Cheng Han (simplified Chinese: 成汉; traditional Chinese: 成漢; pinyin: Chénghàn; 303 or 304 – 347) was a dynastic state of China listed as one of the Sixteen Kingdoms in Chinese historiography. Ruled by the Di people, its territory was based in what is modern-day Sichuan Province, China.

Cheng Han (成漢)
成 (304–338),
漢 (338–347)
304–347
Cheng Han (Cheng) in southwestern China
Cheng Han (Cheng) in southwestern China
CapitalChengdu
Common languagesBa-Shu Chinese
GovernmentMonarchy
Emperor 
• 304–334
Li Xiong
• 334
Li Ban
• 334–338
Li Qi
• 338–343
Li Shou
• 343–347
Li Shi
History 
• Li Te's proclamation of era name "Jianchu" (建初)
303
• Li Xiong's claim of princely title
304
• Li Xiong's claim of imperial title
306
• Name change to Han
338
• Disestablished
347
• Li Shi's death
361
CurrencyChinese cash coins
(Ancient Chinese coinage)
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Western Jin
Eastern Jin
Today part ofChina

Cheng and HanEdit

It represented two states, the Cheng state (成 Chéng) and the Han state (漢 Hàn). Cheng was proclaimed in 304 by Li Xiong, while Han was proclaimed in 338 by Li Shou. Since they were both ruled by the Li family of the Ba ethnicity,[1] scholars often combine them into a single Cheng Han state in historiography. The Li family has also been described as being of Ba-Di ethnicity, they were originally Ba from modern Sichuan who had settled among the Di in modern Gansu.[2] Western texts frequently referred to the two states separately. Whether the treatment is correct is debatable.

When Li Shou claimed the throne in 338, he did not acknowledge his throne as having been inherited from Li Xiong's line. While he continued to worship Li Xiong, it was done in a separate temple. However, Li Shou's son Li Shi, acknowledged the prior emperors including Li Xiong as his predecessors. Cheng Han's was the earliest establishment of the Sixteen Kingdoms.

All rulers of the Cheng Han declared themselves "emperors".

The commonly accepted founding year of Cheng has been 304. Nevertheless, Li Te declared a new era name in 303. Some scholars consider this self-declaration of era name to be a symbol of a new government. However, at that time, Li Te claimed no imperial or other special titles for himself.[citation needed]

The Cheng Han was eventually conquered by the Jin when Huan Wen attacked Chengdu.

Rulers of Cheng HanEdit

Temple name Posthumous name Personal name Durations of reign Era names
Cheng 303 or 304 – 338
Shizu Jing Li Te 303 Jianchu (建初) or Jingchu (景初) 303
Li Liu 303
Taizong Wu Li Xiong 303–334 Jianxing (建興) 304–306
Yanping (晏平) 306–311
Yuheng (玉衡) 311–334
Li Ban 334 Yuheng (玉衡) 334
Li Qi 334–338 Yuheng (玉恆) 335–338
Han 338–347
Zhongzong Zhaowen Li Shou 338–343 Hanxing (漢興) 338–343
Li Shi 343–347 Taihe (太和) 343–346
Jianing (嘉寧) 346–347

Family treeEdit

Cheng Han
Li Mu
Li Te 李特
(r. 303)
Li Liu 李流
248–303; r. 303
Li Xiang 李骧
Li Dang 李蕩
(?–303)
Li Xiong 李雄 (274–334)
Wu 武
r. 304–334
Empress Ren
任皇后
Empress Yan
閻皇后
Li Shou 李壽 (300–343)
Zhaowen 昭文
r. 338–343
Li Ban 李班 (288–334)
Aidi 哀皇帝 r. 334
Li Qi 李期 (314–d. 338)
Yōu 幽 r. 334–338
Empress Yan
閻皇后
Li Yue (?–338)Empress Li
李皇后
Li Shi
r. 343–347; d. 361


See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

CitationsEdit

  1. ^ Kleeman, 2.
  2. ^ Holcombe, Charles (2001). The Genesis of East Asia, 221 B.C.-A.D. 907. University of Hawaii Press. p. 24. ISBN 0-8248-2465-2.

SourcesEdit

  • Kleeman, Terry F., Great Perfection: Religion and Ethnicity in a Chinese Millennial Kingdom, ISBN 0-8248-1800-8.