Chicago Housing Authority
The Chicago Housing Authority (CHA) is a municipal corporation that oversees public housing within the city of Chicago. The agency's Board of Commissioners is appointed by the city's mayor, and has a budget independent from that of the city of Chicago. CHA is the largest rental landlord in Chicago, with more than 50,000 households. CHA owns over 21,000 apartments (9,200 units reserved for seniors and over 11,400 units in family and other housing types). It also oversees the administration of 37,000 Section 8 vouchers. The current acting CEO of the Chicago Housing Authority is Eugene Jones, Jr.
|Jurisdiction||City of Chicago|
|Headquarters||60 E. Van Buren Street |
Chicago, Illinois, U.S.
|Annual budget||$976 million (2015)|
Formed in 1937 by the state of Illinois, CHA was created to clear slums which were described by most as unlivable in Chicago; also to provide affordable homes for war veterans. The housing authority came into existence after the Housing Act of 1937 was passed which was the public housing program that provided low-cost housing in the form of publicly-managed and owned multi-family housing developments. The first director of CHA was Elizabeth Wood, from 1937 until 1954. CHA first housing project to be constructed by the Public Works Administration (PWA) was the Lathrop Homes in 1937. The Francis Cabrini and William Green Homes was started in 1941 and all 3,607 units were completed by 1962, ABLA is a complex of buildings started in 1943 and completed in total in 1955, Stateway Gardens was started in 1955 and completed by 1957. Robert Taylor Homes was started in 1961 and completed by 1962, it was considered as the largest public housing development in the United States. Between 1950 and 1969, the housing authority built 11 high rise projects for public housing, which isolated the extreme poor in "superblocks" that were not easily patrolled by police vehicles. CHA created the Chicago Housing Authority Police Department (CHAPD) which was formed in 1989 and was dissolved in 1999.
Plan for Transformation/Plan ForwardEdit
In 2000, the CHA began its Plan For Transformation, which called for the demolition of all of its gallery high-rise buildings because they failed HUD's viability test and proposed a renovated housing portfolio totaling 25,000 units. In April 2013, CHA created Plan Forward, the next phase of redeveloping public housing in Chicago. The plan includes the rehabilitation of homes, increasing economic sales around CHA developments and providing educational, job training to residents with Section 8 vouchers. In 2015, the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development criticized the Chicago Housing Authority for accumulating a cash reserve of $440 million, at a time when more than a quarter million people are on the agency's waiting list for affordable housing. The CHA actually holds an annual lottery for candidates to seek a spot on the waitlist. CHA also faced criticism for leaving a large number of units vacant (16%) and for slowing its pace of adding units.
From its beginning until the late-1950s, most families that lived in Chicago housing projects were Italian immigrants. By the mid-1970s, 65% of the agency's housing projects were made up of African Americans. In 1975, a study showed that traditional mother and father families in CHA housing projects were almost non-existent and 93% of the households were headed by single females. In 2010, the head of households demographics were 88% African American and 12% White. The population of children in CHA decreased by 15%, from 50% in 2000 to 35% by 2010. Today on average, a Chicago public housing development is made up of: 69% African-American, 27% Latino, and 4% White and Other.[clarification needed]
List of Chief Executive OfficersEdit
|Elizabeth Wood||1937 – August 23, 1954||Edward Kelly|
|William B. Kean||October 1, 1954 – August 14, 1957||Edward Kelly|
|Alvin E. Rose||September 1, 1957 – November 26, 1967||Richard J. Daley|
|Clement Humphrey||December 2, 1967 – 1973||Richard J. Daley|
|Harry J. Schneider||July 1, 1973 – 1975||Richard J. Daley|
|G. W. Master||August, 1975 – April, 1976 (acting)
May, 1976 – October 1, 1979
|Richard J. Daley|
|Charles R. Swibel||October 15, 1979 – June 1981||Jane Byrne|
|Andrew Mooney||June 1981 – July 26, 1982 (acting)
August 1, 1982 – May 1, 1983
|Zirl N. Smith||May 30, 1983 – January 7, 1987||Harold Washington|
|Brenda J. Gaines||January 19, 1987– May 6, 1988 (acting)|
|Vincent Lane||May 6, 1988 – May 30, 1995||Eugene Sawyer|
|Joseph Shuldiner||May 30, 1995 – September, 1995 (acting)
October 16, 1995 – June 1, 1999
|Terry Peterson||June 1, 1999 – August 30, 2006||Richard M. Daley|
|Sharon Gist-Gilliam||August 31, 2006 – January 16, 2008 (acting)||Richard M. Daley|
|Lewis Jordan||January 16, 2008 – June 30, 2011||Richard M. Daley|
|Charles Woodyard||October 24, 2011 – October 15, 2013||Rahm Emanuel|
|Michael Merchant||October 16, 2013 – June 5, 2015||Rahm Emanuel|
|Eugene Jones||June 8, 2015 – September 10, 2019
(acting CEO June 8, 2015 — February 6, 2016)
|James L. Bebley||17 September 2019 — present (acting)||N/A|||
Gautreaux v. Chicago Housing AuthorityEdit
In 1966, Dorothy Gautreaux and other CHA residents brought a suit against the CHA, in Gautreaux v. Chicago Housing Authority. The suit charged racial discrimination by the housing authority for concentrating 10,000 public housing units in isolated black neighborhoods, stating that the housing authority and Housing of Urban Development (HUD) had violated the U.S. Constitution and the 1964 Civil Rights Act. It was a long-running case that in 1996 resulted in the US Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) taking over the CHA and the Gautreaux Project in which public housing families were relocated to the suburbs. The lawsuit was noted as the nation's first major public housing desegregation lawsuit.
In May 2013, The Cabrini-Green Local Advisory Council and former residents of the Cabrini-Green housing project sued the housing authority for reneging on promises for the residents to return the neighborhood after redevelopment. The suit claimed that the housing authority at the time had only renovated a quarter of the remaining row-houses, making only a small percentage of them public housing.
In September 2015, four residents sued the housing authority over utility allowances. Residents claimed the CHA overcharged them for rent and didn't credit them for utility costs.
|Altgeld Gardens Homes||Chicago/Riverdale, Illinois borderline
|1944–46; 1954||Named for Illinois politician John Peter Altgeld and Labor movement leader Philip Murray. 1,971 units of 2-story row-houses; Renovated.|
|Bridgeport Homes||Bridgeport neighborhood
|1943–44||Named after its neighborhood location, Consist of 115 units of 2-story row-houses, Renovated.|
|Cabrini–Green Homes||Near–North neighborhood||1942–45; 1957–62||Named for Italian nun Frances Cabrini and William Green. Consisted of 3,607 units, William Homes and Cabrini Extensions (Demolished; 1995–2011), Francis Cabrini Row-houses (150 of 586 Renovated; 2009–11).|
|Clarence Darrow Homes||Bronzeville neighborhood
|1961–62||Named for American lawyer Clarence Darrow, Consisted of 4 18-story buildings, Demolished in late–1998. Replaced with Mixed-income housing development Oakwood Shores.|
|Dearborn Homes||Bronzeville neighborhood
|1949–50||Named for its street location Dearborn Street; Consist of 12 buildings made up of mid-rise, 6 and 9-stories, totaling 668 units, Renovated.|
|Grace Abbott Homes||University Village
|1952–55||Named for social worker Grace Abbott, Consisted of 7 15-story buildings and 33 2-story rowhouses, totaling 1,198 units. Demolished.|
|Harold Ickes Homes||Bronzeville
|1953–55||Named for Illinois politician Harold LeClair Ickes, 11 9-story high-rise buildings, totaling 738 units, Demolished.|
|Harrison Courts||East Garfield Park neighborhood
|1958||Named after its street location; Consist of 4 7-story buildings; Renovated.|
|Ogden Courts||North Lawndale neighborhood
|1953||Named after William B. Ogden location; Consist of 2 7-story buildings; Demolished.|
|Henry Horner Homes||Near–West Side neighborhood||1955–57; 1959–61||Named for Illinois governor Henry Horner, Consisted of 16 high-rise buildings, 2 15-story buildings, 8 7-story buildings, 4 14-story and 2 8-story buildings, totaling 1,655 units ; Demolished. Replaced with Mixed-income housing development West Haven.|
|Ida B. Wells Homes||Bronzeville neighborhood
|1939–41||Named for African-American journalist Ida Barnett Wells, Consisted of 1,662 units (800 row-houses and 862 mid-rise apartments); Demolished. Replaced with a Mixed-income housing development named Oakwood Shores.|
|Jane Addams Homes||University Village
|1938–39||Named for social worker Jane Addams, Consisted of 32 buildings of 2, 3, and 4 stories, totaling 987 units; Demolished. Replaced with townhouses and condominiums under the name Roosevelt Square.|
|Julia C. Lathrop Homes||North Center neighborhood
|1937–38||Named for social reformer Julia Clifford Lathrop, Consist of 925 units made up of 2-story row-houses, mid-rise buildings; Renovated.|
|Lake Parc Place/Lake Michigan Homes High-Rises||Oakland neighborhood
|1962–63||Named after its location, Consisted of 6 buildings; Lake Michigan high-rises (also known as Lakefront Homes) (4 16-story buildings; vacated in 1985 and demolished by implosion on 12/12/1998) and Lake Parc Place (2 15-story buildings; renovated)|
|Lawndale Gardens||Little Village neighborhood
|April–December 1942||Named for its street location, Consist of 123 units of 2-story row-houses, Renovated.|
|LeClaire Courts||Archer Heights neighborhood
|1949–50; 1953–54||Consisted 314 units of 2-story row-houses; Demolished.|
|Loomis Courts||University Village neighborhood
|1951||Named for its street location, Consist of 2 7-story building, totaling 126 units.|
|Lowden Homes||Princeton Park neighborhood
|1951–52||Named for Illinois governor Frank Lowden, Consist of 127 units of 2-story row-houses; Renovated.|
|Madden Park Homes||Bronzeville neighborhood
|1968–69; 1970||Consisted of 6 buildings (9 and 3-stories), totaling 279 units; Demolished. Replaced with a Mixed-income housing development named Oakwood Shores.|
|Prairie Courts||South Commons neighborhood
|1950–52||Consisted of 5 7 and 14-story buildings, 230 units made up of row-houses, totaling 877 units; Demolished. Replaced with new development which was constructed between 2000–2002.|
|Racine Courts||Washington Heights neighborhood
|1953||Named for its street location, Consisted of 122 units made up of 2-story row-houses, Demolished.|
|Raymond Hilliard Homes||Near–South Side neighborhood||1964–66||Consists of 3 buildings, 22-story building; 16-story building and 11-story building, totaling 1,077 units. Renovated in phases, Phase I: 2003–04; Phase II: 2006–07.|
|Robert Brooks Homes/Extensions||University Village neighborhood
|1942–43; 1960–61||Consist of 835 row-houses (Reconstructed in phases: Phase I: 1997–99, Phase II: 2000), 3 16-story buildings (450 units; Demolished between 1998–2001) .|
|Robert Taylor Homes||Bronzeville neighborhood
|1960–62||Named for named the first African American chairman of the Chicago Housing Authority Robert Rochon Taylor, Consisted of 28 16–story high rises, totaling 4, 415 units; Demolished between 1998–2007. Replaced with a Mixed-income housing development named Legends South.|
|Rockwell Gardens||East Garfield Park neighborhood
|1958–60||Named for its street location; Consisted of 1,126 units made up of 11 buildings (16, 14-stories); Demolished between 2003–2007. Replaced with a Mixed-income housing development named West End.|
|Stateway Gardens||Bronzeville neighborhood
|1955–58||Named for its location along State Street, Consisted of 8 buildings (13-17 stories); Demolished between 1996–2007, Replaced with a Mixed-income housing development named Park Boulevard.|
|Trumbull Park Homes||South Deering neighborhood
|1938–39||Consist of 434 units made up of 2-story row-houses and 3-story buildings; Renovated.|
|Wentworth Gardens||Armour Square neighborhood
|1944–45||Named for its street location and the major league baseball team that used to play in its baseball field. Stretching from 39th & Wentworth to 37th and Wells this housing Project is one of Cha'S Finest., Consist of 4 block area of 2-story row-houses, 3 mid-rise buildings; Renovated.|
|Washington Park Homes||Bronzeville neighborhood
|1962–64||Named for nearby Chicago Park District park and neighborhood, Consisted of 5 17-story buildings located between 45th and 44th Streets, Cottage Grove Avenue and Evans Street; Demolished between 1999 and mid-2002.|
- R. Kelly–Ida B. Wells Homes
- Mr. T– Robert Taylor Homes
- Maurice Cheeks–Robert Taylor Homes
- Curtis Mayfield–Cabrini-Green Homes
- Eric Monte–Cabrini-Green Homes
- Jerry Butler–Cabrini-Green Homes
- Kirby Puckett–Robert Taylor Homes
- Deval Patrick–Robert Taylor Homes
- Marvin Smith–Robert Taylor Homes
- Lou Rawls–Ida B. Wells Homes
- "CHA - FINANCIAL REPORTS". Archived from the original on 2016-06-30. Retrieved 2016-06-16.
- Chicago Housing Authority passes 2012 budget
- Emanuel names new acting CEO for the CHA - Chicago Tribune
- CHA reveals next phase of massive public housing redevelopment
- HUD Secretary Troubled By CHA Hoarding Millions « CBS Chicago
- Rahm Emanuel’s Next Scandal? Chicago’s Public Housing | New Republic
- For Some Chicago Residents, Mixed Emotions on Affordable Housing | Chicago Tonight | WTTW
- Chicago Housing Authority maintains thousands of vacant apartments - tribunedigital-chicagotribune
- Demographics Of Public Housing Families Evolve
- 2010 Census
- Retired Army officer new CHA rent chief (Chicago Tribune - December 16, 1954)
- CHA to open bids on new housing units (Chicago Tribune - December 12, 1964)
- Gautreaux v. Chicago Housing Authority, 296 F. Supp. 907 (N.D. Ill. 1969)
- Ex-cha Chief Clement Humphrey dies at 82 (Chicago Tribune - October 28, 1990)
- Harry J. Schneider, Former Director Of CHA dies (Chicago Tribune - November 11, 1987)
- Chicago gets plus on public housing (Chicago Tribune - February 19, 1976)
- Charles Swibel: Ex CHA chief dies (Chicago Tribune - January 20, 1990)
- CHA exec. in line to succeed Swibel (Chicago Tribune - July 9, 1982)
- Robinson Quits As CHA Chief (Chicago Tribune - January 17, 1987)
- The Historymakers - Vincent Lane (1942-)
- High Noon at the housing project: Chicagoan Vincent Lane organizes "sweeps" to drive out drug dealers (Ebony Magazine - August 1989)
- Joseph Shuldiner - Executive Director, Chicago Housing Authority (Chicago Tribune - July 5, 1998)
- Hud Exec. To Be CHA Director (Chicago Tribune -September 22, 1995)
- Name: Joseph Shuldiner Job: Executive director of the... (Chicago Tribune - October 01, 1995)
- TERRY PETERSON STEPS DOWN AS CHICAGO HOUSING AUTHORITY EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR (August 30, 2006)
- Ex-CHA resident takes over agency - Jordan to finish transformation plan, Daley says (Chicago Tribune - December 12, 2007)
- Embattled CHA CEO Lewis Jordan resigns (Chicago Tribune - June 14, 2011)
- Former CHA CEO Woodyard resigned amid sexual harassment allegations (WBEZ - November 18, 2013)
- Chicago Tonight - CHA CEO Woodyard resigns - October 15, 2013
- Spielman, Fran (20 August 2019). "CHA CEO abruptly resigns, ending highly acclaimed, four-and-a-half-year reign". Chicago Sun-Times. Retrieved 17 March 2020.
- "MINUTES OF THE REGULAR MEETING OF THE COMMISSIONERS OF THE CHICAGO HOUSING AUTHORITY February 16, 2016" (PDF). Chicago Housing Authority. 16 February 2016. Retrieved 17 March 2020.
- "Mayor Emanuel Nominates Eugene Jones, Jr. as CEO of the Chicago Housing Authority | The Chicago Housing Authority". www.thecha.org. Chicago Housing Authority. 29 January 2016. Retrieved 17 March 2020.
- "RESOLUTION NO. 2019-CHA-" (PDF). Chicago Housing Authority. 17 September 2019. Retrieved 17 March 2020.
- "Executive Team | The Chicago Housing Authority". www.thecha.org. Chicago Housing Authority. Retrieved 17 March 2020.
- BPI Chicago - The Gautreaux Lawsuit - 1966
- Chicago Business - Tenant Gruoup Sues Chicago Housing Authority - May 16, 2013
- Chicago Tribune - CHA Utility Lawsuit - September 25, 2015
- "Chicago Housing Authority - Oakwood Shores". Archived from the original on 2009-07-01. Retrieved 2013-04-08.
- Washington Park: The Dying Hope
- Yo Chicago: Polishing Bronzeville
- Fall Of High-rises Lifts Hopes Of Area - The Planned Implosion Of Four 16-story Cha Buildings Is Seen By Some As The Symbolic Funeral Of An Outdated Policy - Chicago Tribune (December 11, 1998)
- Desktop Documentaries: Leclaire Courts(Chicago, Illinois)
- Chicago Tribune: LeClaire Courts residents await word whether development will be shut down (September 12, 2008)
- Chicago Tribune: CHA Renters May Get Option To Buy (January 28, 1985)
- "Hope VI funds new urban neighborhoods". New Urban News. Jan–Feb 2002. Retrieved 2013-04-08.
- Gardens[permanent dead link]
- Senior Properties: Chicago Housing Authority Archived September 21, 2013, at the Wayback Machine
- Scattered Sites Properties: Chicago Housing Authority Archived 2012-10-28 at the Wayback Machine
- Mixed-Income Properties: Chicago Housing Authority Archived August 17, 2013, at the Wayback Machine
- "Chicago Housing Authority". Encyclopedia of Chicago.
- "Gautreaux". Business and Professional People for the Public Interest. Archived from the original on 2007-09-13.
- "Latest Decision on Gautreaux v. Chicago Housing Authority". National Housing Law Project. Archived from the original on 2007-08-04.
- Dizikes, Peter, "Chicago hope: Ambitious attempt to help the city’s poor by moving them out of troubled housing projects is having mixed results, MIT study finds", MIT News, MIT News Office, March 3, 2011.
- Blueprint for Disaster: The Unraveling of Chicago Public Housing, a 2009 book by D. Bradford Hunt.
- "Understanding Chicago's High-Rise Public Housing Disaster", in Chicago Architecture: Histories, Revisions, and Alternatives, edited by Charles Waldheim and Katerina Reudi Ray (University of Chicago Press, 2005).
- "How Did Public Housing Survive the 1950s?", Journal of Policy History, 17:2, Spring 2005, 193–216.
- Chicago Housing Authority Official site