Červień or Chervyen (Belarusian: Чэрвень, [ˈtʂɛrvʲenʲ]; Ігумен – Ihumen till 1923; Russian: Червень Cherven; Polish: Czerwień; Yiddish: Humen/Igumen, Lithuanian: Červenė), also spelled Cherven, is a Belarusian town in Minsk Region. It is the administrative seat of the Chervyen District and, in 2016, had a population of 9,718.[1]

Chervyen
Чэрвень / Червень
Town
St. Nicholas' Church
St. Nicholas' Church
Flag of Chervyen
Coat of arms of Chervyen
Chervyen is located in Belarus
Chervyen
Chervyen
Location of Chervyen in Belarus
Coordinates: 53°42′28″N 28°25′56″E / 53.70778°N 28.43222°E / 53.70778; 28.43222Coordinates: 53°42′28″N 28°25′56″E / 53.70778°N 28.43222°E / 53.70778; 28.43222
Country Belarus
Voblast Minsk
Raion Chervyen
Founded1387
Elevation
160 m (520 ft)
Population
 (2016)[1]
 • Total9,718
Time zoneUTC+2 (EET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+3 (EEST)
Postal code
223232
Area code+375 1714
License plate5
WebsiteOfficial website
Town's central park

HistoryEdit

On February 1, 1942 the German forces and local policemen surrounded the Cherven ghetto. At the same time, other Jews living outside the ghetto walls, such as in the local hospital, were gathered together. They were ordered to undress to their undergarments and lie on the ground, where they were shot dead. Witnesses put the number of victims at between 1,500-1,750 people. The murder operation was carried out by the Einsatzkommando 8 unit of Einsatzgruppe B, with the help of local policeman.[2]

On 25–27 June 1941, the Soviet NKVD carried out a mass execution of political prisoners from Minsk in the nearby Tsagelnya forest.[3] Wooden statue Mourning Angel, by sculptor Gennady Matusevich, was erected at the location.[4] Commemorative events are held there every year in June.[5][6][7]

GeographyEdit

Located 66 km east of Minsk and 45 km west of Berezino, Chervyen lies on a plain in the middle of its raion. It is crossed to the north by the M4 highway Minsk-Mogilev. The national road P59 links it with the town of Smalyavichy (50 km north) and the Minsk National Airport (65 km north).[8]

Notable peopleEdit

  • Vladimir Isaacovich Fundator (1903-86), metallurgist who invented the technology which made possible the aluminum diesel engine for the T-34 tank, thus facilitating the rapid advance of the Red Army in World War 2; recipient USSR Council of Ministers Prize.[9][10][11]
  • Leivik Halpern (1888-1962), Yiddish poet and literary editor who under the pen name H Leivik wrote The Golem, among other works.[12]
  • David Nisnevich (1893-1963), composer of Russian and Yiddish folk songs.[13]
  • Lieutenant Semion Gurevich (1915-1984), distinguished himself by leading a Red Army attack across the Dnieper River in September 1943, for which he received the title Hero of the Soviet Union.[14]
  • Professor David Movshevitch Golub (1901-2001), distinguished anatomist and embryologist; Academician of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus; recipient Red Banner of Labour.[15]
  • Professor Feival Movshevitch Golub, brother of David, headed the Department of Surgical Diseases, Samarkand State Medical Institute, Uzbekistan; recipient Honorary Scientist of the Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic.[16]
  • Vladimir Adomovich Korol (1912-1980), architect involved in the plans to rebuild Minsk after the destruction of World War 2; received Order of Lenin.[17][18]
  • Oleg Novitskiy (b. 1971), Russian cosmonaut.[19]
  • Valery Shary (b. 1947), Olympic light-heavyweight weightlifting champion.[20]

GalleryEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b (in Russian) 2016 census of Belarus Archived 2017-07-30 at the Wayback Machine (Belstat)
  2. ^ Info at the Yad Vashem website
  3. ^ [1] Archived June 30, 2007, at the Wayback Machine
  4. ^ "Як адзін мастак беларусізаваў цэлы горад – Наша Ніва: першая беларуская газета". Nn.by. Archived from the original on May 22, 2011. Retrieved February 9, 2011.
  5. ^ Info on charter97.com Archived 2007-09-30 at the Wayback Machine
  6. ^ Info on belarus.net
  7. ^ Info on svoboda.org
  8. ^ 6722634 (x a j h) Chervyen on OpenStreetMap
  9. ^ "ФУНДАТОР Владимир Исаакович — Российская Еврейская Энциклопедия". rujen.ru. Retrieved 2021-05-29.
  10. ^ "Вклад литейщиков в создание танка Т-34, Н.В. Волох". www.foundrymag.ru. Retrieved 2021-05-29.
  11. ^ "Newsletters - Tools - Belarus SIG - JewishGen.org". www.jewishgen.org. Retrieved 2021-05-29.
  12. ^ Fogel, Joshua (2017-04-04). "Yiddish Leksikon: H. LEIVICK". Yiddish Leksikon. Retrieved 2021-05-29.
  13. ^ "YIVO | Songs and Songwriters". yivoencyclopedia.org. Retrieved 2021-05-29.
  14. ^ "Semion Gurevich | www.yadvashem.org". semion-gurevich.html. Archived from the original on 2020-09-27. Retrieved 2021-05-29.
  15. ^ "In memory of the scientist :: GOLUB David Movshevich". nasb.gov.by. Retrieved 2021-05-29.
  16. ^ Education, SamMI. "Department of Surgical Diseases No. 1". www.sammi.uz. Retrieved 2021-05-29.
  17. ^ "CodeJam-Culture-Portal". culture-portal-arch.netlify.app. Retrieved 2021-05-29.
  18. ^ "Vladimir Adamovich Korol". TheFreeDictionary.com. Retrieved 2021-05-29.
  19. ^ "Центр подготовки космонавтов им. Ю.А.Гагарина. Официальный Web-сайт". www.gctc.ru (in Russian). Retrieved 2021-05-29.
  20. ^ "Olympedia – Valery Shary". www.olympedia.org. Retrieved 2021-05-29.

Further readingEdit

  • Lipińska G., Jeśli zapomnę o nich..., 1990
  • Stankiewicz-Januszczak, J., Marsz śmierci – ewakuacja więźniów z Mińska do Czerwieni 24–27 czerwca 1941 r., Volumen (1999) (Polish)
  • Stankiewicz-Januszczak J., Dziś mówię ludziom, co mówiłam Bogu..., ISBN 83-914184-9-9 (Polish)
  • Petruitis J., Kaip jie mus sušaudė, Kaunas, 1942, 1990 (Lith.)
  • Tumas J. Kelias į Červenę, Vilnius, 1990 (Lith.)

External linksEdit