given to the area by developer Henderson Development (Canada) Ltd., a subsidiary of Henderson Land Development.

International Village was commonly called Tinseltown, based on one of the brands of theatre chain Cinemark Theatres, which owned the building before Cineplex did.

Condominium DevelopmentEdit

 
Chinese themed street-light

Vancouver city councillors voted in 2011 to raise building height restrictions in Chinatown in order to boost its population density. A limit of 9 stories for most of the neighbourhood was set, with a maximum of 15 stories on the busiest streets.[21] Highrises close to Stadium-Chinatown Station have already been built, with more condominium towers under construction, some projects taking advantage of empty lots that sat unused for decades. Due to the unconventional lot sizes, one 9-storey condominium is only 25 feet wide. However, that is not expected to be a problem in Vancouver, which has a market for affordable smaller-scale homes. Critics of highrise development speculate that the plan will effectively divide up the neighbourhood to form a "Great Wall of Chinatown" as lower-income residents are marginalized and displaced.

ArchitectureEdit

The neighbourhood was designated a National Historic Site of Canada in 2011.[22]

Ongoing efforts at revitalization include efforts by the business community to improve safety by hiring private security, considering new marketing promotions, and introducing residential units into the neighbourhood by restoring and renovating heritage buildings. The current focus is on the restoration and adaptive reuse of the distinctive association buildings.

Historical and significant architecture in Chinatown, Vancouver
Name Street Builder/Designer Year Built by/for Notes Photo
Sam Kee Building 8 West Pender Street Brown and Gillam 1913 Chang Toy (Sam Kee Company) Narrowest commercial building in the world, according to the Guinness Book of Records; front-to-back depth is only 6 ft (1.8 m).[23]  
Wing Sang Building 51 East Pender Street Thomas Ennor Julian 1889–1901 Yip Sang (Wing Sang Company) One of the oldest buildings in Chinatown. The 6-storey building was home to Yip Sang's Wing Sang Company (Wing Sang Limited) from 1889 to 1955. T.E. Julian added third storey in 1901.[24]  
Chinese Freemasons Building 1–5 West Pender Street S.B. Birds 1906, 1913 Modified by Samuel Buttrey Birds in 1913. Facade retained after building was demolished in 1975.[25]  
Chinese Benevolent Association of Vancouver 104–108 East Pender Street 1901–10 Chinese Benevolent Association The Association was organized by leading businessmen including Yip Sang, Chang Toy, and Wang Yu Shan.[26]  
Dr. Sun Yat-Sen Classical Chinese Garden 578 Carrall St Joe Wai, Donald Vaughan, Wang Zu-Xin 1986  
Lim Sai Hor Association Building 525–531 Carrall Street Samuel Buttrey Birds, W. H. Chow 1903, 1914 Chinese Empire Reform Association Altered in 1914, keeping with the contemporary style of Chinatown buildings.[27] [1]
Mah Society of Canada 137–139 East Pender Street H.B. Watson, E.J. Boughen 1913, 1921 Originally housed street-level grocery with residences above; top storey added in 1921 for Mah Society.[28]  
Yue Shan Society 33–47 East Pender St. W.H. Chow 1889, 1898, 1920 Consists of three buildings around a central courtyard: 41-47 E Pender (1889), 33-39 E Pender (1920), and 37 E Pender (1914).[29]  
Chinese Times Building 1 East Pender Street William Tuff Whiteway 1902 Yip Sang (Wing Sang Company) One of the first brick buildings in Chinatown; influenced later architecture.[30]  
Chinese School 121–125 East Pender Street J.A. Radford and G.L. Southall 1910, 1921 Mon Keang School Altered by Radford in 1921. Mon Keang School established in 1925.[31] [2]
Lee Building 127–131 East Pender Street Henriquez and Todd 1907, 1973 Lee's Association Original building was damaged in a 1972 fire and demolished; the facade was retained and a new building was constructed behind it in 1973, designed by Henriquez and Todd.[32]  
Carnegie Community Centre 401 Main Street G.W. Grant 1902–03 Vancouver Public Library; later as Vancouver Museum and City Archives Carnegie library from its construction until 1957.[33]  
Commercial Buildings 235–257 East Hastings Street 1901–13 Includes the Hotel Empress (235),[34] Phoenix Hotel (237),[35] Belmont Building (241),[36] and Afton Hotel (249).[37]  
Hotel East 445 Gore Street S.B. Birds 1912 Lee Kee Part of the expansion of Chinatown to east of Main.[38]  
Kuomintang Building 296 East Pender Street W.E. Sproat 1920 The Kuomintang (KMT, or Chinese Nationalist League)  
Chin Wing Chun Society 158–160 East Pender Street R.A. McKenzie 1925 Chin Wing Chun Society Meeting rooms above street-level commercial space.[39]  
Ho Ho Restaurant and Sun Ah Hotel 100–102 East Pender Street R.T. Perry and White and Cockrill 1911 Loo Gee Wing Ho Ho Restaurant opened in 1954.[40]  
May Wah Hotel 258 East Pender Street William Frederick Gardiner 1913 Messrs. Barrett and Deane SRO hotel; built in response to the Lodging House By-Law of 1910. Used by both Chau Luen Society and Shon Yee Benevolent Association of Canada.[41]  
Chau Luen Tower 325 Keefer 1971 Chau Luen Benevolent Society
London Drugs 800 Main St Unknown-1968 (Expropriated) Chau Luen Benevolent Society [42]

GatesEdit

As-built for Expo 86 (1995)
Rebuilt in 2005 (2010)
China Gate on Pender Street (by Chinese Cultural Centre)

The China Gate (next to the Chinese Cultural Centre, near the intersection with Carrall) facing Pender Street was donated to the City of Vancouver by the Government of the People's Republic of China following the Expo 86 world's fair, where it was on display. After being displayed for almost 20 years at its current location, the gate was rebuilt and received a major renovation of its façade employing stone and steel. Funding for the renovation came from government and private sources; the renovated gate was unveiled during the October 2005 visit of Guangdong governor Huang Huahua.

Temporary welcome arch (1901)
Millenium Gate (2015)
Gates straddling Pender Street

This is not to be confused with the larger Millennium Gate, which straddles Pender Street at the west end of Chinatown, near the intersection with Taylor Street. The Millennium Gate was approved on September 20, 2001,[43] and erected in 2002 at the same site as a temporary wooden arch built to celebrate the 1901 royal tour by the Duke and Duchess of Cornwall and York.[44][45] Joe Y. Wai designed the Millennium Gate.[46]

Notable buildingsEdit

The Sam Kee Company, run by Chang Toy, one of the wealthier merchants in turn-of-the-20th-century Chinatown, bought the land for the Sam Kee Building as a standard-sized lot in 1903. However, in 1912 the city widened Pender Street, expropriating all but 6 feet of the Pender Street side of the lot. In 1913 the architects Brown and Gillam designed this narrow, steel-framed free-standing building on the remaining 6-foot strip. The basement, extending under the sidewalk and much wider than the rest of the building, housed public baths, with shops on the ground floor and offices above (such basements in Vancouver were once common and zoned as "areaways"). The 1980s' rehabilitation of the building for Jack Chow was designed by Soren Rasmussen Architect and completed in 1986.

The Lord Strathcona Elementary School is the oldest public school in Greater Vancouver and the only public school serving Vancouver's Chinatown.

Neon signsEdit

 
Parade preparations outside Ho Ho Chop Suey (May 1961)

Chinatown was once known for its neon signs, but like the rest of the city, lost many signs to changing times and a sign bylaw passed in 1974.[47][48] The last of these was the Ho Ho sign (which showed a rice bowl and chop sticks),[49] which was removed in 1997.

A large 45 ft (14 m) tall neon sign was approved for the Chinatown Plaza parkade project in 2008 under the City of Vancouver's Great Beginnings initiative.[50] The new sign was installed in March 2010.[51]

In 2017, a neon sign featuring a large green and yellow-coloured rooster for the Sai Woo Restaurant was installed on Pender Street. The new owner of the Sai Woo was made aware of the original sign that hung outside the earlier incarnation of the restaurant (1925–59) from a one-second clip from a movie of a 1958 parade in Chinatown, and launched a search for the original sign which was unsuccessful.[52] The sign was recreated from the archived footage.[53] At the same time, plans were announced to relight the tall Ho Ho sign in 2018 or 2019.[54][55]

See alsoEdit

Notable residentsEdit

Community GroupsEdit

  • Chinatown Today, newspaper
  • Hua Foundation, non-profit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Cernetig, Miro (June 30, 2007). "Chinese Vancouver: A decade of change". Archived from the original on 30 October 2007.
  2. ^ "Chinatown Map". City of Vancouver. 2019-03-27. Archived from the original on 27 April 2006.
  3. ^ a b c d Chinese Canadian Historical Society (July 2005). Historic Study of the Society Buildings in Chinatown (PDF) (Report). City of Vancouver. Retrieved 5 June 2019.
  4. ^ a b c d e Report of the Royal Commission on Chinese and Japanese Immigration (Report). Ottawa: S.E. Dawson, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty. 1902. Retrieved 26 June 2019.
  5. ^ "Japs attacked in Vancouver". The Morning Press. Santa Barbara. Associated Press. 10 September 1907. Retrieved 26 June 2019.
  6. ^ "2000 Chinese driven out: Rioters at Vancouver attack Orientals". Los Angeles Herald. Associated Press. 9 September 1907. Retrieved 26 June 2019.
  7. ^ "Riot planned to impress Ishii, is belief at Seattle". Los Angeles Herald. Associated Press. 11 September 1907. Retrieved 26 June 2019.
  8. ^ "Blame American Agitators: London View of Vancouver Troubles". Chico Record. 12 September 1907. Retrieved 26 June 2019.
  9. ^ King, William Lyon Mackenzie (1908). Report by W. L. Mackenzie King, C.M.G., Deputy Minister of Labour, Commissioner appointed to investigate into the Losses Sustained by the Chinese Population of Vancouver, B.C. on the occasion of the riots in that city in September, 1907 (Report). Ottawa: S.E. Dawson, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty. Retrieved 26 June 2019.
  10. ^ King, William Lyon Mackenzie (1908). Report by W. L. Mackenzie King, C.M.G., Deputy Minister of Labour, Commissioner appointed to investigate into the Losses Sustained by the Japanese Population of Vancouver, B.C. on the occasion of the riots in that city in September, 1907 (Report). Ottawa: S.E. Dawson, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty. Retrieved 26 June 2019.
  11. ^ Davis, Chuck (October 2011). The Chuck Davis History of Metropolitan Vancouver. Harbour Publishing. p. 351. ISBN 978-1-55017-533-2. Retrieved 5 June 2019.
  12. ^ Yee, Paul (2006). Saltwater City. Vancouver: Douglas & McIntyre Ltd. p. 219. ISBN 978-1-55365-174-1. Retrieved 5 June 2019.
  13. ^ "Millennium Gate". Archived from the original on 8 October 2012. Retrieved 12 February 2013.
  14. ^ Ng, Wing Chung (1999). The Chinese in Vancouver 1945-80. Vancouver: UBC Press. p. 137. ISBN 0-7748-0733-4. Retrieved 5 June 2019.
  15. ^ Bula, Frances (12 January 2013). "Behind the Changing Face of Vancouver's Chinatown". The Globe and Mail. Toronto. Retrieved 12 February 2013.
  16. ^ Quinn, Stephen (8 February 2013). "Saving Chinatown, One Sausage and Pilates pose at a Time". The Globe and Mail. Toronto. Retrieved 12 February 2013.
  17. ^ Allingham, Jeremy (7 February 2013). "Vancouver's Chinatown embraces change". CBC News. Retrieved 12 February 2013.
  18. ^ "Fortune Sound Club". Archived from the original on 19 February 2013. Retrieved 12 February 2013.
  19. ^ "Chinatown Revitalization". City of Vancouver. Retrieved 12 February 2013.
  20. ^ Howell, Mike (July 23, 2012). "Vancouver prepares plan to renew ailing Chinatown". Vancouver Courier. Retrieved 12 February 2013.
  21. ^ Hutchinson, Brian (September 28, 2012). "Can condo-zones save Vancouver's beleaguered Chinatown?". National Post. Retrieved 12 February 2013.
  22. ^ Vancouver's Chinatown. Directory of Federal Heritage Designations. Parks Canada. Retrieved 4 May 2012.
  23. ^ "Sam Kee Building". www.historicplaces.ca. Retrieved 2018-03-17.
  24. ^ "Wing Sang Building". www.historicplaces.ca. Retrieved 2018-03-17.
  25. ^ "Chinese Freemasons Building". www.historicplaces.ca. Retrieved 2018-03-17.
  26. ^ "Chinese Benevolent Association Building". www.historicplaces.ca. Retrieved 2018-03-17.
  27. ^ "Lim Sai Hor Association Building". www.historicplaces.ca. Retrieved 2018-03-17.
  28. ^ "Mah Society Building". www.historicplaces.ca. Retrieved 2018-03-17.
  29. ^ "Yue Shan Society Buildings". www.historicplaces.ca. Retrieved 2018-03-17.
  30. ^ "Chinese Times Building". www.historicplaces.ca. Retrieved 2018-03-17.
  31. ^ "Chinese School". www.historicplaces.ca. Retrieved 2018-03-17.
  32. ^ "Chinese Freemasons Building". www.historicplaces.ca. Retrieved 2018-03-17.
  33. ^ "Carnegie Centre". www.historicplaces.ca. Retrieved 2018-03-17.
  34. ^ "Hotel Empress". www.historicplaces.ca. Retrieved 2018-03-17.
  35. ^ "Phoenix Hotel". www.historicplaces.ca. Retrieved 2018-03-17.
  36. ^ "Belmont Building". www.historicplaces.ca. Retrieved 2018-03-17.
  37. ^ "Afton Hotel". www.historicplaces.ca. Retrieved 2018-03-17.
  38. ^ "445 Gore Avenue". www.historicplaces.ca. Retrieved 2018-03-17.
  39. ^ "Chin Wing Chun Society Building". www.historicplaces.ca. Retrieved 2018-03-17.
  40. ^ "Sun Ah Hotel". www.historicplaces.ca. Retrieved 2018-03-17.
  41. ^ "May Wah Hotel". www.historicplaces.ca. Retrieved 2018-03-17.
  42. ^ "Chinatown and Hogan's Alley advocates call for greater reconciliation in Vancouver's Northeast False Creek Plan | Metro Vancouver". metronews.ca. Retrieved 2018-03-17.
  43. ^ Herbert, Alan; Leduc, Janet (October 2001). "Chinatown Millennium Gate Approved" (PDF). Heritage Vancouver Newsletter. 10 (9). Heritage Vancouver. Retrieved 4 June 2019.
  44. ^ "Chinatown Millennium Gate". Lonely Planet. Retrieved 4 June 2019.
  45. ^ Pope, Joseph (1903). "V. British Columbia and Return Journey". The Tour of Their Royal Highnesses the Duke and Duchess of Cornwall and York through the Dominion of Canada in the Year 1901. Ottawa: S. E. Dawson, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty. pp. 88–89. Retrieved 4 June 2019. After the presentation of [the mayor of Vancouver and prominent citizens] and of the officers of the warships in port, the Duke and Duchess proceeded to the court-house by a royally decorated route, spanned by a series of arches, erected by the city, by the Chinese residents, Japanese, firemen, and others. These arches were all strikingly handsome ...
  46. ^ "Historic Chinatown: Vancouver's Chinatown Map Guide" (PDF). Vancouver Heritage Foundation. May 2018. Retrieved 4 June 2019.
  47. ^ Lederman, Marsha (28 January 2012). "The 'anti-neon crusade,' Vancouver's light-pollution battle from another era". The Globe and Mail. Retrieved 5 June 2019.
  48. ^ Mackie, John (13 November 2009). "Bright lights, old city: Remembering Vancouver's neon glory". Vancouver Sun. Retrieved 5 June 2019.
  49. ^ Cannon, Paul (1983). "Item: CVA 1376-344 – Ho Ho Chop Suey neon sign". City of Vancouver. Retrieved 5 June 2019.
  50. ^ Great Beginnings: Old Streets, New Pride | June 2009 Project Progress Report (PDF) (Report). City of Vancouver. June 2009. Retrieved 5 June 2019.
  51. ^ "Chinatown Plaza". Vancouver Neon. Retrieved 5 June 2019.
  52. ^ "Vancouver restaurateur on the hunt for Sai Woo's original neon sign". CTV News. March 2, 2017. Retrieved 5 June 2019.
  53. ^ Kurucz, John (August 7, 2017). "Sai Woo's neon sign returns to Chinatown". Vancouver Courier. Retrieved 5 June 2019.
  54. ^ Chan, Cheryl (August 4, 2017). "Sai Woo's neon rooster sign crows over Chinatown once again". Vancouver Sun. Retrieved 5 June 2019.
  55. ^ MacEacheran, Mike (4 May 2018). "North America's unexpected neon jungle". BBC Travel. Retrieved 5 June 2019.

Further readingEdit

External linksEdit